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Weights, measures, cooking times, etc. .pdf



Nombre del archivo original: Weights, measures, cooking times, etc..pdf
Título: Weights, measures, cooking times, etc.
Autor: Carlos Mirasierras

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Weight, Measures, Cooking Times, and Cooking Tips, collected by Carlos Mirasierras

Part of the information collected here comes from: The New
Household Discoveries An Encyclopedia of Recipes and
Processes edited by Sidney Morse - 1917.

This article also contains a series of gastronomy tips that I have
collected from both my own experience and recipe books, and which
can be very helpful when it comes to cooking.

1

Weight, Measures, Cooking Times, and Cooking Tips, collected by Carlos Mirasierras
PRINCIPLES OF MEASUREMENT—TABLE OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES—TIME
REQUIRED FOR COOKING—COOK'S COMPLETE TIME TABLE.
In great degree, the uniform accuracy of results obtained by professional cooks,
bakers, and caterers is due to the fact that the measurement of ingredients involved in
their recipes is accurately determined by weight; while the temperature of an oven is
definitely controlled by means of a thermometer. Thus the conditions surrounding the
food cooked are made identical, and uniformity in the product necessarily follows. Any
cook can find similar results by like means, and a good pair of scales in the kitchen
may be regarded as one of the marks of a good cook. There are countless occasions
when the use of scales is necessary, and there is no question but that measurement by
weight could be advantageously made use of far more frequently than is usually done
now.
As long as the cook is content to measure rather than to weigh he/she will have to
expect his/her products to be lacking in uniformity because no two people measure
exactly alike and probably nobody measures twice in the same way. But if
measurements are to be persistently used, it is necessary that the cook shall take as
many precautions as possible in order to attain a reasonable degree of accuracy in
his/her work.
All dry ingredients, such as flour, meal, confectioner's and powdered sugar, should be
sifted before measuring. Mustard, baking powder, cream of tartar, soda, salt, and
spices should be stirred to lighten and free them from lumps. To dip a measuring cup
into flour or other dry material in order to fill it and then to shake the cup to level its
contents, condenses or packs the flour and causes the cup to contain more than the
recipe specifies. The material should be added tablespoonful by tablespoonful, taking
care not to shake the cup until the cup is well filled. The contents should then be
leveled by means of a case knife.
All ingredients, measured by the tablespoonful or teaspoonful, are measured level
unless otherwise stated. To measure a spoonful, fill the spoon and level it with the back
of a case knife. For a half spoonful, first measure a spoonful, then divide it in halves,
lengthwise, with a thin knife blade. To measure a quarter spoonful, first measure a half
spoonful and divide it crosswise, a little nearer the back than the point of the spoon, to
allow for its curvature. This is equivalent to one salt spoonful. Butter, lard, and other
solid fats are measured by packing them solidly into the spoon or cup and leveling with
a knife. Butter should be measured before melting, unless melted butter is stated in the
recipe, in which case it should be measured after melting.
A cup which holds half a pint, is the common standard of domestic measure. This cup
has straight sides divided into fourths and thirds. It may be obtained at any good 5- and
10-cent store or mail order establishment.
The following are tables of measurements, all measurements being level.

____________________________________________________________________
Household Weights and Measures 2

Weight, Measures, Cooking Times, and Cooking Tips, collected by Carlos Mirasierras
3 teaspoons equal 1 tablespoon
16 tablespoons equal 1 cup
2 cups equal 1 pint
2 pints equal 1 quart
4 quarts equal 1 gallon
Weight of food stuffs used in cookery.— The following is an approximate
comparative list of the bulk and weight of different articles of common domestic use.
They may vary slightly, but are as accurate as can be given and have been proved by
experience to be sufficiently correct for all practical purposes.
ARTICLES
Almonds (shelled)
Barley
Barley
Beans (dried)
Bread crumbs, fine
Butter
Butter
Cheese (grated)
Citron (chopped)
Cocoa
Coffee (not ground)
Coffee (ground)
Corn meal
Corn meal
Cornstarch
Currents (clean and
dried)
Dates
Eggs (with shells)
Eggs (without shells)
Egg (white)
Egg (yolk)
Fine meal (Farina)
Figs
Flour
Flour
Lard
Lard
Meat (chopped fine)
Milk
Milk
Molasses

QUANTITY
1 cup
1 tablespoon
1 cup
1 cup
1 cup
1 tablespoon
1 cup
1 cup
1 cup
1 cup
1 cup
1 tablespoon
1 cup
1 tablespoon
1 cup

WEIGHT
5 oz.
1/2 oz.
7 oz.
7 oz.
2 oz.
1/2 oz.
9 oz
3-3/4 oz.
7 oz.
4-1/2 oz
3.5 oz
1/4 oz.
1/3 oz.
1/3 oz.
5 oz.

1 cup

5-1/3 oz.

1 cup
8
9
1
1
1 cup
1 cup
1 tablespoon
1 cup
1 cup
1 tablespoon
1 cup
1 tablespoon
1 cup
1 cup

5-3/4 oz.
1 lb.
1 lb.
2/3 oz.
2/3 oz
6 oz
6 oz
1/4 oz
4 oz
7 oz
1/2 oz
8 oz
1/2 oz
8-1/4 oz
11 oz
3

Weight, Measures, Cooking Times, and Cooking Tips, collected by Carlos Mirasierras
Mustard (dry)
1 tablespoon
1/4 oz
Mustard (dry)
1 cup
3.5 oz
Nutmegs (whole)
5
1 oz
Nutmegs (ground)
1 tablespoon
1/4 oz
Oats (rolled)
1 cup
2-3/4 oz
Peanuts (shelled)
1 cup
6-1/4 oz
Peas (dried, split)
1 cup
7 oz
Prunes
1 cup
5 oz
Prunes
3 medium sized
1 oz
Raisins (seeded)
1 cup
5 oz
Rice
1 cup
7-1/2 oz
Salt
1 cup
9-1/2 oz
Spice (ground)
1 tablespoon
1/4 oz
Sugar (brown)
1 cup
6 oz
Sugar (crystal domino)
4 lumps
1 oz
Sugar (confectioners')
1 cup
5-1/2 oz
Sugar (granulated)
1 cup
8 oz
Sugar (granulated)
1 tablespoon
1/2 oz
Tapioca
1 cup
6 oz
Tea
1 cup
2 oz
Vinegar
1 cup
8 oz
Walnuts (shelled)
1 cup
4 oz
Water
1 cup
8 oz
Wheat biscuit
1
1 oz
(shredded)
__________________________________________________
TIME REQUIRED FOR COOKERY
"How long is it necessary to cook this ingredient?" is a question that has no easy
answer because many factors must be taken into account. There is much variation in
the size of the product; its age; the amount of moisture that it may contain, dependent
upon conditions of its growth; its tenderness or toughness; the texture of its fibers, etc.
The best of time tables therefore can simply act as a guide to the intelligent cook who
must temper its directions by his/her own experience.
Another factor closely allied to the matter of time for cooking is the temperature that
should be applied to various ingredients. One might almost say that all the problems of
cookery would be solved if we could know more definitely than
we do at present the exact temperature to which each food should be subjected and
the exact length of time to maintain it at that temperature. Today, our knowledge on
these matters is very incomplete, and investigations of time and temperature are
continually being carried on in cookery laboratories. Until the subject of cookery has
become better standardized such tables as the following will undoubtedly be an aid to
the cook.

4

Weight, Measures, Cooking Times, and Cooking Tips, collected by Carlos Mirasierras
These cooking times seem too long. Generally, with vegetables and fruits the shortest
cooking time possible results in less nutrients lost .

Vegetables
ARTICLE
Artichokes, globe
Artichokes, Jerusalem
Asparagus
Beans
Beans, Lima
Beans, string or shell,
young
Beans, string or shell,
old
Beets, new
Beets, old
Beet Greens
Brussels sprouts
Cabbage
Carrots, young
Carrots, old
Cauliflower
Celery
Corn, green, on cob
Dandelion Greens
Kohl-rabi
Lentils
Lettuce
Mushrooms
Okra
Onions, young
Onions, old
Oyster Plant
Parsnips
Peas, green, young
Peas, green, old
Potatoes, new
Potatoes, old
Potatoes
Potatoes, raw
Potatoes, cooked
Potatoes, sweet

HOW COOKED
Boiled
Boiled
Boiled
Boiled
Boiled

TIME
30 to 45 minutes
15 to 30 minutes
15 to 30 minutes
6 to 8 hours or more
30 to 40 minutes

Boiled

1 to 2 hours

Boiled

2 to 4 hours

Boiled
Boiled
Boiled
Boiled
Boiled
Boiled
Boiled
Boiled
Boiled
Boiled
Boiled
Boiled
Boiled
Steamed
Stewed
Boiled
Boiled
Boiled
Boiled
Boiled
Boiled
Boiled
Baked
Baked
Boiled
Boiled
Fried
Fried

45 to 60 minutes
4 to 6 hours
1 hour or longer
15 to 25 minutes
30 to 80 minutes
20 to 30 minutes
1 hour or longer
20 to 30 minutes
2 hours or longer
12 to 20 minutes
1-1/2 hours
20 to 30 minutes
2 hours or more
10 to 15 minutes
25 minutes
30 to 45 minutes
30 to 60 minutes
2 hours or more
45 to 60 minutes
30 to 45 minutes
15 to 30 minutes
30 to 60 minutes
25 to 45 minutes
30 to 60 minutes
20 to 30 minutes
4 to 8 minutes
3 to 7 minutes
15 to 25 minutes
5

Weight, Measures, Cooking Times, and Cooking Tips, collected by Carlos Mirasierras
Potatoes, sweet
Boiled
45 to 60 minutes
Pumpkin
Baked
4 to 5 hours
Rice
Stewed
25 to 35 minutes
Rice
Boiled
40 to 60 minutes
Steamed
45 to 60 minutes
Salsify
Sea Kale
Boiled
30 to 40 minutes
Boiled
15 to 20 minutes
Spinach
Boiled
20 to 30 minutes
Squash, summer
Boiled
1 hour
Squash, winter
Tomatoes
Baked
25 to 40 minutes
Stewed
15 to 20 minutes
Tomatoes
Turnips, young
Boiled
15 to 20 minutes
Turnips, old
Boiled
30 to 45 minutes
_______________________________________________________________
Bread, Pastries, Puddings, etc.
ARTICLE
Biscuits (baking
powder)
Bread (white loaf)
Bread (Graham loaf)
Brown Bread
Cake, fruit
Cake, layer
Cake, loaf, small
Cake, loaf, medium or
large
Cake, sponge
Cake, wedding
Cookies
Custards, small or in
cups
Custards, large
Doughnuts
Fritters
Gingerbread
Graham Gems
Macaroni
Muffins, baking powder
Muffins, raised
Patties
Pie Crust

HOW COOKED

TIME

Baked

12 to 15 minutes

Baked
Baked
Steamed
Baked
Baked
Baked

45 to 60 minutes
35 to 60 minutes
3 hours
2 to 3 hours
20 to 30 minutes
25 to 40 minutes

Baked

35 to 90 minutes

Baked
Baked
Baked

45 to 60 minutes
3 hours
8 to 15 minutes

Baked

20 to 35 minutes

Baked
Fried
Fried
Baked
Baked
Baked
Baked
Baked
Baked
Baked

35 to 65 minutes
3 to 5 minutes
3 to 5 minutes
20 to 30 minutes
25 to 35 minutes
20 to 50 minutes
20 to 25 minutes
30 minutes
20 to 25 minutes
30 to 45 minutes

6

Weight, Measures, Cooking Times, and Cooking Tips, collected by Carlos Mirasierras
Pies
Baked
30 to 50 minutes
Puddings, batter
Baked
35 to 45 minutes
Puddings, bread
Baked
45 to 60 minutes
Pudding, Indian
Baked
2 to 3 hours
Pudding, steamed
Steamed
1 to 3 hours
Pudding, plum
Baked
2 to 3 hours
Pudding, rice
Baked
45 to 60 minutes
Pudding, tapioca
Baked
45 to 60 minutes
Rolls
Baked
12 to 25 minutes
Scalloped and au
Gratin Dishes (cooked
Baked
12 to 20 minutes
mixtures)
Tarts
Baked
15 to 20 minutes
Timbales
Baked
20 minutes
______________________________________________________
Sea Foods
ARTICLE
Clams
Fish, Shad, Bluefish
and Whitefish
Fish, Slices of Halibut,
Salmon or Swordfish
Fish, Codfish and
Haddock, per pound
Fish, Halibut, whole or
thick piece, per pound
Fish, Bluefish and
Bass, per pound
Fish, Salmon, whole or
thick cut, per pound
Fish, small
Fish, small
Fish, whole, as
bluefish, salmon, etc.
Small fish and fillets
Lobsters
Oysters
Game and Poultry
Birds, game, small
Chicken spring
Chicken, per pound
Chicken, 3 pounds

HOW COOKED
Boiled

TIME
3 to 5 minutes

Broiled

15 to 30 minutes

Broiled

12 to 15 minutes

Boiled

6 minutes

Boiled

15 minutes

Boiled

10 minutes

Boiled

10 to 15 minutes

Boiled
Broiled

6 to 10 minutes
5 to 8 minutes

Baked

1 hour or more

Baked
Boiled
Boiled

20 to 30 minutes
25 to 45 minutes
3 to 5 minutes

Roasted
Broiled
Roasted
Boiled

15 to 20 minutes
20 minutes
15 or more minutes
1 to 1-1/2 hours
7

Weight, Measures, Cooking Times, and Cooking Tips, collected by Carlos Mirasierras
Duck (domestic)
Roasted
1 hour or more
Duck (wild)
Roasted
15 to 30 minutes
Fowl, 4 to 5 pounds
Boiled
2 to 4 hours
Fowl, per pound
Roasted
30 to 45 minutes
Roasted
2 hours or more
Goose, 8 to 10 pounds
Grouse
Roasted
25 to 30 minutes
Roasted
45 to 50 minutes
Partridge
Baked
3 hours
Pigeons (potted)
Broiled
8 to 10 minutes
Quails
Quails, in paper cases
Broiled
10 to 12 minutes
Roasted
30 to 45 minutes
Rabbit
Squabs
Broiled
10 to 12 minutes
Turkey, 8 to 10 pounds
Roasted
3 hours
Turkey, 9 pounds
Boiled
2 to 3 hours
Venison, rare, per
Roasted
10 minutes
pound
_________________________________________________________________
Beef, Pork, Lamb, Mutton, Veal, Etc
ARTICLE
Bacon
Bacon
Beef, corned, rib or
flank
Beef, corned, fancy
Brisket
Beef, fillet, rare
Beef, fresh
Beef, ribs or loin, rare
per pound
Beef, ribs or loin, well
done, per pound
Beef, ribs, rolled, rare,
per pound
Beef, ribs, rolled, well
done, per pound
Beef, rump, rare, per
pound
Beef, rump, well done,
per pound
Chops, breaded
Chops, Lamb or Mutton
Croquettes
Ham, 12 to 14 pounds

HOW COOKED
Broiled
Cooked in oven

TIME
6-7 minutes
15 minutes

Boiled

4 to 7 hours

Boiled

5 to 8 hours

Roasted
Boiled

20 to 30 minutes
4 to 6 hours

Roasted

8 to 10 minutes

Roasted

12 to 16 minutes

Roasted

10 to 13 minutes

Roasted

15 to 19 minutes

Roasted

9 to 10 minutes

Roasted

13 to 15 minutes

Fried
Broiled
Fried
Boiled

5 to 8 minutes
6 to 10 minutes
1 to 2 minutes
4 to 6 hours
8

Weight, Measures, Cooking Times, and Cooking Tips, collected by Carlos Mirasierras
Ham, 12 to 14 pounds
Baked
4 to 6 hours
Lamb, well done, per
Roasted
18 to 21 minutes
pound
Liver
Broiled
4 to 8 minutes
Liver
Braised
2 hours
Liver, whole, stuffed
Baked
1-1/4 hours
Meat, for bouillon
Simmer
6 or 7 hours
Mutton, leg or shoulder
Boiled
3-1/2 to 5 hours
Mutton, leg, rare, per
Roasted
10 minutes
pound
Mutton, leg, well done,
Roasted
14 minutes
per pound
Mutton, saddle, rare
Roasted
9 minutes
per pound
Mutton, forequarter,
Roasted
15 to 25 minutes
stuffed, per pound
Mutton, loin, rare, per
Roasted
9 minutes
pound
Ox Tongue
Boiled
3 to 4 hours
Pork, per pound
Roasted
25 to 30 minutes
Steak, 1 inch thick
Broiled
4 to 10 minutes
Steak, 1-1/2 inches
Broiled
8 to 15 minutes
thick
Veal, well done, per
Roasted
18 to 25 minutes
pound
Veal, leg
Roasted
3-1/2 to 4 hours
Veal, loin
Roasted
2 to 3 hours
___________________________________________________________________
Table of Proportions
The following are the proportions which are recommended by almost all of the leading
authorities on cooking and which are exemplified in most standard recipes:
Baking powder, for biscuits and
muffins
Batters, pour
Batters, drop
Bread, yeast
Cake, plain
Cream of Tartar
Custard
Custard, baked, molded
Custard, baked
Custard, boiled
Fine meal (Farina)

2 teaspoons to 1 cup flour
1 cup liquid to 1 cup flour
1 cup liquid to 2 cups flour
1 cup liquid to 3 cups flour
1 teaspoonful flavoring extract to one loaf
2-1/8 teaspoons to 1 teaspoon soda
4 eggs to 1 quart mild (cup custard baked)
6 to 8 eggs to 1 quart milk
1/2 cup sugar to 1 quart milk
3 egg yolks to 1 quart milk
1 cup fine meal to four cups water
9

Weight, Measures, Cooking Times, and Cooking Tips, collected by Carlos Mirasierras
Flavoring extract

1 teaspoon to 1 quart of custard, or cream
1 tablespoonful to 1 quart of mixture to be
Flavoring extract
frozen
Meat, for soup stock
1 pound meat, fat and bone to 1 pint water
Gelatin
1 oz. to 1 quart of liquid
Rice (steamed)
1 cup to 3 cups water
Salt
1/4 teaspoonful to 1 pint flour
Salt
1/4 teaspoonful to 1 quart milk for custards
Soda
1 teaspoonful to 1 pint thick, sour milk
Soda
1 teaspoonful to 1 cup of molasses
3/4 or 1 cup sauce to 1 cup cooked meat or
Sauce
fish, cut in cubes
2 tablespoonfuls of butter, and 2 tablespoonfuls
Sauce
of flour to one cup liquid.
___________________________________________________________________
Kitchen Tips
Here is a tip from an old New England family:
"If the vegetable grows above the ground, do not cover the pot when cooking them."
(Vegetables such as cauliflower, broccoli, beans or peas.)
Conversely,
"If the vegetable grows under the ground, cover the pot when cooking them."
(Potatoes, beets, parsnips or onions.)
Anyone know why?
Bacon:
When you buy bacon and only plan to use 2 or 3 slices at a time, roll them together and
fasten with a tooth pick and put in Zip Lock bag in freezer, then you only take out one
roll. We don't use a whole lot of bacon, but this is nice when you need 2 or 3 slices to
top baked beans or spinach.
Lettuce:
Lettuce will keep 3-4 times longer and fresher in the refrigerator if you will wrap it in
paper towels and then put the lettuce into a plastic produce bag. If your grocer has
paper towels available, wrap it at the grocery store. This also helps other vegetables
such as green onions, cucumbers, etc, it is indeed something to take into account.
Cheese:
Remove outer plastic wrapper. Wrap cheese completely in paper towel. Store in ziplock type bag. Separating the cheese from the plastic helps keep it free of mold longer.
Corn:
After removing husk and as many silks as you can, twist cob gently in your hands
under cold running water. This will remove almost all the remaining silk.
Onions:
If you are only going to use part of an onion, cut off what you want to use from the top
10

Weight, Measures, Cooking Times, and Cooking Tips, collected by Carlos Mirasierras
stem portion and peel just this part. Leave the skin and root end attached to the piece
you want to store. Store in zip-lock type bag or glass jar in refrigerator. This keeps the
onion from drying out although you may need to remove a very thin slice from the cut
surface before using if it is stored for several days.
Boiled Eggs:
When eggs are cooked, remove from hot water, crack and let them sit in cold water for
a few minutes. Gently rub egg between your hands to finish cracking. Shell should
come off easily. (A good idea is to dump the eggs out of the hot water into the sink then
throw them back into the pan hard enough to crack them and run cold water over
them.)
______________________________________________________________
Cooking Tips for Cooking Better
1) To make crêpes crisper, add a little sugar to the dough batter.
2) For its better effects, mutton should not be of an older animal. The meat of younger
lambs look pink and has a more firm texture. If the meat looks red and wrinkled, then it
will be tough.
3) To store fish for more than a day and still keep it fresh, first clean it, rub it with salt,
add turmeric and a dash of vinegar, and then store it in the fridge.
4) To prevent kebabs to become harder to chew, marinate them for a longer time and
also avoid over cooking them.
5) To make softer chapattis, take flour in a bowl, add salt and little oil. Then add boiled
water and mix slowly until soft dough is formed. Keep it aside for 15 min before making
the chapattis.
6) While cooking chicken or meat, you should first cook it over high flame to seal the
juices and then you can lower down the heat and cook till it becomes tender.
7) To make gravies when tomatoes are not in season, canned tomato sauce can be
successfully used instead.
8) Little plain sugar or caramelized sugar added to the gravy makes it tasty.
9) To retain the color and taste of ground masala, fry it over low heat .
10) To avoid bacon to splatter all over, sprinkle a little amount of salt in the frying pan
before adding bacon to fry
11) To make omelet light and fluffy, heat a non-stick pan and add a little more butter
than usual. Now beat the egg and stir briskly (even while frying) with a fork (better a
wooden one).
12) While cooking chicken or meat, you should first cook it over high flame to seal the
juices and then you can lower down the heat and cook the meat becomes tender.

11

Weight, Measures, Cooking Times, and Cooking Tips, collected by Carlos Mirasierras
13) In case you forget to soak beans overnight, soak them in boiling water for an hour
before cooking.
14) To make homemade pastes of garlic, ginger or green chili last longer and taste
fresher, add a tsp of hot oil along with salt to it
15) If poppy seeds are used in grinding, soak it in hot water for 10-15 min, if you are
grinding it in a mixer grinder.
16) Whenever you add curd to the masala, beat it well and add it gradually, to avoid
lump formation.
17) While making potato patties, always make sure that the potatoes are boiled well in
advance and cooled before you use them. It would be better if they can be refrigerated
for a short time. This helps the starch in the potatoes to settle down and the patties will
not be gooey.
18) Always add hot water to the gravy to enhance its taste.
19) Do soak whole beans for overnight and other seeds for one hour before cooking.
20) While using ginger-garlic paste in curries, always use garlic at 60% ratio and ginger
at 40% as ginger being very strong makes your dish sharp and pungent.
21) Good variety chilies and chili powder also gives color to the gravy. Try to use long
variety red chilies. You may even dry it under sun for a few days and powder coarsely
at home. This coarse powder gives a good taste to gravies and pickles.
22) To retain color in the gravy always use ripe red tomatoes and remove any green
portions of them.
23) You need not knead the wheat flour everyday. Prepare enough dough that may
satisfy your daily needs for two to three days and store it in a refrigerator
24) Potatoes soaked in salt water for 20 minutes will become baked more rapidly.
25) To make noodles less sticky, put them in normal cold water immediately once
they're boiled.
26) Always heat the oil thoroughly before adding seasonings or vegetables.
27) To keep the fruits and vegetables fresh for a longer time, wrap them in newspaper
before storing them in the fridge.
28) To peel off the almonds’ skin easily, soak them in a cup of boiling water for 10
minutes
29) To avoid crying when cutting onions, peel them, peeling cut them in half and soak
in water for about 10 minutes before chopping them.
30) To avoid that milk sticks at the bottom, when boiling milk, add a little water at the
base of the vessel.
12

Weight, Measures, Cooking Times, and Cooking Tips, collected by Carlos Mirasierras

31) You can soak beans of different kinds in advance and store them in the fridge once
done. So when you want to have rajma, you can just take out from the fridge the
amount needed at that moment.
32) If you are using a whole onion to make a stock, make cut an X at the base of the
peeled onion. This will help release the flavor into the stock.
33) Whenever you are deep frying potato wedges, croquettes or similar ingredient, add
pinch of salt to the oil to reduce the amount of oil absorbed by the food.
34) When making a tomato based pasta sauce, add a little grated or ground carrot. It
adds a small element of sweetness and reduces the acidic, and sourness of tomatoes.
Also, a tsp of sugar, when cooking the tomato sauce, is helpful.
35) It better to wipe or brush mushrooms clean of any dirt. They absorb water easily,
and washing them under a running tap or leaving them soaked will make them taste
watery.
36) Before frying a fillet of fish, let it rest on a kitchen towel for a few minutes on each
side. The excess water will be absorbed and this will enhance the flavor of pan fried or
sautéed fish. Also, as with meats, don't salt it to avoid the release of natural fluids that
will render the meat (fish, beef, poultry, etc.) dry and tasteless; once the meats are
cooked, fried, sautéed, etc., salt can be added to taste on them.
37) To get the maximum juice out of a lemon or a lime, roll it hard on the kitchen
countertop using your palm. This helps release more juice.
38) Cutting bacon or pancetta is easier after they have been sitting in the freezer for a
little while and have become firm.
39) If a recipe calls for fresh herbs, and you don't have them, you can use dried ones.
However, you will have to use one fourth the quantity, as dry herbs have a much more
intense flavor.
40) Avoid using tamarind, lime or other souring agents in green leafy preparations. Acid
reduces the nutritional properties of greens.
41) To give mashed potatoes a creamy consistency, stir in warm milk.
42) Before grating cheese, rub some oil onto the grater. This will ensure that the
cheese doesn't stick to the grater.
43) When boiling pasta add salt generously, at least one teaspoon per liter of water.
The pasta will absorb only as much as it needs.
44) To maintain the freshness of herbs like parsley, coriander, basil or curry leaves put
them in a plastic bag, blow air into the bag so that it puffs up like a balloon and put the
inflated bag in the refrigerator.
45) To prevent pieces of cut apple or pear from turning black, squeeze a little lime juice
on them or sprinkle a little bit of crushed mustard (or mustard powder).

13

Weight, Measures, Cooking Times, and Cooking Tips, collected by Carlos Mirasierras
46) Before cooking cauliflower keep it in soaking in water mixed with a teaspoon of
vinegar for about 20 minutes. This will not only loose the dirt and grit but will also kills
any insects that may be lodged between the florets.
47) When boiling potatoes add a pinch of salt to the water. This loosens the potato peal
and makes the peeling process much easier.
48) Slicing cheesecake and other cold desserts is tricky. If you want to make clean
slices soak your knife in warm water for a few minutes, then wipe it dry and use when
still hot to make a clean slice.
49) Vegetables that have been lying in the refrigerator tend to look dull and lifeless. If
you want to make a salad, and need your veggies to look fresh, soak them in cold
water with a few drops of lime for about 15 mins and they will surely look bright and
delicious.
50) To help tough meat have the tenderness of lamb or beef tenderize, marinate the
meat in vinegar, curd, mustard or mashed papaya overnight. Wipe off the marinade
and then cook.
51) Dry herbs and spices lose their flavor when exposed to heat and sunlight. To make
sure they retain their aroma, keep them in an air tight container inside a dark, cool
cupboard.
52) If you want to give salad a subtle garlic flavor, rub a peeled garlic clove on the
inside of the salad bowl before you toss the salad.
53) To ensure that your pasta absorbs the flavor of the sauce, don't cook the pasta in
advance. Toss it in the sauce, immediately after the cooking liquid has been drained.
Cooked pasta absorbs flavor best when hot.
54) If you want to quickly ripen some tomatoes, put them in a brown paper bag and
store in a dark corner.
55) When baking, always use room temperature butter and eggs. Using these straight
from the refrigerator will make it harder to blend and mix, affecting the final product.
57) In a warm climate bananas tend to get over-ripe. To stop the process of ripening
put bananas in the refrigerator. The skin may turn black, but the fruit itself will remain
firm. But when they're too unripe, you can speed the ripening by wrapping each
banana in newspaper.
58) To brown onions, add a little salt to the pan. This speeds up the process.
59) When cooking vegetables don't add salt until the very end. Adding salt early can
dehydrate vegetables and reduce their nutritional value as vitamins are released in
excess.
60) To prevent rice grains from sticking the starch must be removed. so, this wash the
rice several times till water runs clear, then let it soak for 20 mins in clean water.

14

Weight, Measures, Cooking Times, and Cooking Tips, collected by Carlos Mirasierras
61) When making ginger-garlic paste at home, add a pinch of salt and a teaspoon of
vinegar to the mix. It won't change the taste much and will allow you to store it in the
fridge for about two weeks.
62) Rubbing your hands on a stainless steel sink or container, or any stainless steel
surface, removes the pungent smell of garlic, onions or other spices from them.
63) Never store onions and potatoes in the same bag or container. Separate them to
prevent the potatoes from rotting.
64) Always make desserts with full cream milk to get thick creamy texture.
65) Always use heavy bottomed vessels to make desserts in order to avoid burning.
66) If you boil vegetables in water, do not throw the water, keep it to make gravies,
soups or enrich broths.
67) Soak potatoes and eggplant after cutting, to avoid discoloration.
68) Do peel your vegetables as thinly as possible to preserve the minerals and
vitamins.
69) Do wash your vegetables before peeling or cutting, to preserve the water soluble
vitamins.
70) When selecting an eggplant, make sure you choose one which is light in weight. A
heavier eggplant will have more seeds, which will give a taste bitter when cooked.

15


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