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MANUAL

A SANSKRIT

FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

PART

R.

ANTOINE,

I

S.J.,

M.A.

PRICE

Rs. 1.50

Approved by the Council for the Indian School
Examination (1 2th January, 7967).

Certificate

A SANSKRIT MANUAL
FOR HIGH SCHOOLS
PART

I

BY
R.

ANTOINE,

S.J.,

M.A.

Sixth Edition

1968

XAVIER PUBLICATION
CALCUTTA

16

Published by Xavier Publication
30, Park Street, Calcutta 16

1953

1st.

edition

:

2000

1956

2nd. edition

:

2000

1958

3rd. edition

3961

4th. edition

:

1963

5th. edition

:

10000

1968

6th. edition

:

10000

:

3000

5000

Printed by Sri G. C. Ray at Navana Printing Works Private Ltd,
47, Ganesh Chunder Avenue, Calcutta-13.

CONTENTS
PAGE

LESSON
1.

2.
3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

...
THE SANSKRIT ALPHABET
...
THE FIRST CONJUGATION ( vercftj )
MASCULINE AND NEUTER NOUNS IN sr
NOMINATIVE AND ACCUSATIVE ...
THE FOURTH CONJUGATION ( %Tft[ ) ...
INSTRUMENTAL AND DATIVE
THE SIXTH CONJUGATION (^rft)
MASCULINE NOUNS IN 5 AND 3
...
ABLATIVE AND GENITIVE
THE TENTH CONJUGATION ( ^Rift* )
...
LOCATIVE AND VOCATIVE
FEMININE NOUNS IN on AND f
...

PRESENT TENSE
9.

10.

11.

MIDDLE VOICE

THE IMPERFECT TENSE

(

( fafafcre)

13.
14.

THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS
PASSIVE VOICE

15.

NOUNS ENDING

IN

4

8

...

13

...

18

...

22

...

27

)

33

...

38

...

43

...

...

48

...

...

53

...

53

...

63

(

onsFtafr

&^) ACTIVE AND

NEUTER NOUNS IN 5, 3 AND ^c
AGREEMENT OF THE ADJECTIVE
PERSONAL PRONOUNS PASSIVE VOICE

12.

1

...

MIDDLE. FEMININE NOUNS IN ^ AND 3
MASCULINE AND FEMININE NOUNS IN ^
IMPERATIVE MOOD ( 3feJ
...

FEMININE NOUNS IN gj
POTENTIAL MOOD

...

(cont.)

....

CONSONANTS

^^ AND 9?^
...

70

LESSON

PAGE

16.

NOUNS WITH ONE STEM

17.

PASSIVE IMPERSONAL Orre spjtaO

18.

PRESENT AND PERFECT PARTICIPLES

19.

THE USE OF THE PARTICIPLES ...
...
NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES WITH Two STEMS

(cont.)

NOUNS WITH Two STEMS

20.

DEGREES OF COMPARISON
21.
22.

23.
24.

25.

26.

...

75

...

...

80

...

...

84

...

89

...

(cont.)

...

...

NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES WITH THREE STEMS
...
NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES WITH THREE STEMS (cont )
THE FORMATION OF THE FEMININE
...
...
INDECLINABLE PA^T^imciPLE ( ^rr AND &n}
LOCATIVE AND GENITIVE ABSOLUTE
...

93

98
101

105

109

INFINITIVE IN

g^ ( g^ )
THE SUBORDINATE-CLAUSE
...
THE ADVERB-CLAUSE
...
...
VERBAL ROOTS WITH THEIR PRINCIPAL PARTS
SANSKRIT-ENGLISH GLOSSARY ...
...
ENGLISH-SANSKRIT GLOSSARY

SYSTEMATIC INDEX

...

...

...

115

.

119

...

124

...

136

...

151

164

PREFACE
The purpose of
of Sanskrit grammar.

this
It is

Manual

learning Sanskrit through the

on

the

The

an exhaustive treatment
Its

composition

is

based

:

of memory which the study of languages demands

effort

becomes a mere

not to give

medium of English.

two following principles
1.

is

meant as a practical method of teaching and

when

drudgery

its

rational

usefulness

is

not

clearly

shown and immediately given practical scope. An instrument, however
beautiful, remains cumbersome as long as it cannot be utilized.
2.
The drudgery of memory work is amply repaid by the capacity
which the student acquires of expressing himself in the language which
he learns. That is why greater stress has been laid on translation from

English into Sanskrit than on translation from Sanskrit into English.

This

IV

to

slow.

First

Part covers the matter of the

VI or Classes VI to VIII j.
The vocabulary should be

words a day) and frequent

The
year.

first

Lessons
assimilated.

n

to

is

three years

(Standards

by small

doses

(five

to

eight

repetitions should be given.

form the

syllabus of the

first

veiy analytical.

26 are more compact and

They should be

In this sixth

which

learnt

ten lessons could conveniently

Their treatment

first

The beginnings should be extremely

will require

more time

and

third year.

distributed over the second

edition, besides

correcting

had escaped our scrutiny, we have
suggestion of colleagues and well-wishers.

the

to be

few printing mistakes

incorporated

the

valuable

RA., SJ.

LESSON

1

THE SANSKRIT ALPHABET
1.

The Vowels There
They

are 13 vowels in the Sanskrit
are divided into simple vowels and diphthongs.

Every simple vowel, except the
long form.
(

short

Simple vowels 1.
I

long

e

^

Diphthongs
The Consonants
:

IT

last,

alphabet,

shows a short and a

:8?afi^u^r^l
__.____ _~
8TT

:

ai sft

o

a

|

aft

an

i

^ u ^

r

The Sanskrit consonants are classified
according to the organs of pronunciation. There are five
categories : those pronounced from the throat are called gutthose pronounced from the palate are called palatals
turals
those pronounced from the roof of the mouth are called cerethose pronounced from the teeth are called dentals
brals
those pronounced from the lips are called labials The Sanskrit
names for those five categories are
2.

;

;

;

:

:

Each category contains seven consonants 5 mutes, 1 semivowel and 1 sibilant. The five mutes of each category are divided
2 hard mutes one non-aspirate, the other aspirate
as follows
3 soft mutes, one non-aspirate, the second aspirate and the third
The semi-vowels are soft, the sibilants are hard.
nasal.
:

:

;

MUTES

MANUAL

SANSKRIT

2

N.B.

V has been added to

An

each consonant to

facilitate the

pronunciation.

Besides the consonants given above, the following

should be noted

:

anusvara

any
its

a dot

:

own

class

above a vowel, standing for final *T^ or for
by one of the first four mutes of

nasals followed

of the five
j^

^=kam
visarga

3fif=anga

a double dot

:

avagraha
of a

;

:

standing for a final S^or a final T

:

the sign S marking the elision of

3T

at the beginning

word ^sfq
a stroke

below a consonant ^indicates that

without any vowel following
3.

ff =simha

;

Consonants followed by vowels
consonant, the consonant loses
written in an abbreviated form.
-3?

is

not written at

-3TT

is

written as T

-^

is

written as

-f

is

written as*Y

-3

is

written as

-3

is

written as

Note

it

stands by

itself

it.

all

f

its

When

:

*H-3? =*T

:

3 i 3?T=$T

:

:

*H-^ =fa
*!+f

9

^

*+

-^|

is

written as^

^C

is

written as

3=5

^

-^

is

written as

-IT

is

written as^

-^

is

written as

-3?T

is

written as*t

-aft

is

written as^

:

'T-h

a vowel follows a

stroke and the vowel

^ =

ft

is

$

THE SANSKRIT ALPHABET
4.

Compound consonants When two

or

more consonants have

to be written without intervening vowels, the following general
principle

followed

is

:

All consonants, except the last of the group, drop their final
vertical line

:

w + r=wr

The combination
line

;

of

assumes a form of

^+ttf1=^ H+q=T *L-H=W
;

;

consonants which have no
its

own. 3^+3;=^;

*&-}

I

final vertical

cT=Tfi

;

The consonant ^ has a special treatment in combination
when it follows a consonant, it is written as

When

it

precedes
c

5.

The

a

consonant or the vowel
^

t

Sanskrit numerals are

:

EXERCISE
I.

II.

III.

IV.

V.

1

Write the Sanskrit vowels.
Write the Sanskrit consonants.

What
What

are the hard consonants

are the soft consonants

?

?

Join the following groups of letters

:

^

it is

:

written as

4

SANSKRIT

VI.

Write the following

MANUAL

in Sanskrit letters

:

bhumavupavisami snayuh jnanam ksetrani angat udyane
arthabhyam Sastraih sarvada krinlvah
drsyate asti
andhakarena ratna atra tyakta muda tisthami
bhramati
alva
baddha sa na janati tena suhrda raksitah
maya dattam
tvaya drst;am yusmabhiruktam.
;

rohanti

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

:

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

LESSON

THE

FIRST

2

CONJUGATION

(

The Sanskrit verb conjugated in a finite tense has
(1)
three persons and three numbers. The three numbers are :
singular, dual and plural (l^^f, fi*^R> 5ff^ ;

6.

The verbal root
(2)
The verbal base (%&)

(^Tg)
is

is

the original form of the verb.

the form assumed by the root before

the terminations are added.

The formation of the verbal base depends partly on the
(3)
strengthening of the radical vowel (i.e. the vowel of the root).
Simple vowels are subject to a twofold strengthening the first
the second degree of
degree of strengthening is called guna
strengthening is called vrddhi. The following scheme of simple
vowels with their twofold strengthening should be committed
:

:

to

memory

:

Simple vowels
short and long

THE
7.

FIRST

CON JUGATION

Formation of the base in the

first

)

Conjugation

of a root
(1) The final vowel and the short medial vowel

take guna.

A

medial vowel is a vowel which stands between consonants.
When a short vowel is followed by a compound consonant it

is

counted as long,
(2)

The

:

fa\>

*T5iM

added before the terminations.
becomes Off before the terminations beginning
with ^ or C That Bf is dropped before terminations
beginning with 3f.
letter 9? is

That

8.

e.g.

8?

The terminations
)

are

of the present

:

S.
1st pers.

tenseactive

voice

SANSKRIT

MANUAL

Adding the terminations
S.
1st pers.

D.

P.

THE

FIRST

CONJUGATION

EXERCISE

(

2

Vocabulary

I.

(

draw

)

to

)

to dig

)

to fall

V to

to eat

)

know

to be, to

become

(

=3K%

)

to

to worship

(

)

to

move
move

)

=355%

)

to protect

to

conquer

)

to

)

to speak

to live
to
(

(

abandon
burn

)

to

)

to run, to melt

run

grow

sow

)

to

)

to dwell

)

to carry, to flow

)

to go

)

to

)

to salute

)

)

to lead

)

to go

)

to

)

to

!(

cook

to praise

remember

Conjugate the following in the present tense, active voice

II.

III.

Translate the following into English
reftii
i

w

i

^nrftr

^TT:
i

^af^f
i:

i

TTJ

^m:
i

i

wra:

*TO:

i

:

^fei

sfacr.i

i

i

sfarftr

wf^r

i

i

^^u?:
*trfcr

i

i

^^fe

TOT

i

i

i

IV. Translate the following into Sanskrit

We

:

:

You two move. He conquers. They grow.
two abandon. Thou salutest. They two remember,
You two dig.
They cook. I fall. He draws.
They know.
I

sow.

worship.

We

8

SANSKRIT

We
You
I

He

live.

Thou

burn.

He

Thou

two become.

carries.

I

They two move. We protect.
You two praise. They melt.
go.
They two speak. We to run. You go.
eatest.

We

leads.

dwellest.

cook.

MANUAL

You two

eat.

LESSON

3

MASCULINE AND NEUTER NOUNS IN
NOMINATIVE AND ACCUSATIVE

3T

10. (1) In Sanskrit, the grammatical function of noun in a
sentence is indicated by special terminations called case-

^

(son) becomes Jpn when it
when it is direct object. What we
becomes
express by means of prepositions such as 'with', by\ 'to', 'for',

For instance, the noun

endings.
is

subject

;

3^

it

l

*from',

'in'

'of,

etc.,

is

also

rendered

into

There are eight cases in Sanskrit

endings.

tive, instrumental, dative, ablative, genitive,

(2)

As

numbers

:

in the

verb,

singular, dual

:

Sanskrit

by

case-

nominative, accusa-

ocative and vocative.

so also in the noun, Sanskrit has three

and

plural.

Sanskrit has

three genders

:

masculine, feminine and neuter.
various forms taken by a noun in
numbers are called the Declension of that noun.
(3)

The

all

its

cases and

There are two types of nouns ending in af. Some are
masculine and some are neuter. Both masculine and neuter
nouns in 3? are declined in the same way except in the nominative,
accusative and vocative.
(4)

MASCULINE AND NEUTER NOUNS IN
11.

Declension of

<g<T

m. (a well) and of

D.

S.

P.

W

n.

3?

(a forest)

D.

S.

P.

Nominative
Accusative
Instrumental

Dative
Ablative
Genitive
Locative

Vocative

12.

The verb
e.g.

13.

:

A

agrees with

boy

falls

subject in person and

boys

fall

Boys

fall

3T55T:

case

is

used

The father

to indicate the subject

(2)

to indicate the subjective

(3)

:

:

(1)

The

number

3T55:

Two

The Nominative

its

sons

:

leads

complement
become heroes 3^T: ^rfNl

:

noun in apposition to the subject
the
hero* conquers U*?: ^fr: Wffo
Rama,

to indicate a

:

I

14.

The Accusative
(1)

case

is

used

:

to indicate the direct object of a transitive verb
The father leads the sons

:

SANSKRIT

10

to indicate the objective

(2)

We

know Rama

The servant goes

movement

ajftr

(near), 37

(around),

below),

(near,

(on

Sftcf*

:

:

to the well

with the following prepositions

(4)

:

complement

(to be) a hero

after verbs indicating

(3)

along),

MANUAL

all sides

of),

:

^T

(above), 8TJ (after
(near, in front of)*

sjfcl

Bfftrcf:

3VRTcP

n both sides of)*

(

tfW, fa$qT (near), f^T (without),
concerning), 8RKT (between), 51% (to, towards).
ie

on),

^

15.

final

S\*i<2C(&0j

O/VU

QFtftw

c*7/7

(without,
Stcrf-

Sandhi rules do not apply to vowels^ atone, "'feut also to consonants. Thus, in the sentences above, the final^ and the
:

of

a

word followed by another word undergo various

changes.
(1)

Final

(2)

Final

J^

:

when followed

by

a consonant

is

changed

to anusvcira

:

(visarga)

when followed

by

a hard consonant

-remains unchanged before

-becomes ^be/ore

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ and
q^

^ and ^

-becomes ^before 2^ and

-becomes ^be/ore

when preceded
vowel t

is

3TT

dropped

tuhen preceded

changed

by

by 8?

to 8Tt

^and ^and followed
:

by

a

consonant or

a

3Tc5T:

and followed by a

gsf:

soft

soft

consonant,

is

MASCULINE AND NEUTER NOUNS IN

when preceded

by 8?

and followed by any vowel except

when preceded

by 3?

and followed by

following

N.B.
is

11

3?

When

9T

is

elided

:

final visarga

vrj^cf:

is

3T,

is

to

changed

3reft=t*recftS^V

dropped:

while the

sff

I

followed by a sibilant

optionally changed to the sibilant

3?, is

(3T,

it

q^or

:

or,

EXERCISE

3

Vocabulary

1.

Neuter nouns

Masculine nouns

horse

:

conduct
:

pigeon

hand

:

crow

:

*

village

person

:

H: servant

country

T:

man

:

Prepositions governing
the accusative
:

^EHHjuel

around

W^

on

gold

king
:

lotus

water

fie

3*1^ grass

C/C

near

{

without

leaf

vessel

above

fruit
3TJ3

;

sacred precept

boy

character

^

according
to, along

after,

body

mountain

tree

on

sides

misery

near
to,

towards

between

happiness
:

all sides

on both

|

f:

near, in front

near,

place

below

2

\/

A

near

SANSKRIT

12

MANUAL

Translate the following into English

II.

$1$: q*5lft

(1)

W

^fal

(X)

I

:

5^

Sftfal

(})

^T:

an^R^

?fsfa

g:^
<O

I

*rnftn

III.

Decline fully the following nouns

:

IV.

Join the sandhis in the following

:

^q:

vsfqfa
3To5:

I

3T55T'-

I

sJI^ftcT

I

OT^l *3T5fo

R: ^jwfa

I

I

I

vSi

I

V.

Translate the following into Sanskrit

Example

Two

Two

:

servants

:

servants lead the horses around the village.

noun-dual-masc.-subject-nomin.

lead

verb-pres.-act.-3rd pers.-dual

the horses

noun-plur.-masc -object-accus.

around
the village

Sandhi

:

preposition

:

:

:

:

noun-sing.-masc.-governed by qffa:-accus.

THE FOURTH CONJUGATION

(

fi^lft

13

)

grow near the well. (2) The pigeon becomes a
The king conquers the country. (4) Two horses eat
The servant draws the boys. (6) Persons carry the

(1) Trees

crow.

(3)

grass.

(5)

We

live without happiness.
(8) Trees carry leaves.
(7)
burn
the
the fuel. UO) Clouds
of
well
sides
both
boys
(9)
The
hand protects the body.
move towards the mountain. (11)
(13) Sacred precepts
(12) Water falls on all sides of the village.
lead men to happiness. (14) Fie on the crows.
(15) Between

vessels.

On

the

two

trees

water

the

flows.

(16) Persons salute the king.

(18) According to (his) character, the
(17)
praise the lotus.
king protects the people (persons). (19) You to leave the place.
(20) Character (is) superior to ( = above) gold.
(21) The servant
I

;

(is) inferior to

(= below)

the king.

LESSON 4
THE FOURTH CONJUGATION
16.

(%rf?)

The Fourth Conjugation
Present Tense

Active Voice

(^fift S^ffalO

(1) Formation of the base
(a) The radical vowel does not take guna.

(b) ^is added to the root.
(c)

The

8T

with

That

^ or ^
is

3?

with
(2)

8? is added before the terminations.
becomes 3?T before terminations beginning

letter

That

dropped before terminations beginning

3j

The terminations

jugation (see No. 8).

are the

same as those of the

first

con-

SANSKRIT

14

Application

(3)

:

3^

MANUAL

(to nourish).

Formation of the base
(a)

No

guna of the radical vowel

(b) ^is added to the root
(c)

The

letter

8? is

added

:

3^

:

:

Before terminations beginning with J^or

Before terminations beginning with

8|

:

Adding the terminations
D.

S.

P.

1st Pcrs.

2nd

Pers.

3rd Pers.

The nominative and

17.

end

accusative plural of neuter nouns in -8?
In some cases, however, we have to

in ft-TO^-^Tfa
instead of fa, as in sjrfk^ (body)-^O'Uftl
applied in this and similar cases is the following

write

I

ftr

When,
by a

vowel,

The
3f ,

^

or

in the

^,

rule

qby

J^, zj^or

But

:

:

^,

allies even

it is

^

is

preceded by

changed

when

to

?!, ^|,

?;

rule to be

:

or

q and followed

or.

^

the

^, is separated from the preceding
provided those intervening letters be vowels,
^, ^, f^and anusv^ra.

several letters,

gutturals t labials, or

Examples

same word,

The

I

T^T-fa = ^iftr

;

!^-I

ftur

;

^T'M-^^rRT^nr

i

because ^is followed by nothing
3 because ^is followed by ^

because the intervening Ms neither a vowel>
guttural, a labial nor ^r , ^ , *f^or anusvara.

a.

THE FOURTH CONJUGATION
In order to

following line

remember the above

rule,

in the

memory

to

same word, ^is preceded by

and followed by a vowel or by
changed to ^

3^>*{>

provided the intervening

O,

cerebrals

the

^,

^

or

^

(^C)>

^or ^>

^or ^,

letters

(^3^5^),

or one of the three letters
18.

commit

:

When,

it is

15

( ft^jf^ )

be not palatals

dentals

C^L^^^O

^

Both

in the first and in the fourth conjugations, there
verbal roots which form their base irregularly.

are

Irregular verbs
First

Fourth Conjugation

Conjugation

)

to play

)

to cease

)

to be

)

to rejoice

weary

to pierce
to fall
to forgive

to roam, to err
19.

The

Sanskrit sentence usually ends with the verb.
is as follows
subject-object-verb

normal order of words
e. g.

:

Two men

see the

:

forest^ q

The
:

20.

MANUAL

SANSKRIT

16

The negation ff is placed immediately before the verb
The king does not blame the servants ^ft ^TCfR. T ffR[fcf
:

The conjunction ^ (and)
the nouns

it

connects, or

is

is

I

either repeated after each one of

written once only after the last noun of

the series.

The man and

the boys go to the village

or

?rr

EXERCISE
II,

4

Vocabulary
to play

to throw

to

to be

pleased

restrain
to give

to hide

be glad

to sit

(fa^fcf) to piece
5JT

to roam,
to err
to blow

to fall
to bite

blame

to take

!

f^:

away

elephant

moon

^ft^n^

life

palace

^f^

wealth

Translate the following into English

to smell
to drink
to stand

S3T

to see
forest

lake

$&*T*i flower

'

go

to

weary
to

to faint

well

be quiet

to be

O^fcT) to dance
o nourish

to

to

to forgive

.to perish

II.

:

head
not

and
:

THE FOURTH CONJUGATION
5fo5

TT

(

f^jf^

17

)

fq'srPen

(V)
(*\\)

f^ ^cfT ^TTfe^f^T

I

m)

^

q

^2TTIT:

srrorfcr 5^r?cT

^r

I

i

C*ivs)

i

III.

Conjugate the following in the present tense, active voice

IV.

Translate the following into Sanskrit

:

:

throw fuel. (2) Two men are dancing near the well.
(4) The elephant eats leaves, drinks
(3) People run to the palace.
water and is pleased. (5) Pigeons do not bite. (6) Two servants
hide the fruits and the food. (7) I play and I am glad- (8) We
do not praise wealth. (9) You two smell the flower. (10) They
stand on all sides of the village. (11) Men dig the place and
carry the gold away. (12) You are weary and you sit. (13) The
horses are not quiet. (14) The king is not pleased. (15) The crow
(16) The boys faint.
(17) The man blames
pierces the fruit.
the two servants. (18) Life without happiness becomes misery.
(19) We see the moon.
(20) Elephants live on both sides of the
(1)

lake.

I

LESSON

5

INSTRUMENTAL AND DATIVE
THE SIXTH CONJUGATION
21.

The Instrumental Case

used

is

:

(1) to indicate the agent of a passive verb.

instrument which

(2) to indicate the

The boy

hides (his) face with (his) hands

(3) to indicate the person or thing
I

go with the servant

^TCfa Tc^lftr

5TT

T^Tfil

3f[

etc.

On

'owing

:

to',

I

may be

is

(6) with the prepositions

*fi[

(7) with the

misery
22.

like

Rama

!

particles 3J55^

I

action.

i.e.

to translate expres-

'out of,

a

'by name',

'because
5ftjf

^ifa

'by nature',

of,
I

'by

hero by nature

(with) and

and

f:^^

faffl

(without).

f^ (enough).

Enough with

3j*5

The Dative Case

is

used

:

(1) to indicate the indirect object of verbs
*to send',

Jjgfa

followed by the pre-

leave the village

(5) to translate expressions
family', 'by birth', etc.

^tmrf

I

'on account of,

account of misery

3pJ

accompanying the

(4) to indicate the cause or reason,

sions such as

used to do the action.

3Tc?t

I

In this sense, the instrumental
position ^1 (with)

is

'to

promise', 'to show'.

meaning

The preceptor

'to give',

gives the books

to the students
(2) afer verbs

long

for*.

The

'to be angry
with
the son
angry

meaning

father

is

with',

'to

desire', 'to

INSTRUMENTAL AND DATIVE
(3) to express the

to fight) JJOTT *T5!3%
the person or thing for
to
indicate
(4)
is

movement

(see

3$^:

$<t

*sRftf

I

Accusative, No. 14).

servant goes to the village ^T^t 2RT*n^ T^fa
(6) after the particles WT: (salutation) and ^fef (hail to).
I

Hail to the king
23.

war

whose advantage the

digs a well for (his) sons

(5) after verbs indicating

The

goes for

I

He

done.

He

purpose of the action.

(=with a purpose
action

19

3TO

!

1

^ftcT

I

The

sixth Conjugation (gtfftO
Present tense Active voice
Formation of the base
(a) The radical vowel does not take guna.
(b) ?Lis not added to the root.
(c) The letter 3? is added before the terminations.
That e? becomes 8TT before terminations beginning with

lor 1
That

The
(see

24.

No.

dropped before terminaions beginning with 8f
terminations are the same as those of the first conjugation
8T is

8).

Application

J

^

( to

strike)

Formation of the base
(1)

&

(3)

The

(2)

^g^

Neither guna nor
is added
3^+3?=^

letter 3?

:

Before terminations beginning with I^or ^
Before terminations beginning with 3?: g^-

Adding terminations
S.
1st pers.

2nd pers.
3rd pers.

D.

P.

SANSKRIT

20

MANUAL

25. Irregular verbs of the sixth Conjugation
to cut

(ft^fa)

to find

(f&ifa)

to sprinkle

1

to release

to wish

to break

26.

When

5P&

to anoint

fo5<T

to ask

is preceded by any vowel except
must be applied.

final visarga

new sandhi

rule

Final visarga preceded by any vowel except
or a soft consonant is changed to

or

3TT,

a

and followed by

^

a vowel

27.

er or 3TT

3T

We can now recapitulate
visarga (see

No. 15)

the sandhi rules applying to final

.

Final

preceded by

visarga

any
any
any
any
any

followed by

vowel
vowel
vowel
vowel
vowel except
8?

or

remains unchanged

? or

becomes
becomes
becomes
becomes

^

^ or ^
a

vowel or

a

^
1

^
^

soft cons.

3TT

a

vowel or a

is

dropped

soft cons.

becomes

a soft consonant

any vowel except

;

is

sft

dropped

becomes

sft

and

the following
is

N.B.

The

vowel or a

particle

^ft:

soft consonant.

drops

its

visarga
<?r-

when

3?

elided.

followed by a

INSTRUMENTAL AND DATIVE

EXERCISE
I.

21

5

Vocabulary
to
)

)

to

to break

to strike

to

wind
burden

to release

plough
throw

show

to anoint

hero

to find

jackal

to write

to sprinkle

swan

to enter

to

wish
to ask

house

to laugh

bank
h
ornament

to call

jewel

to create
to

touch

to cut
'hve.

governing

Prepositions
without.

instrumental

the

with

ff

;

ftfff

Particles governing the instrumental
enough.
hail to.
salutation to,
Particles governing the dative
:

:

W

Translate the following into English

II.

(i) i*sCffr^TftT

:

(V)

I

(0
i

:

f^RT

I

wirfir

i

^cT
:

(i

I

i

irr

TO

(ll)

*&M

(iv)

ftr^fif

|

3*3

i

arftsft

(^vs)

(IS) t^" f^ fiREP

I

^rar
^fttt

UO

li^^fe

I

TO

I

MANUAL

SANSKRIT

22

Conjugate the following in the present tense, active voice

III.

if ?1>
>

IV.

fa^and

SR35J

Translate the following into Sanskrit
(1) I give fruits to the

forest

for

flowers.

:

two

He

(3)

is

servants.

glad

by

:

(2)

Thou

character.

goest to the

Misery

(4)

Owing to the wind the lotuses perish. (6) The
finds
food.
(7) The two men call the servant. (8) Through
jackal
happiness the boys laugh and dance. (9) The hero shows the
breaks

life.

(5)

jewels to the king.
(11) Due to (his)

He

(10)

(12) For the sake of wealth

sees the jackal and runs

he leaves

conduct,

(away).

the

(abandons)

house.

men

plough, carry burdens, dig the
mountains and leave (their) country. (13) Owing to the wind,
the fruits fall, (14)
sit near the bank.
(15) On all sides

We

of

the

house,

jackals

roam.

(17)

With

show

the swan
the
to
Enough with misery.

(16)

Clouds emit

(

S^)

water.

the herces you enter the palace. (18) I stand near the
lake with the boys. (19) They see the lotuses and laugh with
(20) The swans move towards the bank. (21) I
happiness.
(23)

boys.

LESSON

(22) Hail

to

the

country

!

6

MASCULINE NOUNS IN ? AND
ABLATIVE AND GENITIVE

*

Masculine nouns in | and 3
(1) There is a great similarity between the declension of
masculine nouns in f and that of masculine nouns in 3. When
the masculine nouns in ^ have ^, f, ^and tr, the masculine nouns in 3
have 3, 95, ^and 8?t respectively.
28.

MASCULINE NOUNS IN
(2)

The Declension

23

m. (a sage) and of

of

D.

S.

AND

P.

m. (a baby)
D.

S.

:

P.

Norn.

Ace.

aft*

Instr.

Dat.

Abl.

Gen.

ftRft:

Loc.

9ft

Voc.

29.

The Ablative Case
(1)

is

used

to indicate the place

:

from which the action begins or

originates.

The sage goes from the forest gfobn^Tx^fcl
with
verbs meaning 'to desist from', 'to protect*, 'to fear*
(2)
God protects men from misery f^lt TCHl. 2 ^ITc^srfh
(3) t6 express the cause, the motive (cf Instrumental, No. 21)
I

:

\

.

Out
(4)

of anger he strikes the boy

with the following prepositions

fX IFi (before),

3%
30.

(outside),
(1)

^

SFRTC^

(after),

verb.

SIT^ (before, to the east

3ft (until,

since),

snjft

(sinceX

indicates a relation

relation with the action of the

between nouns, usually rendered

into English by the preposition 'of.

The king

i

(except), ftRT (without).

The Genetive Case has no
It

:

35teTc3Tc5 g^fa

gives jewels to the son of

Hari

5^

SANSKRIT

24

MANUAL
1

There is no verb meaning *to have in Sanskrit. To tran"The enemies have chariots", the sentence must be turned

(2)
slate

into

:

:

Of

(3)
3<Tft

^^IT

the enemies (there) are chariots"

1&\ ^Rf^T

The genetive

(above),

(beyond),

3TO:

3JJ?,

I

is used with the
following prepositions
(below), 3*cf: (in front of), T^T^ (behind), T^rf:
(in the presence of), ?% (for the sake of).
:

sw^

When

a word ends with a vowel and the following word
begins with a vowel, both vowels are combined into one.
"The rules of vowel-sandhi are divided into three sections
31.

:

(1)

Combination of similar simple vowels
8?

+ 3? or 3tt=3TT
f + ^ or |=t
35 + 3 or 35=35

or en

f or

S or

I

I

f$'<J

I

or

3=3

I

<2) Simple vowels combined with dissimilar vowels
3?

or

3TT

8?

or

3TT

87

or

8?T

BT

or an

+ 3 or f
+ 5 or 35=8Tt
+ ^ or ^|= 3TC
+
=^[

BT

or

87T

-r-

BT

or

8?T

+^

tr

IT

i

I

I

i

=^

3fT

=^

I

I

or f followed by a dissimilar vowel
sncffa

or

55 /olloit/ed fcy

= qreSRn
e?^:

is

changed

to 2

is

changed

to

I

a dissimilar vowel

^

MASCULINE NOUNS IN ^ AND S
or ^| followed by

IT

SR
IT

and

and

the

8?r

followed

.

changed

to

^

by any vowel except 3? are changed respectively

3Jt

followed by

3?

remain unchanged while the

any vowel except

ST,

sjqr^

and ST^ may

3? is elided.

optionally drop the

^

^
5^t ^ftr=3^ftr or 5^

^

is

and 3^(see No. 9-)

Before

and

dissimilar vowel

Diphthongs combined with any vowel

(3)

to

a

25

and

sft

^ftr

i

followed by any vowel are changed respectively to BJT^ and

But sn^and 3TT^may optionally Jrop the

^and

the ^.

or

(4) Exceptions
Interjections like sn, ^, sr^T <io not
,

35

and

IT,

when dual

combine with the following word.

terminations, remain unchanged before vowels.

the guest sees
!

:

I

two

forests.

the guest dwells in a forest.

SANSKRIT

26

MANUAL

EXERCISE
I.

Vocabulary

jm-

fire

'

6

THE TENTH CONJUGATION
Join the following sandhis

(

^<lf^

)

27

:

IV.

Translate the following into Sanskrit
(1) The poet shows the trees to the sage. (2) The sage calls
the boys. (3) The boys stand in front of the house. (4) The
clouds move above the mountain. (5) The arrows of the hero
(6) The boy falls from the tree and breaks
pierce the enemy.
(his) hand
(9) The servant
(7) The guests have no water.
takes away the food from the fire.
(9) The water of the
ocean is calm. (10) The beasts of the forest roam around the
(11) I hide the jewels behind the tree.
(12) The poet
village.
has a place in the presence of the king. (13) From the babies
(14) With (my) relatives
up to the, men the people are tired.
I go from the mountain to the forest.
(15) He carries the axe
with both hands.
(16) With heaps of leaves we feed the fire.
(17) Sages worship the sun.
(18) Owing to the quarrel, the
teacher leaves the village.
:

LESSON

7

THE TENTH CONJUGATION
LOCATIVE AND VOCATIVE
(

32.

The
(1)

Present Tense
Conjugation
Formation of the base
tenth

:

(a)

A short medial vowel takes guna.

(b)

A final vowel takes vrddhi.

Active Voice

(c) ST^is added to the root.
(d) The letter 3f is added before the terminations.

That

3T

with

That

8?

with

becomes

?T^

or

is

8T.

3TT

before terminations beginning

^
dropped before terminations beginning

28

SANSKRIT
(2)

The terminations

conjugation

(see

No.

MANUAL

^

(to steal)
Application
Formation of the base
(3)

(a)

(b)
(c)

(d)

same

are the

as those

of the first

8).
:

;

1

(to owe).

Guoa of medial short vowel
Vrddhi of final vowel *TTC^
3?^ is added to the root
The letter 3| is added
:

Before terminations beginning with
Before terminations beginning with

^ or
8|

:

Adding the terminations
D.

S.

P.

D.

S.

1st pers.

2nd

pers:

3rd pers.

33.

Irregular verbs of the tenth Conjugation
*2^ l^f^fcl) to desire ^(^T^Tfe) to cover.
;

34.

The

first,

fourth,

sixth

and tenth Conjugations at one

glance.

Guna

of

short 'medial

vowel

Guna

of

finalVowel

Vrddhi of
vowel

f.nal

,

^

6W

,

termfnatfon

THE TENTH CONJUGATION

The Locative Case

35.

English

used

^rf^

:

rendered by the prepositions

is

29

)

the place where the action takes place.

(1) to indicate
it

is

(

'in',

'on*,

'at',

In

'upon',

'among', etc.
I

^A ^flfa

play in the garden

among the

I

when the action
summer sft^

(2) to indicate the time

In

'to fall", 'to place', 'to

The

movement

throw'

I

takes place.

(see

Accusative, No. 14)

'to send', 'to enter', etc.

tree falls into the lake

(4) to translate

cT53

\

(3) after verbs indicating

such as

trees

fsft

f^

qfifin

I

expressions like 'concerning',

*in

the matter

of, etc.

In

the matter of modesty

(5) to indicate the object of

He

Han

stands

first

emotions and feelings
towards) Hari fU

1

:

feels affection for (or

36.

The Vocative Case

37.

Verbs preceded by a preposition

A preposition

is

used as the case of address

:

prefixed to a verb changes the meaning of that

verb.

The
3?fcT

preposition mostly in use are
over,

beyond

near, unto
after,

:

arfa

:

along

:

:

3jfa-3OT (3Tfa*F2Tfa) to

e?f

*l*T
*T

go beyond, to cross.

(3Tf^^g%) to go unto, to obtain.

(^SSftfrO to

move

after, to follow.

away from ^q-^rT^(3?q^fcT) to move away, to depait.
towards Brfa-qT*; (3?fasrRfa) to run towards, to attack.
down W-^l^^ffh) co burn down, to destroy.
unto, back Bjf-ift (sn^fh) to take unto, to bring.
:

:

:

:

MANUAL

SANSKRIT

30

3^

up, fourth

gtf

near

fa

under

to

:

round,
around.

:

about

to

:

51

forward

5lRr

towards, against

:

sit.

to throw under, to put down.
to carry out.

:

faraway, out
<rft

to arise, to be produced.

:

3-^^

)

to

fall

move forward,

fly

to set out.

to

:

to

around,

go towards, to

return.
fcf

apart, without

^together,

fully

fo

:

:

throw apart, to scatter.
(*?%TfcT) to throw together, to
to

summarize.

EXERCISE
1.

7

Vocabulary
to tell
)

to

wash

to protect

to cross

c^%)
to

to obtain

count
to oppress
to adore

to proclaim

to eat

%)
to follow

C

fiT)

to depart
to adorn
to think
to steal

TOWfe)
to attack

to arrange

to cover

ftr)

to burn

down

r)

to console

to bring
arise

to punish

to

owe

to long for

(+dative)

)

to sit

i.

THE TENTH CONJUGATION (^U^)
II.

Translate the following into English
sandhis

31

up the

after breaking

:

Example
voc. sing, of 3>foT
poet,
loc. sing, of 5IT3T5 in the palace

35 the teacher
prep, governing 3WT with
gen. sing, of ^7 of the king
instr. sing of

31

prep, governing

2nd

3<W in

the presence

pers. sing., pres. tense, active of

^T thou

standest.

O

poet, in the palace thou standest with the teacher in the
presence of the king.

*UTO*n

(*|o)

i

III.

Translate the following into Sanskrit
(1)

The enemies

(^

V)

:

attack the king's palace.

(2) In happiness,

in misery, people are weary.
people are glad
(3) The clouds
cover the sun. (4) In both villages there is no water in the
wells.
(5) On the bank of the lake the poet sits and thinks.
console the servant. (7) Crows live in trees. (8) Thou
(6)
countest the drops. (9) I arrange the jewels of the king.
;

We

SANSKRIT

32
(10)

The swans

you

do not throw

teacher.

from bank to bank. (11) Servants*
on the fire. (12) Boys follow the
with (their) relatives in the house.

cross the lake

leaves

They

(13)

You two

MANUAL

sit

(15) The child covers
grass.
The servant washes the vessels
with the water of the well. (17) The enemies are throwing
arrows at the heroes. (18) We owe jewels to the two teachers.
(19) The two boys of the teacher have no friends.

(14)

on the heap of

sit

(his) face with both hands.

(16)

RECAPITULATION
I.

Vocabulary

YYV

.u

wind

son

efito^

poem

monkey

death

virtue

^^

fate

king

lord

world

^5^

strength

seer

modesty

*rfe*^

father

fo 5

sky

^

|

TOff^

master

sound

enemy

friend

ftta

treasure

cause

saying

qrfa:

hand

honest

ftfar

fate

meat

arrival

^h^4*T_ beauty

favour

^^
to put

II.

r

I

bee

ennwflT health

man

ray

plough

<g:

Raghu

Adverbs and prepositions

down

to carry out

here

to fly round

there

to return

just,

5$

like

thus

to scatter

today

even
never

to shorten

now

always

only

Give
the instrumental singular of
the genitive dual of 3<JPj
the vocative singular of

and

5

Tlffy

and

nd

FEMININE NOUNS IN
Join the following sandhis

III.

ftfa: *rcfa

TO ^5: ^T q*
IV. What case
I

V.

3^: fensfa

i

^|fcT

I

is

^^

T^

i

fa'3 t^R,

I

33

:

3^

i

AND

Oft

I

*pft 3?fa

I

governed by the following preposition

Conjugate the following in the presen tense, active voice

LESSON

Feminine nouns in
(a creeper),
S.

3$

at

Instr.

Dat.
Abl.

Gen.
Loc.

Voc.

55%

f

and | are declined as follows

(a river)

D.

Norn.

Ace.

a?T

:

8

FEMININE NOUNS IN STT AND
PRESENT TENSE MIDDLE VOICE (
38.

:

:

:

P.

S.

D.

P

SANSKRIT

Middle voice

Present tense

39.

When

MANUAL

do an action for the benefit of another, I use the active
When I do an action for my own benefit, I use the
middle voice (Bn^I^T^t). In Sanskrit, the distinction between active
and middle voice has not been strictly preserved. Besides a small
number of verbs which can be conjugated in both the active and the
middle voice (3WT<0), most verbs are conjugated either in the active
or in the middle voice.
voice

I

(TWH^).

In the middle voice, the verbal base

is

formed according to the

rules given previously for the active voice of the

and tenth conjugation

(see

The

No. 34).

first,

fourth, sixth

terminations alone are

different.

40.

Terminations of the present tense, middle voice
1st pers

2nd

r

pers.

-t*

3rd pers.

The

letter 3?

added to the base before the terminations becomes

before terminations beginning with
fore terminations beginning with 8? or t^.

3TT

41.

J^

or 3js dropped be-

Examples
1st

conjugation

sing.
4tfi

:

:

*Fl<$

conjugation

sing.

:

:

g^

(to rejoice)

^

(to think)

;

;

verbal base

:

jfft[-;

verbal base

:

JRT-; 3rd pers.

3td pers.

*R&

6th conjugation

:

J^ (to incite)

;

verbal base

t

5-;

3rd pers.

sing.

:

&&
10th conjugation:
sing.

*F^(to counsel)

;

verbal base

:

IT^T-; 3rd pers.

FEMININE NOUNS IN
42.

Conjugation of c?^(to obtain)

3fT

AND f

:

D.

S,

P,

5*

1st pers

2nd pers
3rd pers.

43.

A Sandhi rule to be remembered (see No. 31)
The

final

^ of a word followed by

General rule

:

^ followed

a

by any vowel

vowel
is

changed to

Exceptions
(1) Final
9? is elided

:

(2) Final

s?^ may
second form

to

^of a word followed

optionally drop
is

by o? remains unchanged while the

the zjj

by any vowel except

%of a

after
|$?

changing

&3fc--The

dual form followed by any vowel remain unchanged

Special construction of the verb

appeal

3?,

f^ ^q = fsrftF|^ or

by far the more frequent.

(3) Final

44.

q of a word followed

55*^ a?fer = 55*P3Sfg*n

^^

(^fa%)

to please,

:

to

to.

The verb

^^ governs the dative of the person who
while the thing which pleases is put in the nominative.
Fight appeals to the hero

Boys are fond of
Travellers are

fruits (

g[

effrTO

= fruits

fond of water

Cfa^

is

pleased,

I

appeal to boys)

(= water

pleases travellers)

36

SANSKRIT

The

45.

difference between

following rule

When

^

is

MANUAL

ciditf
3

and *$y

is

the result of the

J

preceded by a vowel except

changed to ^ when, in the same word, 3, T,
An anusvara or a visarga do not affect the

3f or 8TT, or

^ ^ ^ or any

EXERCISE
I.

Vocabulary

T3TT

-

\ or \,

by

of

application

the rule.

8

\

the Ganges

town

to see

plantain-

river

to tremble

nurse

to dive

earth

to be born

tree
seal,

coin

splendour
wife

voice

to fly

queen

to think

shade

lioness

to fight

twilight

mother

to please

speech

woman

to consult

assembly

wife

to search

line

sister

to conquer

*Uc5T

garland

house-

to defeat

553T

creeper

II.

wife

night

girl

it is

vowel follows

L\f

^2

to take leave

of (-l-accus,)

Translate the following into English after breaking up the
sandhis
:

FEMININE NOUNS IN

Off

AND f

37

(V)

i

)

III.

13TT

^T aisgu *|fa

(^

I

)

(IV)

sRirefft ?I5Rt

Translate the following into Sanskrit

^T^^

l

(^^) erf *

:

(1) Through fate, the enemies attack the town and conquer.
Even today I do not see the Ganges. (3) The voice of the
queen pleases the poets. (4) The speech of the child is the cause
(2)

of the mother's
of the Rsis.

happiness.

(6) Just

Out

(5)

We

around the

carry out the sacred precepts

village

men

are bringing heaps

modesty the honest man worships God
The
sound of the waters of the Ganges
(as his) Lord.
(8)
sit
in the shade of the tree and think.
(9) I
pleases the sages.
of grass.

(7)

of

(10) Like a jewel, the

the king.

(12)

moon adorns

the sky.

(11)

Here people have no wealth.

(13)

Thus speaks
The woman

scatters the flowers of the garland on the earth.
(14) There
the creepers adorn the trees with (their) flowers. (15)
take
mother and go to the teacher's house.
leave of (our)
(16) Because of the splendour of the sky and of the earth we

We

praise

God

the Lord.

IV. Decline fully the following
3[T

and

:


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