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The SAMBA-2.2.4/LDAP PDC HOWTO
Olivier Lemaire
Revision : 1.24, generated June 7, 2002

This document is the property of IDEALX1 . Permission is granted to distribute this
document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License (http://www.gnu.org/
copyleft/fdl.html).

Contents
1 Introduction

4

2 Context of this Howto

5

3 Download & compile
3.1 OpenLDAP 2.0.21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Samba 2.2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 smbldap-tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7
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8
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4 Configuring OpenLDAP
4.1 Schemas . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Configuration . . . . . . . .
4.3 Initial entries . . . . . . . .
4.4 smbldap-tools configuration

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5 Configuring Linux
5.1 pam ldap, nss ldap and nscd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 /etc/ldap.conf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3 Test your system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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6 Configuring Samba
6.1 Configuration .
6.2 Preparation . .
6.3 Initial entries .
6.4 Testing . . . .

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7 Start-Stop servers
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19

http://IDEALX.com/

1

The SAMBA-LDAP-PDC Howto

Revision : 1.24

8 User management
8.1 A LDAP view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2 smbldap-tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3 idxldapaccounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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9 Group management
9.1 A LDAP view . .
9.2 Windows specials
9.3 smbldap-tools . .
9.4 idxldapaccounts .

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groups
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10 Computer management
10.1 A LDAP view . . . . . . . .
10.2 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3 Create a Computer account
10.4 Delete a Computer account

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28
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11 Profile management
11.1 Roaming/Roving profiles
11.2 Mandatory profiles . . .
11.3 Logon Scripts . . . . . .
11.4 LDAP or not LDAP? . .

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30
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12 Workstations integration
12.1 Microsoft Windows 95 and 98 . .
12.2 Microsoft Windows NT . . . . . .
12.3 Microsoft Windows 2000 and XP .
12.4 Linux and Unix . . . . . . . . . .

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13 Servers integration
13.1 Samba Member Server . . . . . . . . . .
13.2 Samba BDC Server . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3 Microsoft Windows NT Member Server .
13.4 Microsoft Windows NT BDC Server . . .
13.5 Microsoft Windows 2000 Member Server
13.6 Microsoft Windows 2000 BDC Server . .

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34
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
by creating an account manually
automatically . . . . . . . . . . .
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15 Real life considerations
15.1 Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.2 Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.3 Backup your datas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38
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40

14 Tests procedure
14.1 Global configuration . . . . . . . . . .
14.2 Adding a new computer in the domain
14.3 Adding a new computer in the domain
14.4 Creating an user account . . . . . . .
14.5 Logging in the domain as testsmbuser

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page 2/56

The SAMBA-LDAP-PDC Howto

Revision : 1.24

16 Load and Availability
16.1 OpenLDAP Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.2 Samba Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.3 High Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41
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17 Migration
17.1 General issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.2 Same domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.3 Changing domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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18 Contributions

46

19 Thanks

47

20 Frequently Asked Questions... and answers

48

21 Samba-Ldap on Debian Woody

49

22 Annexes
22.1 samba.schema
22.2 base.ldif . . .
22.3 /etc/ldap.conf
22.4 smb.conf . . .

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page 3/56

The SAMBA-LDAP-PDC Howto

1

Revision : 1.24

Introduction

I hope this document can help: it express our personal experience using Samba2 and OpenLDAP3
together to replace Microsoft Windows NT PDC (Primary Domain Controler).
This howto currently runs for :
• Samba-2.2.4,
• Microsoft Windows, Microsoft Windows NT 4 and Microsoft Windows 2000 Workstations,
• Linux RedHat 7.2 (should work on any Linux distro anyway 4 ),
• OpenLDAP 2.0.x (at least 2.0.11, we used 2.0.21 in this howto)
The last release (most up to date) of this document may be found on the http://samba.
idealx.org/ project page.

2

http://www.samba.org
http://www.OpenLDAP.org/
4
some special Debian notes are provided for Woody
3

page 4/56

The SAMBA-LDAP-PDC Howto

2

Revision : 1.24

Context of this Howto

This Howto aims at helping to configure an Samba + OpenLDAP Primary Domain Controler
for Microsoft Windows Workstations (and, using nss ldap and pam ldap, a unique source of
authentification for all workstations, including Linux and other Unix systems).
For the need of our example, we settled the following context :
• All workstations and servers are in the same LAN 192.168.1.0/24,
• DNS resolution is okay (using Bind or Djbdns for example), and out of the scope of this
Howto 5 ,
• We want to configure the Microsoft Windows NT Domain named IDEALX-NT,
• We will have a central Primary Domain Controler named PDC-SRV (netbios name)
on the host 192.168.1.1/32 ,
• We want this Primary Domain Controller to be the WINS server and the Master Browser
Server of the IDEALX-NT domain,
• All authentifications objects (users and groups) will be stored on an OpenLDAP server,
using the base DN : dc=IDEALX,dc=ORG,
• Samba6 Users accounts will be stored in ou=Users,dc=IDEALX,dc=ORG,
• Samba Computers accounts will be stored in ou=Computers,dc=IDEALX,dc=ORG,
• Samba7 Groups accounts will be stored in ou=Groups,dc=IDEALX,dc=ORG,
Separating Samba accounts (Users and Computers) and Groups is a optional way to do the job.
We could store all this datas under the same DN, but we made this distinction to make the
LDAP tree more human-readable8 . Feel free to change those statements (Microsoft Windows
NT Domain Name, LDAP tree) for a context who feet you better, if desired.
In this Howto, we took the RedHat Linux 7.2 as a base, and tried to conform to FHS 9
recommandations. All RPMS and SRPMS packages for RedHat Linux 7.2 are available on
the http://samba.idealx.org/ project page. This do not mean Samba only work on RedHat
Linux of course (nor only on Linux for short), but just that this choice present the advantage
to be quickly reproductible by anybody (RedHat Linux is very common on the server market
nowadays, and supported by many vendors).
5

DNS resolution must be ok to use Samba without spending hours trying to understand why that think is
supposed to work and don’t !
6
and other Posix accounts so the PDC will provide an unique source of authentification for Windows and
Unix stations
7
and other Posix groups so the PDC will provide an unique source of system datas for Windows and Unix
stations
8
additionnaly, there is a potential issue with computer management via LDAP : see 10 on page 28
9
see http://www.pathname.com/fhs/ for more info on FHS

page 5/56

The SAMBA-LDAP-PDC Howto

Revision : 1.24

We took care about FHS recommandations as we want to be able to make this PDC Higly
Available (in a futur revision of this Howto), and wish to seperate system and addons software
(and for that, FHS is a good text to follow).

page 6/56

The SAMBA-LDAP-PDC Howto

3

Revision : 1.24

Download & compile

To stick to this Howto10 , you must have the following requirements prior to download anything
:
• RedHat Linux 7.2 installed and operational (network included),
• you must be prepared (if not already done) to use pam ldap and nss ldap (we’ll see later
how to configure them correctly).
Additionnaly, you must download :
• Samba release 2.2.4 (see below),
• OpenLDAP release 2.0.11 or 2.0.21 (see below),
• nss ldap and pam ldap (see below),
• smbldap-tools release 0.7 (see below).

3.1

OpenLDAP 2.0.21

At the date we wrote this document, release 2.0.21 of OpenLDAP was considered stable enought
to be used in production environment. We tested it (see 16.1 on page 41), and everything
was ok, so we used it.
Just download some of the following packages :
• openldap-2.0.21-1, openldap-servers-2.0.21-1, openldap-clients-2.0.21-1 and nss ldap-1722 packages from RedHat Linux 7.2, if you want to stick to RedHat 7.2 packages,
• or openldap-2.0.23-1, openldap-servers-2.0.23-1, openldap-clients-2.0.23-1 and nss ldap173-3 packages from RawHide RedHat, if you want to run a 2.0.23 release of OpenLDAP.
You’re free to use release 2.0.21 of OpenLDAP : we tested it and everything was ok with Samba.
However, lots of bugfixes were added to OpenLDAP in the 2.0.23 release, so you’re encouraged
to use this release instead.
For production purpose, we used OpenLDAP release 2.0.23 and we encourage you to use the
same release.
RPMs for OpenLDAP release 2.0.23 may be found at ftp://ftp.redhat.com/pub/redhat/
linux/rawhide/i386/RedHat/RPMS/, and you will need to install the following packages:
openldap-2.0.23-1.i386.rpm
openldap-clients-2.0.23-1.i386.rpm
openldap-servers-2.0.23-1.i386.rpm
10

remember: feel free to test under other distros and OS, and please report : we’ll update this Howto

page 7/56

The SAMBA-LDAP-PDC Howto

3.2

Revision : 1.24

Samba 2.2.4

Samba 2.2.4 is the last release of Samba2.2 branch (at the date of this Howto redaction, and
used by this Howto). To use it with LDAP, some patches must be added to the base release.
In this Howto, we used the RedHat RawHide package as a base (patches are already included,
thank’s to RedHat RawHide team), and rebuild the package for LDAP support :
• grab the samba-2.2.4-1.src.rpm from RawHide (ftp://ftp.redhat.com/pub/redhat/
linux/rawhide/SRPMS/SRPMS/samba-2.2.4-1.src.rpm),
• install it on you system (rpm -ivh samba-2.2.4-1.src.rpm),
• edit your /usr/src/redhat/SPECS/samba.spec to add the following configure options : –
with-acl-support –with-profile –disable-static –with-msdfs –with-ldapsam, by the way, edit
the Release tag to update it to ’2’ (Release: 2),
• build the RPMS (cd /usr/src/redhat/SPECS/ && rpm -ba samba.spec),
• then install the following RPMS : samba-common-2.2.4-2, samba-client-2.2.4-2 and
samba-2.2.4-2)
You’ll find those Samba packages already prepared in the SAMBA-LDAP projet page (see
http://samba.idealx.org/).
You will need to install the following packages:
samba-common-2.2.4-2
samba-client-2.2.4-2
samba-2.2.4-2

3.3

smbldap-tools

smbldap-tools is a package containing some useful scripts to manage users/groups when
you’re using LDAP as source of users/groups datas (for Unix and for Samba). We used those
scripts in this Howto to add/del/mod users and groups.
Those scripts are under packaging at June 7, 2002.
For now, just grab the smbldap-tools-0.7.tgz and detar/save the tools under : /usr/local/sbin/.
Alternatively, you can use the smbldap-tools RedHat package provided at http://samba.
idealx.org/dist/redhat/.

page 8/56

The SAMBA-LDAP-PDC Howto

4

Revision : 1.24

Configuring OpenLDAP

You’ll need to configure your OpenLDAP server to serve as SAM database for Samba-2.2.4.
Following our context example, we must to configure it to :
• accept the Samba-2.2.4 LDAP v3 schema,
• run on the base DN dc=IDEALX,dc=ORG,
• contain the minimal entries needed to start using it.
For the needs of this HOWTO example, we have used the following LDAP tree :
(using Relative DN notation)
dc=IDEALX,dc=ORG
|
‘--- ou=Users :
to store user accounts (both posixAccount and
|
sambaAccount) for Unix and Windows systems
|
‘--- ou=Computers : to store computer accounts (sambaAccount) for Windows
|
systems
|
‘--- ou=Groups :
to store system groups (posixGroup) for Unix and Windows
systems (or for any other LDAP-aware systems)

You may choose to use another LDAP tree to store objects : for example, all accounts
(shadowAccounts and sambaAccounts) ”under” the same DN. We tought it was simplier to
understand like this (and was not a problem for an Unix-nss ldap do deal with).
Additionnaly, using shadowAccount is not mandatory : if you don’t use shadow password on
you Unix systems, you should use posixAccounts instead.
Using Samba-2.2.4 and OpenLDAP, we will store :
• Windows user accounts using sambaAccount object class (samba.schema),
• Windows computer accounts (ie. workstations) using sambaAccount object class,
• Unix-only user accounts using shadowAccount object class (nis.schema)

11 ,

• Users groups (Windows and Unix, as it seems there is no difference in Samba release
2.2.412 using posixGroup object class.
11

as we already saw, using shadowAccount is not mandatory : if you don’t use shadow suite passwords, you
just need posixAccount
12
It’s not the same using SAMBA-TNG, who use sambaGroups and other specific object classes

page 9/56

The SAMBA-LDAP-PDC Howto

4.1

Revision : 1.24

Schemas

First, copy the Samba samba.schema to /etc/openldap/schema/samba.schema.
You’ll find this Samba schema shipped with the Samba-2.2.4 release (/example/LDAP/samba.schema
in the source package, or in /usr/share/doc/samba-2.2.4/examples/LDAP/samba.schema if
you used the modified RedHat RawHide package to build and install Samba)
If you plan using inetOrgPerson schema, then edit this schema to comment the ’displayName’ attributetype. In this Howto, we’ll use inetOrgPerson schema who already define this
attributetype. You can have a look on 22.1 on page 51 to see a sample ’patched’ Samba
schema. If you don’t use inetOrgPerson, then you don’t need to comment the ’displayName’
in the samba.schema. In this Howto we’ve used inetOrgPerson because we want to merge
organizational datas with technical datas, in a technical directory. It’s not mandatory : feel
free to use a context who feet your needs.

4.2

Configuration

Create your /etc/openldap/slapd.conf to configure your server :
1

# /etc/openldap/slapd.conf file for SAMBA-LDAP

2
3
4
5
6
7

include
include
include
include
include

/etc/openldap/schema/core.schema
/etc/openldap/schema/cosine.schema
/etc/openldap/schema/inetorgperson.schema
/etc/openldap/schema/nis.schema
/etc/openldap/schema/samba.schema

database
suffix
rootdn
rootpw
directory

ldbm
"dc=IDEALX,dc=ORG"
"cn=Manager,dc=IDEALX,dc=ORG"
secret
/var/lib/ldap

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

index
index

objectClass,rid,uid,uidNumber,gidNumber,memberUid
cn,mail,surname,givenname

eq
eq,subinitial

17
18

# - The End

Then, edit your /etc/openldap/ldap.conf to indicate your base DN and default server:
1
2
3

# /etc/openldap/ldap.conf for samba-ldap
#
# LDAP Defaults

4
5
6

HOST 127.0.0.1
BASE dc=IDEALX,dc=ORG

7
8

# - The End

Finally, start your OpenLDAP server : /etc/init.d/ldap start. Everything should work fine. If
not :
• verify your schemas,
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• verify that /var/lib/ldap exist and is owned by the user who run sladp (ldap user for
RedHat OpenLDAP packages),
• consult the OpenLDAP documentation.

4.3

Initial entries

Next, we’ll inject some initial entries on the brand new OpenLDAP server configured and started
above.
A sample LDIF file is presented on 22.2 on page 53. copy/paste it on a file named base.ldif
and add it using:
ldapadd -x -h localhost -D "cn=manager,dc=IDEALX,dc=ORG" -f base.ldif -W
(type your admin DN password, ’secret’ to complete the command)

4.4

smbldap-tools configuration

Finally, you must configure your smblda-tools to match your system and LDAP configuration : edit the /usr/local/sbin/smbldap conf.pm and configure it according to your LDAP
configuration (RootDN password and LDAP server @IP address).
You’ll find two confusing entry: slaveLDAP and masterLDAP. For our first example, those two
LDAP server will be the same one, but in a real life configuration, you may want to have a
slave server to serve all your read request, and one dedicated to write request. Anyway, in
the current example, as we build the PDC using Samba and OpenLDAP on the same host, you
should specify 127.0.0.01 for the two LDAP servers.
You’ll find some other configuration options in this configuration file: those are the default
values used by smbldap-tools when creating an account (user or computer). Feel free to
change those values if desired.

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Configuring Linux

You need to tell you Linux box to use LDAP (pam ldap and nss ldap). Then, you should run
nscd and finish your system LDAP configuration.

5.1

pam ldap, nss ldap and nscd

Use ’authconfig’13 to activate pam ldap :
• Cache Information
• Use LDAP
• dont select ’Use TSL’
• Server: 127.0.0.1
• Base DN: dc=IDEALX,dc=ORG
• Use Shadow Passwords
• Use MD5 Passwords
• Use LDAP Authentification
• Server : 127.0.0.1
• Base DN: dc=IDEALX,dc=ORG
Cache Information mean you’re using nscd (man nscd for more info) : if you’re going to use
pam ldap and nss ldap, you should really use it for optimization.
If you don’t rely on ’authconfig’, you can edit your /ets/pam.d/system-auth by hands, to have
something like the following:
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5
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7

#%PAM-1.0
# This file is auto-generated.
# User changes will be destroyed the next time authconfig is run.
auth
required
/lib/security/pam_env.so
auth
sufficient
/lib/security/pam_unix.so likeauth nullok
auth
sufficient
/lib/security/pam_ldap.so use_first_pass
auth
required
/lib/security/pam_deny.so

8
9
10

account
account

required
sufficient

/lib/security/pam_unix.so
/lib/security/pam_ldap.so

password
password
password
password

required
sufficient
sufficient
required

/lib/security/pam_cracklib.so retry=3 type=
/lib/security/pam_unix.so nullok use_authtok md5 shadow
/lib/security/pam_ldap.so use_authtok
/lib/security/pam_deny.so

session
session
session

required
required
optional

/lib/security/pam_limits.so
/lib/security/pam_unix.so
/lib/security/pam_ldap.so

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17
18
19

13

authconfig is a RedHat utility to configure you pam and nss modules

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Warning: a special attention must be taken about the account sufficient parameters as it
seems RedHat authconfig tools place it as ’required’ in any case (which is not the way you’ll
need).

5.2

/etc/ldap.conf

edit your /etc/ldap.conf to configure your LDAP parameters :
1

# /etc/ldap.conf for using local LDAP server for authentification

2
3
4

# Your LDAP server. Must be resolvable without using LDAP.
host 127.0.0.1

5
6
7

# The distinguished name of the search base.
base dc=IDEALX,dc=ORG

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9
10
11
12
13
14
15

# RFC2307bis naming contexts
# we use ?sub (and not the default ?one) because we
# separated sambaAccounts on ou=Computers,dc=IDEALX,dc=org
# and ou=Users,dc=IDEALX,dc=org
nss_base_passwd
dc=IDEALX,dc=ORG?sub
nss_base_shadow
dc=IDEALX,dc=ORG?sub
nss_base_group
ou=Groups,dc=IDEALX,dc=ORG?one

16
17
18

ssl no
pam_password md5

19
20

# - The End

5.3

Test your system

To test your system, we’ll create a system account in LDAP (say ’testuser’), and will try login
as this new user.
To create an system account in LDAP, use the smbldap-tool named smbldap-useradd.pl14
(assuming you have already configured your smbldap-tools):
[root@pdc-srv tmp]# smbldap-useradd.pl -m testuser1
adding new entry "uid=testuser1,ou=Users,dc=IDEALX,dc=ORG"
[root@pdc-srv tmp]# smbldap-passwd.pl testuser1
Changing password for testuser1
New password for user testuser1:
Retype new password for user testuser1:
all authentication tokens updated successfully

Then, try to login on your system (Unix login) as testuser1 (using another console, or using
ssh). Everything should work fine :
14

see 8 on page 20 for more info

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[user@host-one:~]$ ssh testuser1@pdc-srv
testuser1@pdc-srv’s password:
Last login: Sun Dec 23 15:49:40 2001 from host-one
[testuser1@pdc-srv testuser1]$ id
uid=1000(testuser1) gid=100(users) groupes=100(users)

Dont forget to delete this testuser1 after having completed your tests :
[root@pdc-srv]# smbldap-userdel.pl testuser1

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Configuring Samba

Here, we’ll configure Samba as a Primary Domain Controler for the Microsoft Windows NT
Domain named IDEALX-NT with the SAM database stored in our OpenLDAP server.

6.1

Configuration

We need to configure /etc/samba/smb.conf like in the example of 22.4 on page 55, assuming
that :
• Our Microsoft Windows NT Domain Name will be : IDEALX-NT
• Our server Netbios Name will be : PDC-SRV
• Our server will allow roving/roaming profiles
• All samba share will rely on /opt/samba/* excepted for home directories (always on
/home/USERNAME).
• We really want our Samba-LDAP PDC server to be the domain browser on the LAN.
Edit your /etc/samba/smb.conf like in the example of 22.4 on page 55 to configure your Samba
server. Let make some remarques about this file:
the global section This section allow you to configure the global parameter of the server.
Here takes places all the parameters we defined in the previous paragraph. We also have
defined the program used for a user to change his password (passwd program) and the dialog
used between the server and the user during the change.
The option ”add user script” allow smbd to add, as root, a new machine. When a machine
contact the domain, this script is called and the new machine is added to the domain. This
makes easily the administration of machine’s account. For security, not all the machines could
logged to the domain, but only a administrator who has a privilege account.
For french users, we added a line that allow smbd to map incoming filenames from a DOS
code page. This option is very useful if you want that files and directories in your profiles are
saved with all the accents they have. Don’t forget to read the man page for more detail: this
option is a Western European UNIX character set. The parameter client code page MUST
be set to code page 850 in order for the conversion to the UNIX character set to be done
correctly.
[global]
workgroup = IDEALX-NT
netbios name = PDC-SRV
server string = SAMBA-LDAP PDC Server
...
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passwd program = /usr/local/sbin/smbldap-passwd.pl -o %u
passwd chat = *new*password* %n\n *new*password* %n\n *successfully*
unix password sync = Yes
...
; SAMBA-LDAP declarations
ldap suffix = dc=IDEALX,dc=ORG
ldap admin dn = cn=Manager,dc=IDEALX,dc=ORG
ldap port = 389
ldap server = 127.0.0.1
ldap ssl = No

add user script = /usr/local/sbin/smbldap-useradd.pl -m -d /dev/null -g 1000 -s /bin/fal
...
character set = iso8859-1

the shares sections Here takes place all the share sections. In particular, we can define
all the user’s home directories which are defined by the [homes] section:
[homes]
comment = Home Directories
valid users = %S
read only = No
create mask = 0664
directory mask = 0775
browseable = No
Here is the path to the profiles’s directory. Profile of all users will be stored here. This is
the root directory for profiles and the ldap variable profilePath specify exactly the path for
each users. For example if the profilePath is set to \\PDC-SRV\profiles\testuser, than the
profile directory for user testuser is /opt/samba/profiles/testuser/. Make sure to have the
right permission for this directory. The sticky bit must be set. Make a simple chmod 1757
/opt/samba/profiles and it will be ok. Don’t forget that the system doesn’t take this change
immediately. You should wait several minutes before any profile takes place.
[profiles]
path = /opt/samba/profiles
writeable = yes
browseable = no
create mode = 0644
directory mode = 0755
guest ok = yes
If you want command’s file to be downloaded and ran when a user successfully logged, you
have to define a netlogon section and a netlogon script. The netlogon script must take place in
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the global section and the script must be a relative path to the [netlogon] service. For example,
if the [netlogon] service specifies a path of /opt/samba/netlogon (like in our example), than if
the script is defined as logon script = STARTUP.BAT, then the file that will be downloaded
is /opt/samba/netlogon/STARTUP.BAT. Finally, we defined a doc section that authorized
everybody to browse the /usr/share/doc documentation directory.
[global]
...
logon script = STARTUP.BAT
...
[netlogon]
comment = Network Logon Service
path = /opt/samba/netlogon
guest ok = Yes
[doc]
path=/usr/share/doc
public=yes
writable=no
read only=no
create mask = 0750
guest ok = Yes

For example, we could have the STARTUP.BAT script that set the documentation directory
mounted on the J volume on windows clients. Another useful command set windows time
synchronized to the server’s one:
NET USE J: \\PDC-SRV\doc
NET TIME \\PDC-SRV /SET /YES

6.2

Preparation

You must create some directories, according to your /etc/smb.conf :
mkdir
mkdir
mkdir
chmod

6.3

/opt/samba
/opt/samba/netlogon
/opt/samba/profiles
1757 /opt/samba/profiles

Initial entries

Samba must know the passwd of the ldap admin dn (cn=Manager,dc=IDEALX,dc=ORG)
you’ve specified in smb.conf to be able to add/modify accounts stored in the LDAP SAM.
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To do so, use the following command (assuming ’secret’ is the ldap admin dn password, see
your /etc/openldap/slapd.conf configuration file to be sure) :
[root@pdc-srv samba]# smbpasswd -w secret
Setting stored password for "cn=Manager,dc=IDEALX,dc=ORG" in secrets.tdb
Samba will store this datas in /etc/samba/secrets.tbd.
Note that this ldap admin dn may be another account than Root DN : you should use another
ldap account who should have permissions to write any sambaAccount and some posixAccount
attrs (see ?? on page ??). In this HOWTO, we’re using the Root DN.
Then, you should create your ’Administrator’ user :
[root@pdc-srv samba]# smbldap-useradd.pl -a -m -g 200 administrator
adding new entry "uid=administrator,ou=Users,dc=IDEALX,dc=ORG"
modifying entry "uid=administrator,ou=Users,dc=IDEALX,dc=ORG"
modifying entry "uid=administrator,ou=Users,dc=IDEALX,dc=ORG"

[root@pdc-srv samba]# smbldap-passwd.pl administrator
Changing password for administrator
New password :
Retype new password :
all authentication tokens updated successfully

In fact, any user placed in the ”Domain Admins” group will be granted Windows admin
rights.

6.4

Testing

To validate your Samba configuration, use testparm who should return ’Loaded services file
OK.’ without any warnings nor unknow parameter. See man testparm for more info.

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Start-Stop servers

Assuming you’re following this HOWTO, we use :
• OpenLDAP RedHat 7.2 package,
• Samba RedHat RawHide package,
• nscd RedHat 7.2 package.
So, to :
• start/stop the OpenLDAP server : /etc/init.d/ldap start/stop
• start/stop the Samba server : /etc/init.d/smb start/stop
• start/stop the nscd server : /etc/init.d/nscd start/stop

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User management

To manager user accounts, you can use:
1. smbldap-tools, using the following scripts:
• smbldap-useradd.pl : to add a new user
• smbldap-userdel.pl : to delete an existing user
• smbldap-usermod.pl : to modify an existing user data
2. idxldapaccounts if you are looking for a nice Graphical User Interface.
Both method will be presented hereafter.

8.1

A LDAP view

First, let’s have a look on what is really a user accounts for LDAP. In fact, there is two kinds
of user accounts :
• Posix Accounts, for use with LDAP-aware systems like Unix (Linux using pam ldap and
nss ldap, in this HOWTO). Those kind of accounts use the posixAccount, or shadowAccount if you are using shadow passwords.
• Samba Accounts, for the use of Samba Windows user accounts (and computer accounts
too). Those kind of accounts use the sambaAccount LDAP object class (according to
the Samba samba.schema).
Here’s a LDAP view of an Unix Account (posixAccount in fact, for this HOWTO) :
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

dn: uid=testuser1,ou=Users,dc=IDEALX,dc=ORG
objectClass: top
objectClass: account
objectClass: posixAccount
cn: testuser1
uid: testuser1
uidNumber: 1000
gidNumber: 100
homeDirectory: /home/testuser1
loginShell: /bin/bash
gecos: User
description: User
userPassword: {SSHA}ZSPozTWYsy3addr9yRbqx8q5K+J24pKz

14

FIXME: present a posixAccount (warning : smbldap-tools v 0.7 will only deal with posixAccount. shadowAccount will be dealed later).
Here’s a LDAP view of a Samba user account (sambaAccount) :

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dn: uid=testsmbuser2,ou=Users,dc=IDEALX,dc=ORG
objectClass: top
objectClass: account
objectClass: posixAccount
objectClass: sambaAccount
cn: testsmbuser2
uid: testsmbuser2
uidNumber: 1006
gidNumber: 100
loginShell: /bin/bash
gecos: user-test-2
description: user-test-2
pwdLastSet: 0
logonTime: 0
logoffTime: 2147483647
kickoffTime: 2147483647
pwdCanChange: 0
pwdMustChange: 2147483647
displayName: user-test-2
acctFlags: [UX
]
rid: 3ee
primaryGroupID: 64
smbHome: \\PDC-SRV\homes
scriptPath: scripts.cmd
lmPassword: 17B4D4AEABF1D7A4AAD3B435B51404EE
ntPassword: 51831BDA51454AECB5D924D0DD12DF8F
userPassword: {SSHA}MhVyay/iN3mxD4y9ELVVQAMT55mu2F0a
homeDirectory: /home/testsmbuser2
homeDrive: J:
profilePath: \\PDC-SRV\profiles\testsmbuser2

TODO: explain the LDIF, present attribute types (from schema) and explain them. Here
follow a kick explanation about the attributes used:
8.1.1

uid/rid

Samba uses the following calculations:
userrid = 2 × uidNumber + 1000 grouprid = 2 × gidNumber + 1001
excepted for well-known user rids.
As of Samba 2.2.4, the following holds true:
• the only well-known user rids are DOMAIN USER RID ADMIN (0x1F4) and DOMAIN USER RID GUEST
(0x1F5);
• user and group rids must be given in hexadecimal in LDAP.
However, the rids were written in decimal in LDAP. So at least 2.2.3-pre, Samba do not read
them as hexadecimal anymore. The default behaviour of smbldap-useradd.pl as of 20011218
is to use the above calculations and store the rids in decimal.
8.1.2

acctFlags

TODO : explain acctFlags and their usage.
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Attribute
cn
uid
description
userPassword
displayName
uidNumber
gidNumber
loginShell
gecos
homeDirectory
pwdLastSet

from schema
core
core
core
core
inetorgperson
nis
nis
nis
nis
nis
samba

logonTime
logoffTime
pwdCanChange
pwdMustChange
acctFlags

samba
samba
samba
samba
samba

rid
primaryGroupID

samba
samba

smbHome

samba

scriptPath

samba

lmPassword
ntPassword
homeDrive

samba
samba
samba

profilePath

samba

Revision : 1.24

Usage
usually, the username
username
TODO
password for Unix systems using NSS/PAM LDAP
TODO
the numeric user number (Unix and Samba)
the primary group number of the user (Unix)
the logon shell used on Unix systems
the long form of the username
home directory path for Unix systems
The integer time in seconds since 1970 when
the lm and ntpasswd were last set.
Integer value currently unused
Integer value currently unused
Integer value currently unused
Integer value currently unused
specify the type of the samba account
(W=workstation, U=user, D=disabled,
X=no password expiration,...)
the relative identifier (RID) of the user
the relative identifier (RID) of the primary group
of the user
specifies the path of the home directory for the
user. The string can be null. If homeDrive is set and
specifies a drive letter, homeDirectory should be a
UNC path. The path must be a network UNC path.
This value can be a null string
The scriptPath property specifies the path of
the user’s logon script, .CMD, .EXE, or .BAT file.
The string can be null. The path is relative to the
netlogon share
the LANMAN password
the NT password (md4 hash)
specifies the drive letter to which to map the UNC
path specified by homeDirectory. The drive letter
must be specified in the form ”driveletter:” where
driveletter is the letter of the drive to map.
For example: ”Z:”
specifies a path to the user’s profile. This value
can be a null string, a local absolute path, or
a UNC path

Table 1: Attributes used for a user Account

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scriptPath

The script path override the ’logon script’ directive of smb.conf (if exist). Variable substitution
(given in this attribute is relative to the netlogon share.

8.2

smbldap-tools

To manipulate user accounts, we’ve developped a collection of PERL scripts named smbldap-tools
: they provide all the tools you need to manage user and groups accounts, in a LDAP directory.
Because we’ve merged posixAccount (and soon, shadowAccount too) and sambaAccount,
those scripts may be used to manage Unix and Windows (Samba) accounts. As most of
existing software are LDAP aware, you can use your SAMBA-LDAP PDC to be an unique
source of authentification, and the smbldap-tools may offer you a good base to manage user
accounts datas.
In this Howto, we have used the following tools to manage user accounts :
• smbldap-useradd.pl : to add an user account (by default a posixAccount. Using ’-a’
option for a sambaAccount, ’-w’ option for a machine sambaAccount),
• smbldap-userdel.pl : to delete an existing user account
• smbldap-usermod.pl : to modify an user account.
8.2.1

Create a Unix (Posix) user account

For example, to create a new posixAccount (only usefull for Unix) named testposixuser (we’ll
use ’coucou’ as the password when asked):
[root@pdc-srv testsmbuser2]# smbldap-useradd.pl -m testposixuser
adding new entry "uid=testposixuser,ou=Users,dc=IDEALX,dc=ORG"
[root@pdc-srv testsmbuser2]# smbldap-passwd.pl testposixuser
Changing password for testposixuser
New password for user testposixuser:
Retype new password for user testposixuser:
all authentication tokens updated successfully

8.2.2

Create an Samba user account

For example, to create a new sambaAccount (for use under Unix and Samba) named jdoo
(we’ll use ’coucou’ as the password when asked) :

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[root@pdc-srv testsmbuser2]# smbldap-useradd.pl -a -m -c "John Doo" jdoo
adding new entry "uid=jdoo,ou=Users,dc=IDEALX,dc=org"
modifying entry "uid=jdoo,ou=Users,dc=IDEALX,dc=org"
modifying entry "uid=jdoo,ou=Users,dc=IDEALX,dc=org"
[root@pdc-srv testsmbuser2]# smbldap-passwd.pl jdoo
Changing password for jdoo
New password for user jdoo:
Retype new password for user jdoo:
all authentication tokens updated successfully

8.2.3

Setup an user password

You can use smbldap-passwd.pl as a replacement for the system command passwd and the
Samba command smbpasswd:
[root@pdc-srv testsmbuser2]# smbldap-passwd.pl jdoo
Changing password for jdoo
New password for user jdoo:
Retype new password for user jdoo:
all authentication tokens updated successfully

8.2.4

Delete a Posix user account

Just use the following smbldap-tools command:
[root@pdc-srv testsmbuser2]# smbldap-userdel.pl -r jdoo

In this example, we wanted to remove the user named ’jdoo’ and his home directory.
8.2.5

Delete a Samba user account

Exactly like for the deletion of an Unix account, just use smbldap-userdel.pl.
8.2.6

Modify an user account

TODO.

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idxldapaccounts

If you prefer nice GUI to shell, you should have a look on the idxldapaccounts Webmin
module. See http://webmin.idealx.com/.
TODO: write documentation for these tools

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Group management

In Samba branch 2 2, only 2 groups are dealed for Microsoft Windows workstations: Domain
Admins and Domain Users. All other groups are considered Local Unix Group. That’s
mean that a Samba user will only be Domain user or Domain Admin. If you only use Samba
servers, there will be no problem, but if you plan to use Microsoft Windows NT member server
using groups, just forget about it...
To manager group accounts, you can use:
1. smbldap-tools using the following scripts:
• smbldap-groupadd.pl : to add a new group
• smbldap-groupdel.pl : to delete an existing group
• smbldap-groupmod.pl : to modify an existing group
2. idxldapaccounts if you are looking for a nice Graphical User Interface.
Both method will be presented hereafter.

9.1

A LDAP view

First, let’s have a look on what is really a user accounts for LDAP. Here’s a LDAP view of
an user group (for Samba and Unix as it seems that there is no difference for branch 2 2 of
Samba):
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

dn: cn=Domain Users,ou=Groups,dc=IDEALX,dc=ORG
objectClass: posixGroup
gidNumber: 201
cn: Domain Users
description: Windows Domain Users
memberUid: testsmbuser2
memberUid: testsmbuser1

TODO : explain the LDIF, present attribute types (from schema) and explain them.

9.2

Windows specials groups

The Windows world come with some built-ins users groups :
• FIXME to write (name of group : purpose)
TODO: explain the different users groups on Windows/Samba (Domain Admins...).

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Revision : 1.24

smbldap-tools

To manipulate groups, we’ve developped a collection of PERL scripts named smbldap-tools :
they provide all the tools you need to manage user and groups accounts, in a LDAP directory.
Because Samba use posixGroup, those scripts may be used to manage Unix and Windows
(Samba) accounts. As most of existing software are LDAP aware, you can use your SAMBALDAP PDC to be an unique source of authentification, and the smbldap-tools may offer
you a good base to manage user accounts datas.
In this Howto, we have used the following tools to manage groups :
• smbldap-groupadd.pl : to add a new group,
• smbldap-userdel.pl : to delete an existing group,
• smbldap-usermod.pl : to modify any group datas (mostly to add or remove an user from
a given group).
TODO: write this piece of doc. Show how to manager user and group affectation (removing
1 user from 1 group without too much manipulation when 1000 groups...).

9.4

idxldapaccounts

If you prefer nice GUI to shell, you should have a look on the idxldapaccounts Webmin
module. See http://webmin.idealx.com/.
TODO: write documentation for these tools

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Computer management

To manage computer accounts, we’ll use the following scripts (from smbldap-tools) :
• smbldap-useradd.pl : to add a new computer
• smbldap-userdel.pl : to delete an existing computer
• smbldap-usermod.pl : to modify an existing computer data
Computer accounts are sambaAccounts objects, just like Samba user accounts are.

10.1

A LDAP view

Here’s a LDAP view of a Samba computer account :
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

dn: uid=testhost3$,ou=Computers,dc=IDEALX,dc=ORG
objectClass: top
objectClass: posixAccount
objectClass: sambaAccount
cn: testhost3$
gidNumber: 100
homeDirectory: /dev/null
loginShell: /bin/false
uid: testhost3$
uidNumber: 1005
pwdLastSet: 0
logonTime: 0
logoffTime: 2147483647
kickoffTime: 2147483647
pwdCanChange: 0
pwdMustChange: 2147483647
smbHome: \\%N\nobody
profilePath: \\%N\nobody\profile
description: Computer
rid: 0
primaryGroupID: 0
lmPassword: 7582BF7F733351347D485E46C8E6306E
ntPassword: 7582BF7F733351347D485E46C8E6306E
acctFlags: [W
]

25

TODO: explain the LDIF, present attribute types (from schema) and explain them.

10.2

Tools

To manipulate computer accounts, we’ve developped a collection of PERL scripts named
smbldap-tools: they provide all the tools you need to manage user and groups accounts, in
a LDAP directory.
In this Howto, we have used the following tools to manage user accounts :
• smbldap-useradd.pl : to add an computer account, using -w option,
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• smbldap-userdel.pl : to delete an existing computer account (FIXME),
• smbldap-usermod.pl : to modify an computer account (FIXME).
TODO: a note on Computer types (W: workstations, S: servers)
TODO: a note on ipHost and other nodes/hosts management system... possible links with
DNS/DHCP hosts management (I mean the may be some interaction and we must take care
to make all thing works together. see Bind 9 ldap back-end and proposed schema)

10.3

Create a Computer account

To create a computer account, you can use smbldap-tools to manually add accounts :
[root@pdc-srv root]# smbldap-useradd.pl -w testcomputer1
modifying entry "uid=testcomputer1$,ou=Computers,dc=IDEALX,dc=ORG"

You can also use the automatic procedure within you Microsoft Windows client (see your client
chapter: Microsoft Windows NT, w2k...) for more information.

10.4

Delete a Computer account

To delete a computer account, just use smbldap-tools :
[root@pdc-srv root]# smbldap-userdel.pl testcomputer1

Instead of removing the computer account, you may want to de-activate the Samba Account.
To do that, use an LDAP browser and modify the ’acctFlags’ from [W ] to [WD ] (’D’
indicating ’Disabled’). To re-activate the computer account, just modifiy [WD ] to [W ].
Sometimes, de/re-activation is a better mean to temporary disable the workstation for some
times.

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Profile management

WARNING : Under writing !
TODO: Howto manage profiles (NT profiles, as Unix do the job since... AT&T time...)

11.1

Roaming/Roving profiles

When a Microsoft Windows NT user joined the IDEALX-NT domain, his profile is stored in
the directory defined in the profile section of the samba configuration file. He has to log out
for this to be saved. This is a roaming profile: he can use this profile from any computer he
want. If his personal configuration changed, it will be integrated in his roaming profile.
In this Howto, we used roaming profiles: the LDAP ProfilePath indicate to Samba where to
look for those roaming profile (
PDC-SRV
profiles
testsmbuser2, and the [profiles] section of the /etc/samba/smb.conf indicate to samba how to
deal with those profiles.
Keep in mind that a ’regular’ roaming profile is about 186 Kb of data (even more if users
uses big GIF or BMP image as background picture ...): don’t forget impact on load/traffic...

11.2

Mandatory profiles

The mandatory profile is created by the same way of the roaming profile. The difference is
that his profile is made read only by the administrator so that the user can have only one
fixed profile on the domain.
To do so, rename the file NTuser.dat to NTuser.man (for MANdatory profile), and remove
the right access bit. For our testsmbuser1 user, you’ll have to do:

mv /opt/samba/profiles/testsmbuser1/NTUSER.DAT /opt/samba/profiles/testsmbuser1/NTUSER.MAN
chmod -w /opt/samba/profiles/testsmbuser1/NTUSER.MAN

This way, you may want to set up a common user profile for every user on the Domain.

11.3

Logon Scripts

To use Logon Scripts (.BAT or .CMD), just specify the relative path from the netlogon share
to the command script desired in the scriptPath attribute for the user.
Variable substitutions (the logon script smb.conf directive when you’re using LDAP.

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Revision : 1.24

LDAP or not LDAP?

Perhaps, you’ll want to use an alternative system policy concerning profiles : granting some
user the roaming profile privilege across the domain, while some other may have only roaming
profile on one PDC server, and some other won’t use roaming profile at all. This alternative
way is possible thanks to Samba who will search in the LDAP sambaAccount for the profile
location if no information is given by the ’logon drive’, ’logon script’ and ’logon path’ directives
of smb.conf.
We’ll discuss this alternative in a future revision of this document.

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Workstations integration

12.1

Microsoft Windows 95 and 98

TODO

12.2

Microsoft Windows NT

TODO

12.3

Microsoft Windows 2000 and XP

TODO: use the W2K requester, using a domain admin group member account.
NICE: screenshots.
12.3.1

RequireSignOrSeal

This registry key (gathered from the Samba-tng lists) is needed for Windows 2000 and XP
clients to join and logon to a Samba domain :
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\netlogon\parameters
"RequireSignOrSeal"=dword:00000000
You can change this in the Local or Domain policy editor in Windows 2000.
12.3.2

Fake user root

To allow Microsoft Windows 2000 and XP workstatin to join the domain, a root user must
exit (uid=0) and be used when joining a client to the domain 15 .
To create this false user (false because the user root should be present on you’re system files,
not in LDAP), just issue the following commands:
smbldap-useradd.pl -a -m -g 200 root
smbldap-usermod.pl -u 0 -g 0 root
smbldap-passwd.pl root
This workaround permit to avoit the creation of this fake user root, but permit a massive
security hole if used as Samba have no real access control on passdb backends :
15

a workaround/patch exist but will permit a massive security hole if used

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--- passdb/pdb_ldap.c.orig
Thu May 16 00:17:39 2002
+++ passdb/pdb_ldap.c
Thu May 16 00:20:36 2002
@@ -75,11 +75,16 @@ static BOOL ldap_open_connection (LDAP *
int version, rc;
int tls = LDAP_OPT_X_TLS_HARD;
+/*
+
+
+
+

Q&D patch : permit non root bind to LDAP
because if so (original code), you cannot add W2K/WXP workstations accounts
via the W2K/WXP requester, using an uid != from 0 (ex: user ’administrator’
from a " @"Domain Admin" " group (from ’domain admin group’ directive in smb.conf)
if (geteuid() != 0) {
DEBUG(0, ("ldap_open_connection: cannot access LDAP when not root..\n"));
return False;
}

+*/
if (lp_ldap_ssl() == LDAP_SSL_ON && lp_ldap_port() == 389) {
port = 636;
}

12.4

Linux and Unix

TODO

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Servers integration
Samba Member Server

TODO: explain configuration
The smb.conf of this Samba member server should indicate:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

; Samba Domain Member server
; like the Samba-LDAP PDC but without security user and LDAP directives, but
; the followin lines:
security
domain
password server
=
hostname.fqdn (or IP address) of the Samba-LDAP PDC
; note: this samba server does not need to be compiled with
; --with-ldapsam option

Once configured and started, you should add the machine account on the PDC, using the
following commands:
root@on-the-PDC# smbldap-useradd -w short-hostname-of-the-samba-member-server
and then, on the Samba member server itself:
root@on-the-member-server# smbpasswd -j "IDEALX-NT"

13.2

Samba BDC Server

TOD0: explain. explain alternatives

13.3

Microsoft Windows NT Member Server

TODO: explain

13.4

Microsoft Windows NT BDC Server

TODO: explain why not :-)

13.5

Microsoft Windows 2000 Member Server

TODO: explian

13.6

Microsoft Windows 2000 BDC Server

TODO: explain why not :-)
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Tests procedure

The test-list presented in this section are common to all windows system’s versions. If one
version may cause problem, or if the procedure is different, we’ll make a special note.

14.1

Global configuration

This section help you to test the good configuration and the good operation of your sambaldap system. We suppose that your system is running all the needed services. You can verify
this using the following steps :
• If you have problems starting samba, you can use the testparm command to see if the
configuration’s file syntax is right. You can verify using the following command line :
[root@PDC-SRV root]# ps afuxw | grep smb
0
17049 0.0 0.7 5524 1888 ?
1002
17146 0.0 1.3 7184 3408 ?
0
17223 0.1 1.2 7060 3140 ?
[root@PDC-SERV root]# ps afuxw | grep nmb
0
17054 0.0 0.7 4636 1856 ?
0
17057 0.0 0.6 4584 1552 ?

S
S
S

11:45
11:50
12:00

0:00 smbd -D
0:00 \_ smbd -D
0:00 \_ smbd -D

S
S

11:45
11:45

0:00 nmbd -D
0:00 \_ nmbd -D

• is your ldap server up ? You can verify using the following command line :
[root@PDC-SRV root]# ps afuxw | grep ldap
ldap
12358 0.0 5.0 16004 12972 ?

S

Nov14

0:03 /usr/sbin/slapd -u ldap

or
[root@PDC-SRV root]# netstat -tan | grep LISTEN | grep 389
tcp
0
0 0.0.0.0:389
0.0.0.0:*

14.2

LISTEN

Adding a new computer in the domain by creating an account manually

If you want the computer named ”testmachine” to be added to the domain IDEALX-NT, you
must create a account for it. This can be manually done using the script smbldap-useradd.pl
previously described in the section ?? on page ??. Then you can add the computer in the
domain, following this steps :
for Microsoft Windows NT 4 (SP1, SP6):
• logged into Microsoft Windows NT using the administrator account
• click on the ”start” menu, ”Parameters” and ”Configuration”
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• double click on ”Network” and the ”modify” button
• you must now see the machine’s name and the domain’s name. You have to change
the default parameters, or modifie a previous configuration. Then select the ”domain”
option and add the name of the domain you want to join.
• click on the ”ok” button
• the computer is already registered so that you normally have the welcome message
”welcome to domain IDEALX-NT”
• restart your windows system.
for Microsoft Windows NT 2000:
• logged into windows using the administrator account.
• click on the ”start” menu, ”Parameters” and ”Configuration”.
• double click on ”System”, select the onglet ”Network identification” and then ”properties”.
• you must now see the machine’s name. You have to change the default parameters, or
to modifie a previous configuration by indicating the domaine name.
• the computer is already registered so that you normally have the welcome message
”welcome to domain IDEALX-NT”
• restart your windows system.

14.3

Adding a new computer in the domain automatically

A second way to do this can be directly done directly from Microsoft Windows NT environnement, using the administrator priviledged account. This procedure will create automatically
an account for the comuter, and will also join it to the domain.
To do so, follow the same steps as the previous section described in section 14.2 on the page
before. When informing the domain name, ask for creating a new compuetr account, and add
the administrator account For Microsoft Windows NT 2000, the account is asked when prssing
the ”ok” button.
• Login : administrator
• Password : coucou

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Revision : 1.24

Creating an user account

You cannot16 create user accounts with Microsoft Windows NT Domain management tools:
you must use the smbldap-tools (or any other LDAP manipulation tools). To do so, see
section 8 on page 20. If interested in a graphical user interface to manager user and group
accounts, please have a look on the idxldapaccounts Webmin module available at http:
//webmin.idealx.org/
To test:
• create an user account for ’testsmbuser’ ( ?? on page ??)
• verify this user account is ok :
$id testsmbuser
should return something like that:
[root@speed3 samba]# id testsmbuser
uid=1008(testsmbuser) gid=100(users) groups=100(users),201(Domain Users)

• additionnaly, if you’re using an ldapbrowser, you should see the new uid=testsmbuser,ou=Users,dc=IDEA
in the directory.

14.5

Logging in the domain as testsmbuser

You need to use an already Domain added workstation to proceed this test. This is previously
explained is section 14.2 or 14.3.
Call the Winlogon (CTRL-ALT-SUPPR), and enter:
• Login : testsmbuser
• Password : coucou17
• Domain : IDEALX-NT
You should then log on fine. When you log in the domain with your username testsmbuser,
verify that those differents points are ok:
• browse your personal folder and all shared folders, and read a file
• create a new file in your home directory, verify that you can save it
• verify that all permissions seems right: you can’t browse a directory you don’t have the
permissions to, you can’t edit or/and modify a file you don’t have permissions to.
16
17

AFAIK with release 2.2.4 of Samba
in fact, the one you gave in the section : ?? on page ??

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Real life considerations

Now we’ve detail how to set up your brand new PDC-Killer prototype, we’re ready to go
further: the real life, the one where users don’t care about looking for solutions to a given
problem, but will first consider they’ve got one and you’re the guilty :-)
To struggle in this pleasant world, you should have a look on the following considerations :
they may help you.
First, if this HOWTO was your fist approach with Samba and OpenLDAP, you should have a
look on:
• a very good OpenLDAP brief by Adam Williams available at ftp://kalamazoolinux.
org/pub/pdf/ldapv3.pdf: an excellent presentation/briefing on OpenLDAP on the Linux
Platform.
• the OpenLDAP project website,
• the Samba project website,
• numerous documentation (printed or not) done on these two topics (Teach Yourself
Samba in 24 hours for example).

15.1
15.1.1

Performance
Lower Log Level in production

When everything is okay with you configuration, you are strongly encouraged to lower log
levels for better performance.
Best practices are to activate debuging logs only when you want to investigate a potential
problem, and stay with low log level (or no log at all if you’re seeking maximum performance)
during exploitation time (most of the time as Samba really a robust implementation, thank’s
to the Samba Team).
Here’s is an example of a standard exploitation mode log management parameters for a Samba
server :
1
2
3

log file = /var/log/samba/%m.log
log level = 0
max log size = 5000

15.1.2

OpenLDAP tunning

You should consider indices on your directory server. For OpenLDAP, the following should be
ok for a PDC like the one we described in this HOWTO:
1
2
3

# index
index
objectClass,rid,uid,uidNumber,gidNumber,memberUid
index
cn

eq
eq,subinitial

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Of course, indices depends on you directory usage. Consult the OpenLDAP documentation for
more info.
Have a look on the following slapd.conf directives too:
• loglevel: lower to ’0’ for production purpose
• lastmod: set it to ’off’ if you really don’t need it
• cachesize: set a confortable cache size (say 1000 for a mid-level production site for 1000
users),
• dbcachesize: set a confortable db cache size (say 10000 for a mid-level production site
for 1000 users)
• dbnosync: in case you’re fool enought to think nothing will never crash :-)

15.2
15.2.1

Security
Use an account which is not Root DN

In this HOWTO, we’re using the Root DN : the ldap admin dn should be another account
than Root DN : you should use another ldap account who should have permissions to write
any sambaAccount and some posixAccount attrs.
15.2.2

Use SSL!

In this HOWTO, whe are using clear LDAP transport between Samba and OpenLDAP. As both
servers implement SSL, you should use LDAPS transport instead.
15.2.3

Use ACLs for LDAP

Place ACLs to protect the directory datas. For the usage of Samba, the following should
deliver basic protection:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

# Password hashes password
access to attrs=userPassword
by self write
by anonymous auth
by * none
access to attrs=lmPassword
by self write
by anonymous auth
by * none
access to attrs=ntPassword
by self write
by anonymous auth
by * none

14
15
16
17

# Global read access
access to *
by * read

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15.3

Revision : 1.24

Backup your datas

TODO: how to backup and restore your PDC !
Crucial ! Some scripts may help do the job (even if not used, the will explain what to backup
exactly, and how to restore). In fact, those scripts just have to backup: config files (ldap, nss,
ldap, samba and tbds..) and the ’SAM’ (so a LDIF may do the job). An smbldap-backup
and smbldap-restore?

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Load and Availability

TODO: indicate some load params, and present a redundant and HA solution.
TODO: describe test-plateform.

16.1

OpenLDAP Load

As we’re storing users and groups in a LDAP directory, we will have a closer look on the
OpenLDAP capacity to store numerous account, and systems (Samba and pam ldap) to interact
with this LDAP database.
For testing purpose, we’re going to test bind/read/write operations on LDAP, with a population of 50.000 users, 50.000 computers. and 1000 groups.

16.2

Samba Load

As we’re storing the SAM database in a LDAP directory, we will have a closer look on the
Samba-LDAP capacity to interact under heavy stress.
For testing purpose, we’re going to compare Samba with and without the LDAP stored SAM.
We’ll have to show stress test results (smbtorture?) using 20, 50, 100, 150 and 200 clients.

16.3

High Availability

TODO: Present an HA configuration: what to do, how to do it (using Kimberlite/Mon or
Hearbeat/Mon).

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Migration

In this section, we’ll describe how to migrate from a Microsoft Windows NT PDC Server to a
Samba+LDAP Domain Controler, in two different user cases:
• migration from a given Domain (the old one) to another (the new one),
• the same Domain is used
In both cases, emphasis must be placed on transparency of migration: movement to the new
system (Samba+LDAP) should be accomplished with the absolute minimum of interference
to the working habits of users, and preferably without those users even noticing that is has
happened, if feasible.
In both cases, migration concern the following informations:
1. users accounts (humans and machines),
2. groups and group members,
3. users logon scripts,
4. users profiles (NTUSER.DAT),
5. all datas,
6. all shares and shares permissions informations,
7. all NTFS ACLs used by users on shares.

17.1
17.1.1

General issues
Users and machines accounts

Dumping the Microsoft Windows NT registry with PWDUMP Users and machine
accounts can be extracted from the Microsoft Windows NT SAM database, using the pwdump
utility: this handy utility dumps the password database of an NT machine that is held
in the NT registry into a valid smbpasswd format file. This utility may be downloaded
from ftp://ftp.samba.org/pub/samba/pwdump/. We use it instead of the net /domain NT
command because we want to retrieve the LANMAN and the NT passwords to left them
unchanged during the migration.
This utility must be run as ’Administrator’ in the PDC where the SAM to be migrated reside.
It dumps NT password entries in the format:
<user>:<id>:<lanman pw>:<NT pw>:<comment>:<homedir>:
Where:
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• ¡user¿ is the user-name on Microsoft Windows NT,
• ¡id¿ is the Microsoft Windows NT RID (Relative ID), the last 32 bits of the Microsoft
Windows NT user SID;
• ¡lanman pw¿ is the LANMAN password hash (see below);
• ¡NT pw¿ is the Microsoft Windows NT password hash (md4 in fact). If the user has
no password, the entry will be dumped as NO PASSWORD*****. If the entry is
disabled or invalid, these are dumped as 32 ’*’ characters;
• ¡comment¿ is the concatenation of the user full name on Microsoft Windows NT and the
description field in the Microsoft Windows NT user-manager program;
• ¡homedir¿ cannot contain ’:’ as this character is used as field separators. All ’:’ characters after drive letter are dumped as ’ ’ .
pwdump dumps users and machine accounts (machine accounts use the ’$’ character at the
end of their name).
Populating the LDAP directory with accounts Using the SAM output, we have to use
the smbldap-migrate-accounts.pl tool (part of the smbldap-tools) to update the LDAP
repository (smbldap-tools must be correctly configured at this time).
Basically, smbldap-migrate-accounts.pl take a ’pwdump’ flat file to update the master
LDAP repository using the following parameters:
• -a : process only people, ignore computers,
• -w : process only computers, ignore persons,
• -A opts: a string containing arguments to pass verbatim to smbldap-useradd when
adding users, eg ”-m -x”. You don’t have to specify -a in this string,
• -W opts: a string containing arguments to pass verbatim to smbldap-useradd when
adding computers, eg ”-m -x”. You don’t have to specify -w in this string,
• -C : if NT account not found in LDAP, don’t create it and log it to stdout (default is
to create the account),
• -U : if NT account found in LDAP, don’t update it and log it to stdout (default is to
update the account).
For example, if you want to create initial entries to the LDAP repository, and if you think
your PDC is the most up to date source of information, just issue the following command :
smbldap-migrate-accounts.pl < pwdump-file.txt

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If you just want to update data from PDC to the LDAP directory, but don’t want to create
any new accounts (perhaps as they are not all ’regular accounts’), and want to create the
home directory, just issue the following command, on the server you are configuring:
smbldap-migrate-accounts.pl -C -A "-m" < pwdump-file.txt

17.1.2

Groups and members

To be written ! as the tools they are based on (smbldap-migrate-groups.pl, part of the
smbldap-tools).
17.1.3

Logon scripts

Logon scripts are DOS scripts that are run every time someone logs on. They must be placed
on the [netlogon] special share, and you can specify, for each user, the location of this script
in the scriptPath LDAP attribute.
For example, if you special netlogon share is defined like the following example, in your
/opt/samba/etc/smb.conf:
1
2
3
4

[netlogon]
comment = Network Logon Service
path = /data/samba/netlogon
guest ok = Yes

5

And you want the user myuser to execute the script named myuser.cmd, just complete the
following operations:
• copy the myuser.cmd from the old PDC to the new Linux server on /opt/samba/netlogon/myuser.cmd,
• modify the LDAP user definition by placing myuser.cmd on the scriptPath attribute,
• logon as myuser on a Microsoft Windows NT (or Microsoft Windows 2000) workstation
connected to the domain, just to test the logon script activation on login.
So, to migrate all logons scripts from the old Microsoft Windows NT PDC to the new Linux
server, just copy all logon scripts (placed in C:\WINNT\sysem32\repl\import\) to /opt/samba/netlogon/,
and modify your scriptPath users definitions in the LDAP directory to record the name of
the user’s logon scripts.
Note that the old ’logon scripts’ directive of smb.conf will no longer be used when using
Samba and LDAP together, with release 2.2.4 of Samba.
17.1.4

Users profiles

To be written.
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The SAMBA-LDAP-PDC Howto

17.1.5

Revision : 1.24

Datas

To be written. Use Rsync !
17.1.6

Shares and permissions

To be written.
17.1.7

NTFS ACLs

To be written. use chacl !

17.2

Same domain

To be written.

17.3

Changing domain

To be written.

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Revision : 1.24

Contributions

Some useful scripts and tools may help you when setting up your Samba+OpenLDAP PDC
server:
• smbldap-tools: PERL scripts to manager user and group accounts. See http://
samba.idealx.org/. Note that these scripts are now shipped with Samba release 2.2.5,
• idxldapaccounts Webmin module: a Webmin module to manager user and group
accounts in a PDC configuration, via Webmin graphical user interface. See http:
//webmin.idealx.org.

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Thanks

This document is a collective work to :
• quickly discover the LDAP PDC functionnalities of Samba,
• quickly have a working configuration,
• prepare a good update for the SAMBA-PDC-HOWTO :-)
The following people directly worked on this Howto :
• David Le Corfec (dlecorfec@IDEALX.com),
• J´erˆome Tournier (jtournier@IDEALX.com),
• Michael Weisbach (mwei@tuts.nu),
• Stefan Schleifer (stefan.schleifer@linbit.com).
The authors would like to thank the following people for providing help with some of the more
complicated subjects, for clarifying some of the internal workings of Samba or OpenLDAP, for
pointing out errors or mistakes in previous versions of this document, or generally for making
suggestions (in alphabetical order):
• Ignacio Coupeau (icoupeau@unav.es),
• Michael Cunningham (archive@xpedite.com),
• Adam Williams (awilliam@whitemice.org),
• Some people on irc.openproject.org #samba-technical
• Samba and SAMBA-TNG Teams of course !

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Frequently Asked Questions... and answers

I can’t create a windows account from Microsoft Windows NT 4 itself: try adding
it manually, using the script smbldap-useradd.pl (you must be root on the PDC server). If
your machine’s name is VMNT, then the command line is:
smbldap-useradd.pl -w VMNT$
I can’t join the domain:

many reason can cause this problem. verify the following points:

• in the samba configuration file (smb.conf), put the interface parameter to the interface
is listening the network on. We originally put ”interfaces = 192.168.2.0/24 127.0.0.1/32”
which caused the ”can’t join the domain” problem.
my profiles are not saved on the server: make sure that the profile directory on the
server has the right permissions. You must do a
chmod 1757 /opt/samba/profiles}
I deleted my computer from the domain, and i can’t connect to it anymore: When
you leave the domain IDEALX-NT, you have to reboot your machine. If you don’t, you will
not be able to join any more the domain. If you done this and it still doesn’t work, remove
the machine’s account from the ldap entry and recreate it. For this, use the command
TO DO

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Samba-Ldap on Debian Woody

The standard Samba Debian package is compiled with PAM Support. So you have to get the
samba source and recompile it yourself.
For this howto, I used Samba version 2.2.4-1:
# apt-get source samba
Then, in the samba-2.2.4/debian edit the following files:
• rules: get rid of any pam compile options. I have added any missing options mentioned
in this redhat howto. Also comment some files which are not created (so don’t install
or move them):
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[ -f source/Makefile ] || (cd source && ./configure \
--host=$(DEB_HOST_GNU_TYPE) \
--build=$(DEB_BUILD_GNU_TYPE) \
--with-fhs \
--prefix=/usr \
--sysconfdir=/etc \
--with-privatedir=/etc/samba \
--localstatedir=/var \
--with-netatalk \
--with-smbmount \
--with-syslog \
--with-sambabook \
--with-utmp \
--with-readline \
--with-libsmbclient \
--with-winbind \
--with-msdfs \
--with-automount \
--with-acl-support \
--with-profile \
--disable-static \
--with-ldapsam)

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132

#install -m 0644 source/nsswitch/pam_winbind.so \
#$(DESTDIR)/lib/security/

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#mv $(DESTDIR)/usr/bin/pam_smbpass.so $(DESTDIR)/lib/security/

182

#cp debian/samba.pamd $(DESTDIR)/etc/pam.d/samba

• libpam-smbpass.files: get rid of the lib/security/pam smbpass.so entry (yes the file is
then empty),
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• samba-common.conffiles: get rid of the /etc/pam.d/samba entry (yes the file is then
empty)
• winbind.files: get rid of the lib/security/pam winbind.so
Afterwards make a dpkg-buildpackage from the main directory level. when finished you have
the .deb files ready to be installed:
# dpkg -i samba-common_2.2.4-1_i386.deb libsmbclient_2.2.4-1_i386.deb
samba_2.2.4-1_i386.deb smbclient_2.2.4-1_i386.deb smbfs_2.2.4-1_i386.deb
swat_2.2.4-1_i386.deb winbind_2.2.4-1_i386.deb

the global part of a sample smb.conf looks like this:
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[global]
workgroup = Test
netbios name = MARY
domain admin group = @domadmin
server string = %h server (Samba %v)
;
wins support = yes <== important with wins support, it didn’t work for me
interfaces = 10.1.1.180
invalid users = root
log file = /var/log/samba/log.%m
log level = 1
max log size = 1000
syslog = 0
encrypt passwords = true
socket options = TCP_NODELAY SO_RCVBUF=8192 SO_SNDBUF=8192
local master = yes
preferred master = yes
dns proxy = yes
unix password sync = true
passwd program = /usr/local/bin/smbldap-passwd.pl -o %u
passwd chat = *new*password* %n\n *new*password:* %n\n *successfully*
unix password sync = Yes

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# SAMBA-LDAP Declarations
ldap suffix = dc=domain,dc=com
ldap admin dn = cn=admin,dc=domain,dc=com
ldap port = 389
ldap server = 10.1.1.15
ldap ssl = No
add user script = /usr/local/bin/smbldap-useradd.pl -m -d /dev/null -g 1000 -s /bin/false

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