Curso de Inglés para Principiantes Carlos Mirasierras .pdf



Nombre del archivo original: Curso de Inglés para Principiantes Carlos Mirasierras.pdf
Título: Anglès per a principiants
Autor: Carlos Mirasierras

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Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras

Dynamic English for Beginners
English alphabet (Alfabeto)
A →ei
B → bi
C → si
D → di
E→ i
F → ef
G → ghi
H → eich
I → ai
J → jhei
K →kei
L →el
M → em

Español
Días de la
semana

Personal pronouns (subject, object and
reflexive ) (Pronombres Personales)

N → en
O → ou
P→ pi
Q → kiú
R→ ar
S → es
T → ti
U → iu
V → vi
W → dabliú
X → exs
Y→ uái
Z→ set

Inglés
Days of the week
(deis of dze wiik)

I →
You →
He →
She →
It →
We →
You →
They →

Me → Myself
Ejemplos de
You → Yourself pronombres
Him → Himself
reflexivos en
página: 35
Her → Herself
It →
Itself
Us → Ourselves
You → Yourselves
Them → Themselves

Español

Inglés

Months of the
Meses del año year (monzs of the

Español
Some
adjectives

yíarh)

alto
Lunes

Monday (mándai)

Inglés

Enero

Tall (tol)

January (jhánuari)
bajo / corto Short (short)

Martes

Febrero

February (fébhruari)

Marzo

March (march)

Abril

April (éipril)

Mayo

May (mei)

Tuesday (thúsdei)

Miércoles

Wednesday (wuénsdei)

Jueves

Thursday (zérsdei)

Junio

June (jhun)

Viernes

Friday (fráidei)

Julio

July (jhulái)

Sábado

Saturday (sáthurdei)

Domingo

Sunday (sándei)

Agosto

August (óguest)

Septiembre

September

Octubre

October (octouber)

largo

Long (long)

grande

Big (big)

pequeño

Small (Smol)

viejo

Old (old)

joven

Young (yaung)

nuevo

New (niú)

duro / difícil Hard (jard)

(septémber)

suave

Soft (soft)

fácil

Easy (ísi)

rápido

fast / rapid

lento

Slow (slóu)

November

Noviembre

(nouvember)

(fasst / rápid)

December

Diciembre

(dicémber)

1

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras


1 = One (uan)



18 = Eighteen (éitíin)



2 = Two (thú)



19 = Nineteen (naintíin)



3 = Three (zríi)



20 = Twenty (thuenti)



4 = Four (fohr)



21 = Twenty one (thuenti uán)



5 = Five (fáif)



22 = Twenty two (thuenti thú)



6 = Six (six)



23 = Twenty three (thuenti zríi)



7 = Seven (seven)



24 = Twenty four (thuenti fohr)



8 = Eight (eit)



25 = Twenty five (thuenti fáif)



9 = Nine (náin)



30 = Thirty (zherthi)



10 = Ten (then)



40 = Forty (fórthi)



11 = Eleven (iléven)



50 = Fifty (fífti)



12 = Twelve (thuelf)



60 = Sixty (síxti)



13 = Thirteen (zhertíin)



70 = Seventy (séventi)



14 = Fourteen (fohrtíin)



80 = Eighty (éiti)



15 = Fifteen (fiftíin)



90 = Ninety (náinti)



16 = Sixteen (sixtíin)



100 = One hundred (uan jándred)



17 = Seventeen (seventíin)



1000 = One thousand (uan zausand)

___________________________________________________________

Sentences with definite article:
The (artículo determinado)
The man; the men; the woman; the women, the car, the cars, the house, the houses, the dog,
the dogs, the cat, the cats, the tree, the trees, the street, the streets, the plant, the plants.

Indefinite article in singular

(Artículo indefinido singular: un, una)

Sentences with the indefinite article:
"A", before singular words beginning with a consonant: A man, a woman, a car, a house, a
book, a wall, a PC, a show, a shoe, a pen, a street, a bike, a tree, a road, a person, etc. ("A",
antes de las palabras singulares, masculinas y femeninas, que comienza con una consonante: Un
2

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
hombre, una mujer, un coche, una casa, un libro, una pared, un PC, un espectáculo, un zapato, un
bolígrafo, una calle, una bicicleta, un árbol, un camino, una persona, etc.)

Exemptions: words that begin with a "yoo" sound (sonido iu en español): a European, a
useful method, a university.
"An", before singular words beginning with a vowel: An apple, an example, an old show, an
old bike, an egg, an article, an explosion, an accident, an ant, an animal, an interesting book,
an ambassador, an American, an Indian, an important case, and so on.
("An", antes de palabras en singular, en femenino o masculino, que comienzan con una vocal)

Indefinite article in plural (Artículo determinado plural: unos, unas)
Some, before plural words: Some cars, some houses, some books, some walls, some PC's,
some shows, some shoes, some pens, some streets, some bikes, some trees, some roads,
some people, some apples, some examples, some old shows, some old bikes, some eggs,
some articles, some explosions, some accidents, some ants, some animals, some interesting
books, some ambassadors, some Americans, some Indians; some important cases, etc.
________________________________________

Sentences with the demonstrative pronouns: (Pronombres
demostrativos):
This (dzis) (Este, esta, esto)
That (dzat)), (Eso, ese, esa)
These (dzíis) (Estos. estas)
Those (dzous) (Esos, esas)
This car, this table, this man, this woman, this cat, this bottle, this monkey, this road, this garden,
this bread, this PC, this wall, this lamp, this meat, this fish, this sheep.
These cars, these tables, these men, these women, these cats, these bottles, these monkeys,
these roads, these breads, these PCs, these walls, these lamps, these meats, these fish, these
sheep.
That car, that table, that man, that woman, that cat, that bottle, that monkey, that road, that
garden, that bread, that PC, that wall, that lamp, that meat, that fish, that sheep.
Those cars, those tables, those men, those women, those cats, those bottles, those monkeys,
those roads, those breads, those PCs, those walls, those lamps, those meats, those fish, those
sheep.

The verb to be (was, been)
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Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
Present tense of "to be" (ser o estar):
To be present tense (ser o estar) Negative form

Interrogative

I am / I'm (soy/estoy)
you are / you're (eres/estás)
he is / h'es (es/está)
we are (we're (somos/estamos)
you are / you're (sois/estais)
they are / they're (son/están)

Am I?
Am I not?
Are you?
Are you not? (arent' you?)
Is he/she/it?
Is he not (isn't he?)
Are we?
Are we not? (aren't we?)
Are you (both)? Are you not ((aren't you?)
Are they?
Are they not (aren't they?)

I am not (I'm not / I ain't)
You are not (aren't)
He is not (isn't)
We are not (aren't)
You both are not (aren't)
They are not (aren't)

Interrogative negative

To be in present continuous

It is someone who:

I am / I'm being (estoy siendo)
You're being (estás siendo)
He's being (está siendo)
We're being (estamos siendo)
You're being (estais siendo)
They're being (están siendo)

It's him who is at the door: Es él quien está en la puerta.
It's us who have to apologize: Somos nosotros los que (quienes)
han de disculparse.
It's them who are afraid of flying: Son ellos los que (quienes)
tienen miedo a volar (de volar)

Examples to be learned and memorized (Ejemplos a/para aprender y memorizar)
Affirmative:
I am / I'm in the room. The room is painted in white.
You're inside the house, not outside it.
He is interested in that car because the price is good.
She's in another world; she's in love.
It's white in color/colour but the paint is bad.
We are a group of students who are on a journey to Europe, not customers.
You both are on the list of missing people.
They are in the supermarket/grocery now with some friends from England.
Negative:
I am not / I'm not here, because I'm there.
You are not / you're not / you aren't French; you're British.
He's not from Germany, he's from Sweden.
She's not angry, she's very busy only.
We aren't students, we are waiting for a bus.
You both aren't on Facebook.
They aren't nearby, they left 2 hours ago.
Interrogative:
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Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras

Am I under suspicion? No, you are not / No, you're not / No, you aren't.
Are you Mr. Wilson? No, I am not
Is he the same inspector? No, he's another person.
Is she a French tourist? No, she's only a visitor.
Is it a flammable substance? No, it isn't; it's only some water with a coloring agent.
Are we in danger? No, you are not, for the moment (for the time being).
Are you the couple who is happily married? No, we are divorced but are still friends.
Are they as happy as it seems? So it seems.
Negative interrogative:
Am I not generous enough with my tips? Yes, you are, but you leave foreign coins as a tip.
Aren't you on duty tonight? Not tonight, but tomorrow night.
Isn't he the man who wore a blue uniform? No, this man isn't a cop
Isn't she working in the factory? No, she's now at the station.
Aren't we clever enough to do it?.
Aren't you the group that got lost? Yes, but now we're here.
Aren't they interested in buying a new set of wheels? Maybe/perhaps next week
a cop: un poli, policía
angry: enfadada/o
another person: otra persona
as happy as it seems: tan felices como parece (happy: feliz, felices)
at the station: en/por la estación
because the price is good: porque el precio es bueno
but are still friends: pero somos todavía / aún amigos
but now: pero ahora
but tomorrow night: pero sí mañana noche / sino mañana noche
clever enough to do it?: bastante / suficientemente listos / espabilados para hacerlo?
divorced: divorciado/s/as
flammable substance: sustancia inflamable
for the moment (for the time being): por el momento, de momento
generous enough: bastante / suficientemente generoso
group of students: grupo de estudiantes
happily married: felizmente casada
here: aquí
in another world: en otro mundo
in buying: en comprar (in setting, in knowing, in making, etc.: en establecer, en saber, en hacer, etc.)
in danger: en peligro
in love: enamorada/o (to be in love: estar enamorado/a)
in white: de/en (color) blanco
inside the house: dentro de la casa
interested: interesado
is painted: está pintado/a
it's only some water with a coloring agent: es sólo algo de agua con un agente colorante
It's white in color: es de color blanco (Color/colour)
leave foreign coins as a tip: deja monedas extranjeras como / de propina
maybe / perhaps: quizá(s), tal vez, a lo mejor
nearby: por aquí, cerca
new set of wheels: juego nuevo de ruedas
not customers: no clientes (de bar, tienda) (clients: clientes, de abogados, de empresas de servicios)
5

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
not outside it: no fuera de ella
not tonight: no esta noche
on a journey to Europe: de viaje a Europa (en un viaje a Europa)
on Facebook: en Facebook (on the TV, on the radio, on a list, on a program, on the earth, on a journey, etc)
on the list of missing people: en la lista de desaparecidos, de personas desaparecidas
only: sólo, solamente
so it seems: así lo parece
some water: algo de agua
that get lost: que se perdió (to get lost: perderse - V. Intr.)
the couple: la pareja
the same inspector: el mismo inspector
there: allí / allá
they left 2 hours ago: se marcharon / se fueron hace 2 horas (2/15 hours/days/years ago: hace horas/días/años.)
to be on a list: estar en una lista
under suspicion: bajo sospecha
very busy only: muy ocupada/o solamente
visitor: visitante
we are waiting for a bus: estamos esperando un autobús (to wait for: esperar algo, a alguien)
who is happily married?: que está felizmente casada (who: pronombre relativo para personas)
who wore a blue uniform: que llevaba puesto/usaba un uniforme azul (to wear: llevar puesto)
who: que (quienes)
with my tips: con mis propinas (tambié, sugerencia, consejo)
with some friends from England: con algunos amigos de Inglaterra (from: indica procedencia, origen)
you both: vosotros dos
Who: Interrogative pronoun (Pronombre interrogativo, sin género ni número)
Who: Relative pronoun (Pronombre relativo, sin género ni número)
Examples:
Who is that guy over there? He's Mr. Smith. → ¿Quién es ese tío de allí? Es el Sr. Smith
Who are these men sitting here? → ¿Quiénes son estos hombres sentados aquí?
Who is that girl? She's the one who was fired. → ¿Quién es esa chica? Es la que fue despedida.
He's the worker who reported the robbery. → Es el trabajador que denunció el robo.
They are the customers who arrived yesterday. → Son los clientes que llegaron ayer .
She's the partner who bought all the shares. → Es la socia que compró todas las acciones.
Who are you talking to / with? <> With / to whom are you.......? → ¿A / con quién estas hablando?
Who are you helping to? <> To whom are you.........? → ¿A quién estás ayudando?
Who is she working with? <> With whom is she .......? → ¿Con quién está ella trabajando?

To Be in past - Affirmative

Subject

To Be

Examples

I

was

I was tired this morning. (Estaba cansado/a

You

were

You were very good.

(Tú fuíste muy bueno)

6

esta mañana)

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
He

was

He was the best in his class. (Él fue el mejor en su clase)

She

was

She was late for work. (Ella hacía tarde al trabajo)

It

was

It was a sunny day. (Fue un día soleado)

We

were

We were at home. (Estuvimos en casa)

You

were

You were on holiday. (Vosotros estuvisteis de vacaciones)

They

were

They were happy with the results. (Estaban contentos/felices con los resultados)

To be

Subject

Examples

Was

I

Was I tired this morning?

were

you

were you very good?

Was

he

was he the best in his class?

Was

she

was she late for work?

Was

it

was it a sunny day?

Were

we

were we at home?

Were

you

were you on holiday?

Were

they

were they happy with the results?

To Be - Negative Sentences & Contractions
The negative of To Be can be made by adding not after the verb (was or were). El negativo de To Be
puede hacerse mediante la adición de not después del verbo (fue o fueron).

I was not tired this morning.
You were not crazy.
He was not married.
She was not famous.
It was not hot yesterday.
We were not invited.
You were not at the party.
They were not friends.

OR
OR
OR
OR
OR
OR
OR
OR

I wasn't tired this morning.
You weren't crazy.
He wasn't married.
She wasn't famous.
It wasn't hot yesterday.
We weren't invited.
You weren't at the party.
They weren't friends.

_________________________
Affirmative
I was late
You were sick.
He was surprised.
She was from Italy.
It was a big house
We were ready.
You were early.

Question
Was I late?
Were you sick?
Was he surprised?
Was she from Italy?
Was it a big house?
Were we ready?
Were you early?
7

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
They were busy.
Were they busy?
____________________________________________________

First present tense verbs (los primeros verbos en presente indicativo):

The verb "to be" (El verbo "ser o estar")
The man is in the street now. Is the man in the street now? Yes, he is (he's). No, he isn't /
No he's not.
The woman is in the shop. Is the woman in the shop? Yes, she is (she's). No she isn't / No,
she's not.
The women dressed in white are at the station. Are the women dressed in white at the
station? Yes, they are (they're). No, they aren't / No, they're not.
Am I on the list of members? Yes, you are. No, you are not / No, you aren't
We aren't very happy with the decision taken by the judge.
The racing car is broken down. Is the racing car broken? Yes, it is. No, it isn't / No, it's not.
The house is situated near the harbor (port). Is the house situated near the harbor? Yes,
it is. No, it isn't / No, it's not
The dogs are down in the basement. Are the dogs down in the basement? Yes. they are.
No, they aren't / No, they're not.
The trees of the park are home to many birds. Are the trees of the park home to many
birds? Yes, they are. No, they aren't / No, they're not.
The air is filled with a smell of ripe fruit. Is the air filled with a smell of ripe fruit. Yes. it is.
No, it isn't / No, it's not.
The number of people with diabetes is increasing (or on the rise). Is the number of people
with diabetes increasing (or on the rise)? Yes, it is. No, it isn't / No, it's not.
The members of the club are very satisfied with the changes. Are the members of the club
very satisfied with the changes. Yes, they are. No, they are not / No, they aren't / No, they're
not.
We aren't interested in that house because it's too old. So you aren't involved in the real
estate business.
Your proposal is not endorsed by the committee. All the doctors of this hospital are
underpaid.

To be (present tense)
are very satisfied with the changes: están muy satisfechos con los cambios
at the station: en / por la estación (o inmediaciones más próximas)
because: porque
broken down: averiado
down in the basement: abajo en el sótano
dressed in white: vestidas (ellas) de blanco
endorsed by the committee: respaldada (apoyada) por el comité
filled with: lleno de, cargado de
8

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
harbor (port): puerto
home to many birds: hogar/refugio para muchas aves (this place is home to many people)
in the shop: en la tienda
in the stree now: en la calle ahora
increasing: aumentando, en aumento (to be increasing)
interested: interesados
involved: metido, relacionado con; involucrado, implicado (también plural)
is increasing: está aumentando / en aumento
list of members: lista de miembros
middle of the race: en (la) mitad de la carrera)
near the harbor: cerca del puerto (near the sea/road/wall/door: cerca de: mar/carretera/pared,etc.)
number of people: número de personas
on the rise: en aumento, aumentando
proposal: propuesta
racing car: coche de carreras
real estate business: nogocio inmobiliario
situated (fixed, located): situada
situated: situada/o
smell of ripe fruit: olor a (de) fruta madura)
taken by the judge: tomada por el juez
too old: demasiado vieja/o
underpaid: mal pagados (infra pagados)
very satisfied: muy satisfecho/a/s

________________________________________

Past tense of "be", "was & were"

(Pasado del verbo ser o estar):
John and Eloise were married for at least 40 years.
My father was a resourceful man.
The army was defeated by a small group of guerrillas.
We were at the station at 10 AM.
Michael was accused of murder by the jury
I was invited to a party in which people were dressed in blue.
She was in London last week.
We were alone when all happened.
Were you at the station when she arrived? No, I was watching TV.
These were the cops who arrested your brother.
Were your sisters happy with their gifts? At first I thought they were (happy), but I was
wrong.
Were you ready for the exam? I thought I was, but the exam was very difficult.
Were the brothers very busy when the fire started? No, they were having beers.
Was I under suspicion? No, your name wasn't on any list.
accused of murder: acusado de asesinato
alone: solos (solo, sola, solos)
at first: al principio, primero
at the station: en la estación, por la estación
but I was wrong: pero estaba equivocado
but the exam was very difficul: pero el examen fue/era muy dificil
by the jury: por el jurado
9

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
defeated: derrotado (to defeat. derrotar / to be defeated: ser derrotado)
guerrillas: guerrilleros
having beers: tomando cervezas
I thought I was: creí que lo estaba, creí que sí, pensé que sí
I thought: creí, pensé, me pareció
in which: en la cual
invited to a party: invitado/a a una fiesta
last week: la semana pasada
married for at least: casados durante al menos (for a long/short time: durante un largo corto tiempo)
on any list: en ninguna lista (it isn't on any list; on any list?: no está en ninguna lista; ¿en alguna lista?
people: la gente
ready for the exam: preparado/a para el examen
resourceful man (or a man of resources): hombre de recursos
under suspicion: bajo sospecha
very busy: muy ocupados (muy ocupado/a)
very difficult: muy dificil
was accused of murder: acusado de asesinato
was defeated: fue vencido/derrotado
watching TV: mirando la tele
were dressed in blue: estaban vestidos/as de azul (in blue)
when all happened: cuando todo ocurrió/pasó
when she arrived: cuando ella llegó
when the fire started: cuando empezó el fuego/incendio
who arrested your brother: que/quienes arrestaron (your brother/father/girl/friend/neighbor)
with their gifts: con sus regalos
your name: tu nombre

_________________________________________________

The verb "to do" is also used as an auxiliary verb to ask a question, in both
present or past, and give a negative answer in both present or past for almost
all verbs (El verbo "to do" -hacer- se usa también para hacer una pregunta, en presente o
pasado, y dar una negativa en presente o pasado para casi todos los verbos)
Exceptions: be, can, may, might, could, must, ought

To do (hacer)

Negative form

Interrogative

Interrogative negative

I do
You do
He does
We do
You do
They do

I do not (don't)
You do not (don't)
He does not (doesn't)
We do not (don't)
You do not (don't)
They do not (don't)

Do I?
Do you?
Does he?
Do we?
Do you?
Do they?

Do I not? (don't I?)
Do you not? (don't you?)
Does he not? (doesn't he?)
Do we not? (don't we?)
Do you not? (don't you?)
Do they not? (don't they?)

To do past

Past Negative

Interrogative

Interrogative negative

I did
You did
He did
We did

I did not (didn't)
You did not (didn't)
He did not (didn't)
We did not (didn't)

Did I?
Did you?
Did he?
Did we?

Did I not? (didn't I?)
Did you not? (didn't you?)
Did he not? (didn't he?)
Did we not? (didn't we?)

10

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
You did
They did

You did not (didn't)
They did not (didn't)

Did you?
Did they?

Did you not? (didn't you?)
Did they not? (didn't they?)

Present continuous and past continuous examples. (using the verbs be + do in gerund)
What are you doing with this knife? I'm cutting some potatoes.
What are they doing now? They're watching TV.
What is she doing in her room: She's studying for an exam.
What was she cooking in the kitchen? A cake.
What were they doing in the basement? They were painting the walls.

Present tense of "to do" (Presente del verbo "to do", subrayado, como verbo ordinario y auxiliar):
I do my exercises every morning.
You do things that are not normal.
He (usually) does his homework after supper
We always do what they say.
They do the best milkshakes in town.
She does things that very few people can do.
He doesn't want to pay that high price.
We don't know how much money was lost.
They don't know how she got lost.
Do they really pay so little? Yes, they do and take too long to pay.
Does your wife know that you don't have / you haven't got much money? Yes, she does. But she
doesn't care
Do you really think this is a new PC? I don't think it is a new PC,I think is a second-hand one
Doesn't he behave honestly? Yes, he does; but not very often.
Why don't the owners listen to their customers? Because they're bad businessmen.
Don't they understand that we're not the enemy? It seems they don't.
Do you think they will favor/favour this law? I don't think they will.
Are you sure they'll do it again? I hope they won't.
Does Carol know the solution? Yes, of course she does.
Do we look too old with these clothes? You look rather younger
Do I need to take another exam? Maybe in a few months.
Do Jenny and Bruce speak any German? Only when they're a bit drunk.
Do they understand English? They do if the speaker speaks slowly.
I don't want this to happen again.
She doesn't cook as her mother but much better than many chefs.
Elaine and Joe don't know who was chosen for the job

a bit drunk: un poco borracho/a
a second-hand one (PC): uno de segunda mano
after supper: después de la cena
bad businessmen: malos empresarios/hombres de negocios
11

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
behave: comportarse, portarse (V. Intr.)
but much better than: pero mucho mejor que (better than: mejor que. superlativo)
can do: puede hacer
customers: clientes (de bar, tienda, etc- clients: clientes de abogado, empresas de servicios)
but not very often: pero no muy amenudo
do what they say: hacemos lo que (ellos) dicen
Do you really think: crees realmente
Does your wife know that: sabe tu mujer que
doesn't care: no le preocupa/importa (I don't care: no me importa) (V. Intr.)
doesn't want to pay: no quiere pagar
every morning: cada mañana (every day: cada día;
everyday: cotidiano, corriente, diario
exercises: ejercicios
happen again: (que) ocurra otra vez
high price: precio alto (los adjetivos van delante de los siustantivos)
homework: deberes (del cole)
how much money: cuánto dinero (how much/many: cuánto/cuántos)
how she got lost: cómo se perdió (to get lost: perderse, alguien)
I hope they won't: espero que no (they won't: they will not)
In town: del pueblo, de/en todo el pueblo
It seems they don't: parece que no (entienden)
job: trabajo, empleo, tarea (task)
listen to: escuchar a (to listen to: escuchar a <> to hear sth: oír algo)
of course she does: desde luego que sí (que la sabe)
only: sólo, solamente, únicamente
She does things: hace cosas
slowly: lentamente, con lentitud
so little: tan poco (so big/small/expensive/cheap/long: tan grande/pequeño/caro/barato/largo)
take too long to pay: (ellos) tardan mucho (tiempo) en pagar
that are normal: que son normales
that: que (en este caso, pronombre relativo)
the best milkshakes in town: los mejores batidos en el pueblo
They do if: Sí, si (el que habla....) (sí: afirmación; si: conjunción)
they do the best: hacen los mejores
they will favor this law: estarán a favor de esta ley, serán partdarios de esta ley
to pay: pagar
rather younger: más bien más jovenes (young + er: más jóvenes)
usually: normalmernte, por lo general
was lost: se perdió (to lose money: perder dinero)
what they say: lo que dicen (what: qué -Pronombre interrogativo-; lo que)
who was chosen: quién fue escogido (a quién se eligió/escogió)

Past tense of "to do", in negative (Pasado del verbo "to do", subrayado):
At first I didn't want to go to that restaurant, then I changed my mind.
Did you really expect such results? No, to tell you the truth.
The firm did not reach the goals.
Why didn't they reason with the neighbors to reach an agreement?
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Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
Didn't we follow the rules that they had set?
Didn't the Browns finally sell the house? They sold it for a good price.
The firm didn't accept neither the agreement nor the interest rate.
Elisabeth didn't know what had happened to the prior owners.
Did these things happen in the past? Yes, They did, but not so often.
at first: al principio
but not so often: pero no tan amenudo
expect such results: esperar tales resultados (to expect: esperar, imaginar suponer)
follow the rules: seguir las reglas
interest rate: tasa de interés
in the past: en el pasado
neighbors (neighbours): vecinos/as
neither the agreement nor: ni el acuerdo ni (neither......nor: ni una cosa ni la otra)
prior owners: anteriores propietarios
reach an agreement: llegar a un acuerdo, alcanzar un acuerdo
reach the goals: alcanzar los objetivos
reason with: razonar con
sell the house: vender la casa
then I changed my mind: luego cambié de idea
they had set: ellos habían sentado/impuesto
to tell you the truth: a decir verdad, si te digo la verdad
what had happened: lo que había pasado

_________________________________________________________

"The verb "to make"
The verb "to make" -- I made, I have made (hacer, construir, crear, engendrar, etc)
Simple present

Simple past

Negative

Interrogative & Negative Interrogative

I make
You make
He makes
We make
You make
They make

I made
You made
He made
We made
You made
They made

I did not make (I didn't make)
Did I, you/ he/ we /you/they make?
You did not make (didn't make)
He did not make (didn't make)
Did I / you/he/we/you/they not make? or
We did not make (didn't make)
You did not make (didn't make) Didn't I/you/he/we/you/they make?
They did not make (didn't make)

The gerund form of "to make"
I am / I'm making
You are / you're making
He is / he's making
We are / we're making
You are / you're making
They are / they're making

Examples with the verb "To make"
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Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
My teacher made me apologize for what I had said. → Mi profesor me hizo (exigió) pedir
disculpas por lo que había dicho.
Did somebody make you wear that ugly hat? → Te ha hecho (obligado) alguien usar/llevar
puesto ese sombrero feo?
She made the children responsible for the damages. → Hizo a los niños responsables de
(for) los daños. (Be made responsible for sth.)
We made the cake with maize flour and eggs. → Hicimos el pastel con harina de maíz y
huevos.
We are making progress thanks to the generous donations. → Estamos haciendo progresos
gracias a las generosas donaciones.
Thes gates are made of iron and wood. → Estas puertas están hechas de hierro y madera.
What is this made of? It's made of concrete. → ¿De qué esta hecho? Está hecho de
hormigón. (also: Of what is it made? It is made of.....)
This project will make it possible. → Este proyecto lo hará posible.
They didn't make many mistakes. → No hicieron/cometieron muchos errores.
It can make all sort of sounds. → Puede hacer todo tipo de sonidos.
They can't make this project feasible. (make feasible this project)→ Pueden hacer factible
este proyecto.
Make a mountain out of a molehill. → Hacer una montaña de un grano de arena (topera)
You better make it better. → Más vale que (mejor que) lo hagas mejor.
_______________________________________

Made from (Hecho a partir de)
We often use made from when we talk about how something is manufactured: Plastic is
made from oil. The earliest canoes were made from tree trunks.

Made of (Hecho de, manufacturado en)
We use made of when we talk about the basic material or qualities of something. It has a
meaning similar to ‘composed of’: She wore a beautiful necklace made of silver.
A: What is this table made of? It's made of American oak.

Made out of (Hecho usando, hecho de)
We usually use made out of when we talk about something that has been changed or
transformed from one thing into another: In the 1970s, it was popular to have candle-holders
made out of wine bottles.
They were living in tents made out of old plastic sheets.

Made with
We use made with most often to talk about the ingredients of food and drink:
This dish is made with beef, red peppers and herbs.
Is sushi always made with raw fish or do the Japanese use cooked fish too?
14

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras

Interrogative:
Shall I be rewarded for my efforts? → Seré recompensado por mis esfuerzos?
Will you sell all your shares to the broker? → Venderás todas tus acciones al corredor de bolsa?
Will Jane have to carry out this task? → Tendrá Jane que llevar a cabo esta tarea?
Shall we feel better with these pills? → Nos sentiremos mejor con estas píldoras?
Will you both go now or wait? → Iréis ahora u os esperareis? (Aquí "will" actúa sobre ambos verbos)
Will they finally accept the offer? → Acceptarán finalmente la oferta?
_________________________________________

The verbs "to do " & "to make" (los verbos "to do" y "to make")
Ambos tienen como significado 'hacer'. Hay expresiones que se forman con uno u otro y son
invariables. Por ejemplo, 'do me a favor', 'make some tea'.
Los verbos to do y to make significan "hacer" pero se utilizan en forma diferente. Aquí hay algunos
ejemplos:

Mrs. Jones is a housewife who doesn't work in any office, so... - La señora Jones
es una ama de casa que no trabaja en ninguna oficina, así que...
She has to do the housework. Tiene que hacer el trabajo de la casa.
She has to do the cooking. Tiene que cocinar.
She has to do the washing up. Tiene que fregar los platos.
She has to do the washing / the laundry. Tiene que lavar la ropa sucia.
She has to do the shopping. Tiene que hacer las compras.
She has to do the ironing. Tiene que planchar la ropa.
She has to do the dusting. Tiene que quitar el polvo.
She has to make the beds. Tiene que hacer las camas.
She has to make breakfast. Tiene que hacer el desayuno.
She has to make lunch. Tiene que hacer el almuerzo.
She has to make dinner. Tiene que hacer la cena.
She has to make coffee / tea. Tiene que hacer café / té.
She has to make a cake. Tiene que hacer un pastel.
She has to make sure that the house is in order. Tiene que asegurarse que la casa esté en orden.

Mr. Jones is a businessman, so... - El señor Jones es un empresario, así que...
He is doing business with important companies. Está haciendo negocios con firmas importantes.
He has to do something with the lack of time. Él tiene que hacer algo con la falta de tiempo.

15

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
He is doing well in his job. Va bien en su trabajo. (How are you doing? →¿Qué tal te va?: I'm doing
well → Me va bien)
He does his best to improve his company. Hace lo mejor que puede para mejorar su empresa.
He is making a lot of money. Está haciendo un montón de dinero.
He is making a fortune. Está haciendo una fortuna.
He doesn't like to make mistakes. No le gusta cometer errores (to make mistakes: hacer errores)
Sometimes he makes a fuss when something goes wrong. Algunas veces (él) arma un lío
cuando algo sale mal.
He rarely makes jokes. Casi nunca hace chistes.
He doesn't have much time to make friends. No tiene mucho tiempo para hacer amigos.
He is making an effort to increase sales. Está haciendo un esfuerzo para aumentar las ventas.
He would like to make a trip/journey. Le gustaría hacer un viaje.
His employees make fun of him. Sus empleados se burlan de él.
He has to make a speech for a meeting. Tiene que hacer un discurso para una reunión.
He has to make decisions every day. Tiene que tomar decisiones todos los días.
His secretary makes appointments for him. Su secretaria arregla / organiza citas para él.
She also makes telephone calls and reservations. También hace llamadas telefónicas y reservas.
He says that his employees make trouble. Él dice que sus empleados causan problemas.
He often makes a fool of himself. A menudo se pone en ridículo.
He makes use of his authority to threaten people. Utiliza su autoridad para amenazar a la gente.
Some of his decisions don't make sense. Algunas de sus decisiones no tienen sentido.

Otros ejemplos:
John doesn't like to do his homework. A John no le gusta hacer sus deberes.
He is doing badly at school. (He is not doing well) No le va bien en la escuela. (No le está yendo
bien)
The hurricane did a lot of damage in the area. El huracán causó / hizo mucho daño en la zona.
The policeman was doing his duty when he arrested the thief. El policía estaba cumpliendo con
su deber cuando arrestó al ladrón.
Mary did her hair and her face and left for the party. Mary se peinó, se maquilló y salió para la
fiesta.
"Can you do me a favor?" - ¿Me puedes hacer un favor?
"What are you doing here? " - ¿Qué estás haciendo aquí?
They were making love in the back seat of their car. Ellos estaban haciendo el amor en el asiento
trasero de su auto.
Johnny made a mess in his room. Johnny hizo un desastre en su cuarto.
Bill made his way to the university. Bill se dirigió a la universidad.
Jane made an excuse and left. Jane se disculpó y se marchó.
I want to make a complaint about the service in this hotel. Quiero presentar una queja sobre el
servicio en este hotel.
__________________________________________

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Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras

The verb "to do" as an auxiliary verb to make questions and negatives. (El verbo
to do" como auxiliar para hacer preguntas y negaciones)
Preguntas en inglés usando "do/does/did". Do you live here? / Does he work in this company? / Did
you see that?

Do / Don't ( I, you, we, they) ... ?
Where do you live?¿Dónde vives?
What do you do?¿Qué haces?
Do you speak French fluently? ¿Hablas francés fluidamente?
Don't we know that already? ¿No sabemos eso ya?
Do Anne and Julie go to the gym together? ¿Anne y Julie van al gimnasio juntas?
How do you spell Jonathan? ¿Cómo deletreas Jonathan?
When do we have to leave the hotel? ¿Cuándo tenemos que dejar el hotel?

Does / Doesn't (he, she, it) ... ?
Does she play the piano? ¿Ella toca el piano?
Does Timothy earn a lot of money? ¿Timothy gana mucho dinero?
Doesn't Claire know what happened? ¿Claire no sabe lo qué pasó?
Does the picture look nice on the shelf? ¿Se ve bien la foto sobre el estante?
Where does Sally study French? ¿Dónde estudia francés Sally?
How does it work? ¿Cómo funciona?

Did/Didn't (I, you, she...) ... ?
How did I get here? ¿Cómo llegué aquí?
Where did you find the book? ¿Dónde encontraste el libro?
Did you write an e-mail to your friend Victor? ¿Le escribiste un e-mail a tu amigo Victor?
Didn't Donald buy the present for his sister? ¿No compro Donald el regalo para su hermana?
Did we pass the exam? ¿Aprobamos / pasamos el examen?
Didn't I pay the bill this morning? ¿No pagué la factura esta mañana?
When did you sing for the first time? ¿Cuándo cantaste por primera vez?
________________________________________

The verb "to go" (El verbo "ir")
Present

Negative form

Interrogative

Interrogative negative

I go
You go
He goes
We go

I do not (don't) go
You don't go
He doesn't go
We don't go

Do I go?
Do you go?
Does he go?
Do we go?

Do I not (don't I) go?
Don't you go?
Doesn't he go?
Don't we go?

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Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
You go
They go
Past

You don't go
They don't go
Past Negative

Do you go?
Do they go?
Interrogative

Don't you go?
Dont' they go?
Interrogatibe negative

I went
You went
He went
We went
You went
They went

I did not (didn't) go
You didn't go
He didn't go
We didn't go
You didn't go
They didn't go

Did I go?
Did you go?
Did he go?
Did we go?
Did you go?
Did they go?

Did I not (didn't I) go?
Didn't you go?
Didn't he go?
Didn't we go?
Didn't you go?
Didn't they go?

Past participle
I have
You have
He has
We have
You have
They have

I haven't
You haven't
He hasn't
We haven't
You haven't
They haven't

Have I?
Have you?
Has he?
Have we?
Have you?
Have they?

Have I not? (haven't I?)
Have you not? (haven't you?)
Has he not? (hasn't he?)
Have we not? (haven't we?)
Have you not? (haven't you?)
Have they not? (haven't they?)

gone

Present continuous and past continuous examples. (using the verbs be + go in gerund)
Where are you going with this bag? I'm going to pick up mushrooms.
Where is she going now? She's going to buy an icecream.
How are you going to do it? With patience.
Why are you going tomorrow? Because I'm in a hurry to solve the problem.
Is she going to buy the house? I'm afraid she is.
Was he going to L.A. last week? I'm not sure.
Were they going to the party? Yes, they were.
Were the shareholders going to buy more shares? Sure not.

Examples:
I go to the movies every Sunday. → Voy al cine cada domingo
If you go now you can be accepted. → Si vas ahora puedes ser aceptado.
He goes to the beach every morning. → (Él) va a la playa cada mañana.
We go to the shop everytime we need some food. → Vamos a la tienda cada vez que
necesitamos algo de comida.
You both go to the same college. → Vosotros dos vais a la misma facultad.
They go to the beach in summer to sunbathe. → Van a la playa en verano a tomar el sol.
I don't go to the movies every Sunday. → No voy al cine cada domingo
If you don't go now you can't / cannot be accepted. → Si no vas ahora no puedes ser
aceptado.
He doesn't go to the beach every morning. → (Él) no va a la playa cada mañana.
We don't go to the shop everytime we need some food. → No vamos a la tienda cada vez
que necesitamos algo de comida.
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Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
You both don't go to the same college. → Vosotros dos no vais a la misma facultad.
They don't go to the beach in summer to sunbathe. → No van a la playa a tomar el sol.
I went to London last year. → Fui a Londres el año pasado.
You went to the market to buy apples. → Fuiste al mercado a/para comprar manzanas.
He went to my appartment to pick up a book. → Fue a mi aprtamento a/para recoger un
libro.
We went to that party to meet new people. → Fuimos a la fiesta a/para conocer a gente
nueva.
You both went to the same high school. → Votros dos fuisteis al mismo instituto.
They went to the station to pick up some friends. → Fueron a la estación a/para recoger a
unos amigos.
I didn't go to London last year. → No fui a Londres el año pasado.
You didn't go to the market to buy apples. → No fuiste al mercado a comprar manzanas.
He didn't go to my appartment to pick up a book. → N fue a mi aprtamento a recoger un libro.
We didn't go to that party to meet new people. → No fuimos a la fiesta a conocer a gente
nueva.
You both didn't go to the same high school. → Votros dos no fuisteis al mismo instituto.
They didn't go to the station to pick up some friends. → No fueron a la estación a/para
recoger a unos amigos.
_____________________________________________

The verb "can" (Poder

/ ser capaz de)

The verb "can", (to be able to do sth) can expresses physical or mental ability. (El verbo
"can" -ser capaz de hacer algo- expresa habilidad o capacidad física o mental)
1. to be able to; have the ability, power, or skill to: She can solve the problem easily. → Ser
capaz de/para; tener la capacidad, poder o habilidad: Ella puede solventar los problemas
facilmente.
2. to know how to: I can play chess; I can swim. → Saber cómo: Sé jugar al ajedrez; sé nadar.
3. to have the power or means to: A dictator can impose his will on the people. → Tener el poder
o los medios para: Un dictador puede imponer su voluntad sobre la gente.
4. to have the right or qualifications to: He can change whatever he wishes in the script. →
Tener el derecho o formación para: Puede cambiar lo que quiere del guión.
5. to have the possibility: A coin can land on either side → Tener la posibilidad: Una moneda
puede aterrizar / caer sobre cualquier cara.

Can
Can (poder, de facultad) Negative form

Interrogative

Interrogative negative

I can

Can I?

Cannot I? (can't I?)

I cannot (can't)

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Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
You can
He can
We can
You can
They can

You cannot (can't)
He cannot (can't)
We cannot (can't)
You cannot (can't)
They cannot (can't)

Can you?
Can he?
Can we?
Can you?
Can they?

Cannot you? (can't you?)
Cannot he? (can't he?)
Cannot we? (can't we?)
Cannot you? (can't you?)
Cannot they? (can't they?)

Past tense of can &
conditional

Past tense of can in
negative

Past tense of can Interrogative negative
in Interrogative

I could
You could
He could
We could
You could
They could

I could not (couldn't)
You could not (couldn't)
We could not (couldn't)
He could not (couldn't)
You could not (couldn't)
They could not (couldn't)

Could I?
Could you?
Could he?
Could we?
Could you?
Could they?

Could I not (couldn't I?)
Could you not? (couldn't you?)
Could he not? (couldn't he?)
Could we not? (couldn't we?)
Could you not? couldn't you?)
Could they not (couldn't they?)

To be able to (Se capaz de)
Present

Past

Interrogative

Interrogative

I'm able to
You're able to
He's able to
We're able to
You're able to
They're able to

I was able to
You were able to
He was able to
We were able to
You were able to
They were able to

Was I able to?
Were you able to?
Was he able to?
Were we able to?
Were you able to?
Were they able to?

Was I not able to? - wasn't I able to?
Were you not able to?- weren't you able to?
Was he not able to? - wasn't he able to?
Were we not able to? - weren't we able to?
Were you not able to? - weren't you able to?
Were they not able to? - weren't they able to?

The verb "can" expresess ability
El verbo 'Can' pertenece a los verbos modales y se ubica antes del verbo principal en infinitivo.
Significa 'poder'. Se utiliza para expresar habilidad, permiso.
I can - puedo
Affirmative
I can play the trumpet. Yo puedo / sé tocar la trompeta.
We can take a taxi to the airport. Podemos tomar un taxi hasta el aeropuerto.
Mary can be very stubborn sometimes. Mary puede ser muy terca a veces.
You can sit here if you like. Puedes sentarte aquí si quieres.
It can take longer than we thought. (Esto / ello) Puede tardar más de lo que pensábamos.
Nobody can understand that. Nadie puede entender eso.
Your decision can change our lives. Tu decisión puede cambiarnos la vida (nuestras vidas)
Negative
20

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras

I cannot / can't swim. No puedo / sé nadar.
That cannot / can't be true. Eso no puede ser cierto.
You cannot / can't tell me what to do. No puedes decirme qué hacer
Interrogative
Can Peter speak German? ¿Puede / sabe Peter hablar alemán?
Can you help me with my homework? ¿Me puedes ayudar con mi tarea?
Can + have
Paul can have gone to Maria's. Paul puede haber ido a casa de María.
They can't have left without us. Ellos no pueden haberse ido sin nosotros.
Jane can't have said that. Jane no puede haber dicho eso.

More examples in present:
I can swim → Puedo nadar (Sé nadar, me enseñaron)
We can go now → Podemos ir ahora (el camino está despejado)
She can speak many languages → (Ella) habla (puede hablar) muchos idiomas
They can cook many dishes at the same time → (Ellos/as) pueden cocinar muchos platos
al mismo tiempo.
I cannot/can't find my watch. I wonder where it is. → No puedo encontrar mi reloj. Me
pregunto dónde está.
The president cannot make decisions on his own→ El presidente no puede tomar
decisiones por su cuenta. (on his/her/our/their own)
___________________________

The modal verb "could"
El verbo 'Could' Expresa poca probabilidad o condicionalidad. Significa: podría, pude, podía,
pudiera de acuerdo con el contexto: I could dance if I could practice.
I could - podría / pude / podía / pudiera

Affirmative
You could be wrong. Podrías estar equivocado.
They could manage without us. Ellos pudieron / podrían arreglárselas sin nosotros.
I could help Ann if she only let me. Yo podría ayudar a Ann si tan solo me dejara .
This new plan could be very risky. Este nuevo plan podría ser muy peligrosoo.
The news could kill Mr. Taylor. La noticia podría matar al señor Taylor.
Anybody could be chosen for the job. Cualquiera podría ser elegido para el trabajo.
I could go back and bring Kate with me. Yo podría/pude volver y traer a Kate conmigo.
21

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
I could see he was drunk. Pude ver que estaba borracho.
We could go tomorrow. Podríamos ir mañana.

Negative
I couldn't see very clearly. No pude/podía ver muy claramente.
Mrs. Jones couldn't stand the smell. La señora Jones no pudo/podía soportar el olor.
We couldn't leave you alone. No podíamos dejarte solo.

Interrogative
Could you open the window? ¿Podrías abrir la ventana?
Could they escape if they had the chance? ¿Podrían escapar si tuvieranb la oportunidad?

Could + have
You could have told me you weren't at home! ¡Podrías haberme dicho que no estabas en
casa!
It could have been worse. Pudo/podría haber sido peor.
John couldn't have done that. John no pudo/podría haber hecho eso.
"Could" is used to express possibility or past ability as well as to make suggestions and
requests. "Could" is also commonly used in conditional sentences as the conditional form of
"can."
("Could" se utiliza para expresar posibilidad o capacidad en el pasado, así como para hacer
sugerencias y peticiones. "Could" también se utiliza comúnmente en las frases condicionales
como la forma condicional de "can")
Examples:
Extreme rain could cause the river to flood the city. possibility
 Nancy could ski like a pro by the age of 11. past ability
 You could see a movie or go out to dinner. suggestion
 Could I use your computer to email my boss? request
 We could go on a trip if I didn't have to work this weekend. conditional
_________________________________________


The verb "may"

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Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
May (Present tense)
I may
You may
He/she/it may
We may
You may
They may

El verbo 'may' se utiliza para expresar cierto grado de probabilidad de
una acción o grado de certeza: It may rain today. Significa: podría,
quizás, puede que.
I may - podría / quizás / puede que

Affirmative
We may stay here for the night. Podríamos pasar la noche aquí.
Jack may be telling the truth. Puede que Jack esté diciendo la verdad.
You may ask three questions. Puedes hacer tres preguntas.
I may visit Susan on Monday. Quizás / puede que visite a Susan el lunes.
The road may be blocked. El camino podría estar / puede estar bloqueado.
That may be a good idea. (Esa) Quizá sea una buena idea.
Carol may go when she finishes. Carol puede / podrá ir cuando termine.
Negative
Mr. Johnson may not remember anything. Puede que el señor Johnson no recuerde
nada.
You may not leave the classroom without permission. Usted no puede salir del aula
sin permiso.
I may not come next week. Quizá no venga la semana que viene.
Interrogative
May I go to the bathroom? ¿Puedo ir al baño?
May you take this to Mr. Richards? ¿Podrías llevarle esto al señor Richards?
May + have
Vicky may have told me the truth. Puede que Vicky me haya dicho la verdad.
They may not have known that. Puede que ellos no hayan sabido eso.
I may have forgotten to lock the door. Quizá me / puede que haya olvidado de cerrar la
puerta con llave.

More situations for "may"
The verb may is used in five main ways:
(El verbo "may" se usa principalmente en 5 situaciones)
To talk about a possible situation: Those reports may prove to be false. → Para hablar de
una situación posible: Estos informes pueden resultar ser falsos.
23

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras

To politely ask for permission to do something: May we come in? → Para pedir
educadamente permiso para hacer algo: ¿Podemos entrar?
To politely give someone permission to do something: That’s all for now, you may go. →
Para dar permiso cortésmente a alguien para hacer algo: Es todo por ahora, puedes irte.
To admit that something is the case before stating a contrasting fact: The chorus may look
silly, but they sound wonderful. → Admitir que algo es el caso antes de comentar un
hecho opuesto: El coro puede parecer soso, pero suenan fenomenal.
To express a wish or hope: May they be very happy in the future. → Para expresar un deseo o
esperanza: Que sean muy felices en el futuro.
___________________________________________

El verbo 'might' expresa débil probabilidad o posibilidad. Se utiliza cuando
queremos decir: podría, quizás, puede que (They might come tomorrow).
I might - podría / quizás / puede que
Affirmative
They might be waiting for us at the station. Podrían estar esperándonos en la estación.
This might be our only chance. Esta podría ser nuestra única oportunidad.
I might lose my job. Podría perder mi trabajo.
Harry might write soon. Harry podría escribir pronto.
You might find a solution. Podrías encontrar una solución.
We might be going the wrong way. Quizás estemos yendo en la dirección equivocada.
I might call you tomorrow. Podría llamarte mañana.
Negative
Sylvia might not live there anymore. Quizás Sylvia ya no viva más ahí.
We might not know everything. Puede que no sepamos todo.
It might not rain tonight. Puede que no llueva esta noche.
Interrogative
Might I give you a piece of advice? ¿Podría darte un consejo?
Might we speak to you for a moment? ¿Podríamos hablar contigo un momento?
Might + have
They might have finished earlier. Quizás hayan terminado más temprano.
Bob might have died in the accident. Bob podría haber muerto en el accidente.
24

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
Miss Green might not have been present at the time. Puede que la señorita Green no haya
estado presente en ese momento.
Basically, might is the past tense of may. It therefore seems logical for grammatical sticklers to
argue that if you’re talking about a possible situation in the present or the future, you should always
use the present tense, may:
(Básicamente, "might" es el tiempo pasado de "may". Por lo tanto, parece lógico que los rigurosos
de la gramatica argumenten que si estamos hablando de una posible situación en el presente o en
el futuro, se deba utilizar el tiempo presente, "may":)
If you’re feeling queasy, you may eat less and lose weight. → Si se siente mareado, puede comer
menos y perder peso.
And, equally, if you’re referring to something which could have been the case in the past, the past
tense, might, is said (by the grammatically orthodox) to be correct. → E, igualmente, si nos
referimos a algo que podría haber sido el caso en el pasado, el tiempo pasado, "might", es correcto
según los ortodoxos de la gramatica:
For all we know, she might have been undergoing counselling. → Por lo que sabemos, podría
haber estado recibiendo asesoramiento. (To undergo / receive counseling: recibir
asesoramiento)
However, people don’t often make this distinction in today’s English, and it’s generally acceptable to
use either may and might to talk about the present/future or the past. → Sin embargo, la gente no
suele hacer esta distinción en Inglés de hoy, y es generalmente aceptable usar "may" o "might"
para hablar del presente, el futuro o en el pasado:

Present or future event (Suceso presente o futuro)
She thinks she may be going crazy. → Ella cree que puede estra voviéndose loca.
She thinks she might be going crazy. → Ella cree que podría estar volviéndose loca.
Past event (Suceso pasado)
I might have forgotten to mention it at the time. → Podría haber olvidado mencionarlo en ese
momento.
I may have forgotten to mention it at the time. → Puedo haber olvidado mencionarlo en ese
momento.
___________________________________________________

The verb "to work" (worked, worked)
25

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
Present

Negative form

Interrogative

Interrogative negative

I work
You work
He works
We work
You work
They work
Past

I do not (don't) work
You don't work
He does not (doesn't work)
We don't work
You don't work
They don't work
Past Negative

Do I work?
Do you work?
Does he work?
Do we work?
Do you work?
Do they work?
Interrogative

Do I not (don't I) work?
Don't you work?
Doesn't he work?
Don't we work?
Don't you work?
Don't they work?
Interrogatibe negative

I worked
You worked
He worked
We worked
You worked
They worked

I did not (didn't) work
You didn't work
He didn't work
We didn't work
You didn't work
They didn't work

Did I work?
Did you work?
Did he work?
Did we work?
Did you work?
Did they work?

Did I not (didn't I) work?
Didn't you work?
Didn't he work?
Didn't we work?
Didn't you work?
Didn't they work?

Past participle
I have
You have
He has
We have
You have
They have

I haven't
You haven't
He hasn't
We haven't
You haven't
They haven't

Have I?
Have you?
Has he?
Have we?
Have you?
Have they?

Have I not? (haven't I?)
Have you not? (haven't you?)
Has he not? (hasn't he?)
Have we not? (haven't we?)
Have you not? (haven't you?)
Have they not? (haven't they?)

worked

Examples:
I work as (*) a teacher of English. → Trabajo como profesor de inglés.
You work in this firm thanks to her. → Trabajas en esta firma gracias a ella.
She works very hard to earn a salary. → Trabaja muy duro para ganar un salario / sueldo.
We only work 36 hours weekly. → Sólo trabajamos 36 horas semanalmente.
You both work together because it's better for you. → Vosotros dos trabajais juntos porque
es mejor para vosotros.
They work abroad to pay less taxes. → Trabajan en el extranjero para pagar menos
impuestos.
(*) as <> like: como, porque lo soy <> como si lo fuera.
I don't work as a teacher of English. → No trabajo como profesor de inglés.
You don't work in this firm thanks to her. → Tú no trabajas en esta firma gracias a ella.
She doesn't work very hard to earn a salary. → No trabaja muy duro para ganar un salario /
sueldo.
We don't work 36 hours weekly. → No trabajamos 36 horas semanalmente.
26

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
You both don't work together because it's better for you both. → Vosotros dos no trabajais juntos
porque es mejor para vosotros.
They don't work abroad to pay less taxes. → No trabajan en el extranjero para pagar menos
impuestos.
I worked in that factory for a long time. → Trabajé en esa factoría durante mucho tiempo.
You worked for the group that owns the firm. → Trabajaste para el grupo que posee la firma.
He worked as a waiter in that bar. → Trabajó como camarero ene ese bar.
We worked too much when we were young. → Trabajamos mucho cuando éramos jóvenes.
You both worked to be paid a few dollars only. → Trabajasteis para cobrar unos pocos dólares.
They worked like slaves / as slaves. → Trabajaron como esclavos (como si o fueran / porque lo
eran) .
I didn't worked in that factory for a long time. → No trabajé en una factoría durante mucho
tiempo.
You didn't worked for the group that owns the firm. → No trabajaste para el grupo que posee la
firma.
He didn't worked as a waiter in that bar. → No trabajó como camarero ene ese bar.
We didn't worked too much when we were young. → No trabajamos mucho cuando éramos
jóvenes.
You both didn't worked to be paid a few dollars only. → Vosotros no trabajasteis para cobrar
unos pocos dólares.
They didn't worked like slaves. → No trabajaron como esclavos.
Didn't John work with them? Yes, he did.. → ¿No trabajó John con ellos? Sí, (trabajó con ellos)
______________________________________

The verb "to live" (live, lived)
Present

Negative form

Interrogative

Interrogative negative

I live
You live
He lives
We live
You live
They live
Past

I do not (don't) live
You don't live
He doesn't live
We don't live
You don't live
They don't live
Past Negative

Do I live?
Do you live?
Does he live?
Do we live?
Do you live?
Do they live?
Interrogative

Do I not (don't I) live?
Don't you live?
Doesn't he live?
Don't we live?
Don't you live?
Don't they live?
Interrogatibe negative

I lived
You lived
He lived
We lived
You lived
They lived

I did not (didn't) live
You didn't live
He didn't live
We didn't live
You didn't live
They didn't live

Did I live?
Did you live?
Did he live?
Did we live?
Did you live?
Did they live?

Did I not (didn't I) live?
Didn't you live?
Didn't he live?
Didn't we live?
Didn't you live?
Didn't they live?

27

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
Past participle
I have
You have
He has
We have
You have
They have

I haven't
You haven't
He hasn't
We haven't
You haven't
They haven't

Have I?
Have you?
Has he?
Have we?
Have you?
Have they?

Have I not? (haven't I?)
Have you not? (haven't you?)
Has he not? (hasn't he?)
Have we not? (haven't we?)
Have you not? (haven't you?)
Have they not? (haven't they?)

lived

I live in London but I work in Petersfield. →Vivo en Londres pero trabajo en Petersfield.
You live close to where my sister lives. → Vives cerca de donde my hermana vive.
He lives with his parents. → Vive con sus padres.
We live in a small house made of wood. → Vivimos en una casa hecha de madera.
You both live in the same building. → Vosotros dos vivís en el mismo edificio.
They live (lead) a happy life. → Viven (llevan) una vida feliz.
I don't live in London but I work in Petersfield. → No vivo en Londres pero trabajo en
Petersfield.
You don't live close to where my sister lives. → No vives cerca de donde my hermana vive.
He doesn't live with his parents. → No vive con sus padres.
We don't live in a small house made of wood. → No vivimos en una casa hecha de madera.
You both don't live in the same building. → Vosotros dos no vivís en el mismo edificio.
They don't live (lead) a happy life. → No viven (llevan) una vida feliz.
I lived in Berlin for several years. → Viví en Londre durante varios años.
He didn't live with her so much time. → No vivió con ella tanto tiempo.
They didn't live or work in Germany. → No vivían o trabajaban en Londres.
Didn't she live in London in those days? Yes, she did. → No vivía en Londres en ese
momento (en esos días). Sí (que vivía)
I have lived in that house for a long time → He vivido en esa casa durante mucho tiempo.
They have lived with little money. → Han vivido con poco dinero.
We have lived with her parents. → Hemos vivido con sus padres (de ella)
________________________________________

The verb "to need", or simply need
El verbo "need" puede ser tanto un auxiliar como un verbo ordinario. Es auxiliar para verbos
(I need to go now , I need not go now→ Necesito ir ahora, no necesito ir ahora), pero
ordinario para objetos (I need money, I need a new car <> I don't need money, I don't need a
new car → Necesito dinero, necesito un coche nuevo <> No necesito dinero, no necesito un
coche)
Aunque a efectos coloqiales de conversación se utiliza / conjuga como otro verbo.
Present

Negative form

Interrogative
28

Interrogative negative

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
I need
You need
He needs
We need
You need
They need
Past

I do not (don't) need
Do I need?
You don't need
Do you need?
He does not (doesn't need) Does he need?
We don't need
Do we need?
You don't need
Do you need?
They don't need
Do they need?
Past Negative
Interrogative

Do I not (don't I) need?
Don't you need?
Doesn't he need?
Don't we need?
Don't you need?
Don't they need?
Interrogatibe negative

I needed
You needed
He needed
We needed
You needed
They needed

I did not (didn't) need
You didn't need
He didn't need
We didn't need
You didn't need
They didn't need

Did I not (didn't I) need?
Didn't you need?
Didn't he need?
Didn't we need?
Didn't you need?
Didn't they need?

Did I need?
Did you need?
Did he need?
Did we need?
Did you need?
Did they need?

_________________________________________________

The verb "to think" (pensar, creer, considerar, meditar, imaginar)
Simple present: think (zink), thinks (zinks)
Past: thought (zot) (for all persons of the verb)
Past Participle: have, has, etc., thought (zot) (for all persons of the verb)
Examples:
What do you think of this book? Do you like it?. ¿Qué piensas de este libro? ¿Te gusta?
I can't make a decision now. Let me think about it. No puedo tomar una decisión ahora. Déjeme
pensar en ello.
She thought for a moment but couldn't solve the problem. Ella pensó por un momento, pero no
pudo solucionar el problema.
We must think about it to give the right answer. Debemos pensar en ello (reflexionar al
respecto) para dar la respuesta correcta.
I don't think that this is a gold watch. No creo que esto sea (es: Subj.) un reloj de oro.
She doesn't think that the information is true. Ella no cree que la información sea (es) cierta.
I have thought of her a lot. He pensado en ella mucho.
______________________________________________

The verb "to teach" (enseñar, dar clases)
Simple present: teach (tíich), teaches (tíiches)
Past: taught (tóot) (for all persons of the verb)
Past Participle: have, has, etc., taught (tóot) (for all persons of the verb
29

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
Examples:
Mrs. Collins teaches biology at my school. La Sra. Collins enseña la biología en mi escuela.
His father taught Daniel how to swim. Su padre (de alguien masculino) enseño a Daniel a nadar .
She has taught English for many years. Ella ha enseñado inglés durante muchos años.
They didn't teach her to talk in English. No la enseñaron a hablar en inglés.
We have taught him how to do it. Le hemos enseñado cómo hacerlo.
I haven't taught him bad manners. No le he enseñado malas maneras (modales)
_______________________________________

The verb "to put" (poner, colocar, meter, introducir)
Simple present: put (put), pus (puts)
Past: put (put) (for all persons of the verb)
Past Participle: have, has, etc., put (put) (for all personf of the verb
Examples:
I always put the milk in a jar. Siempre pongo la leche en una jarra.
They put the money in the bank. Pusieron el dinero en un banco.
We didin't put alcohol in the drinks. No pusimos alcohol en la bebidas.
Did Marlene put any obtections?. Puso Marlene alguna pega / objección / inconveniente? (Sing.)
She has put some weight on. Ha engordado / ganado peso (put weight on: engordar, Ver. Intr.)
_______________________________________

Future of the tenses
Simple Future
Simple Future has two different forms in English: "shall / will" and "be going to." Although the
two forms can sometimes be used interchangeably, they often express two very different
meanings. These different meanings might seem too abstract at first, but with time and
practice, the differences will become clear. Both "will" and "be going to" refer to a specific
time in the future.
(El futuro simple tiene dos formas diferentes en Inglés: "shall / will" y "be going to" Aunque
las dos formas a veces se pueden utilizar indistintamente, a menudo expresan dos
significados muy diferentes. Estos diferentes significados pueden parecer demasiado
abstractos al principio, pero con el tiempo y la práctica, aclararán las dudas. Tanto "shall /
will" como "be going to" se refieren a un momento específico en el futuro)
To be, Simple Future

Negative form

Interrogative

Interrogative negative

I shall be - I'll be
You will be - you'll be
He will be -he'll be
We shall be - we'll be

I shall not be - I shan't be
You will not be . you won't be
He will not be - he won't be
We shall not be - we shan't be

Shall I?
Will you?
Will he?
Shall we?

Shall I not? - shan't I?
Will you not? - won't you?
Will he not? - won't he?
Shall we not? - shan't we?

30

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
You will be - you'll be
They will be - they'll be

You will not be - you won't be
They will not be - they won't be

Will you?
Will they?

Will you not? - won't you?
Will they not - won't they?

Examples using Shall and Will (En subrayado)
Affirmative:
I shall be / I'll be there tomorrow at 2.15pm → Estaré allí mañana a las
2:15 de la tarde.
You will / you'll have to buy another one → Tendrás que comprar otro.
He will / he'll be elected again president of the company → Será elegido
otra vez presidente de la compañía.
She will / she'll probably eat pasta → Probablemente comerá pasta.
It will cost a fortune in a few years → (Ello) costará una fortuna en unos / dentro de unos años.
We shall not / shan't accept this agreement → No aceptaremos este acuerdo.
You both will have to make a decision → Vosotros dos tendréis que tomar una decisión.
They'll come back as soon as possible → Volverán lo antes posible (tan pronto como posible)
The boss will have to accept the rules. → El jefe tendrá que aceptar las reglas.
Jane will buy it if the price falls / drops. → Jane lo comprará si el precio baja.
You both will be appointed as representatives. → Sereis nombrados (como) representantes.
I shall be - I'll be
You/he will be - you'll
be/he'll be/she'll be
We shall be - we'll be
You/they will be - you'll they'll be

Negative:
I shall not be - I'll not be - I
I shall not be / I shan't be there tomorrow at 2.15 pm → No estaré allí
shan't be;
mañana a las 2:15 de la tarde.
you/he will not be - you'll/he'll You will not / you won't have to buy another one → No tendrás que
not be - you/he won't be;

comprar otro.
He'll not be / won't be elected again president of the company → No
we shall not be - we'll not be
será elegido otra vez presidente de la compañía.
- we shan't be;
She won't probably eat pasta → Probablemente no comerá pasta.
It won't cost a fortune in a few years → (Ello) no costará una fortuna
you/they will not be you'll/they'll not be -you/they en unos / dentro de unos años.
won't be.
We shall not / shan't accept this agreement → No aceptaremos este
(it will not be- it'll not be- it
acuerdo.
won't be)
You both will not / won't have to make a decision → Vosotros dos no
tendreis que tomar una decisión.
They won't come back soon as they said → No volverán pronto como dijeron / afirmaron
The boss will not / won't have to accept the rules. → El jefe no tendrá que aceptar las reglas.
Jane will not / won't buy it if the price falls / drops. → Jane no lo comprará si el precio baja.
You both will not / won't be appointed as representatives. → No sereis nombrados (como)
representantes.
_______________________________________________

The Present Continuous (Presente continuo)
Continuous Tense to talk about activities happening now.
31

We use the Present

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
El presente continuo es un tiempo verbal que indica una acción que está ocurriendo en el
momento en que se habla. Es bastante parecido a, por ejemplo, ‘comiendo’, ‘caminando’,
‘diciendo’, etc. En el inglés coloquial significa también algo que va a ocurrir muy pronto:
I am studying for my exam – Estoy estudiando para mi examen (ahora, en este momento).
I am cleaning the house – Estoy limpiando la casa (ahora, en este momento)
Robert is driving to the supermarket – Robert está conduciendo hasta el supermercado
(ahora, en este momento).
The mechanic is fixing our car – El mecánico está arreglando nuestro coche (ahora, en
este momento).
Examples:
The kids are watching TV . → Los niños están mirando la tele. (to watch TV: mirar la tele)
I am sitting down because I am tired. → Me siento porque estoy cansado/a (to sit down:
sentarse)
I am not studing German because this is an English class → No estoy estudiando alemán
porque esto es una clase de inglés.
Who are you writing to? (or to whom are you writing?) → ¿A quién escribes? <> ¿ a quién estás
escribiendo?
Where are you going now? → ¿Adónde vas ahora? (¿Adónde estás yendo?)
We can also use the Present Continuous Tense to talk about activities happening around now,
and not necessarily this very moment. (Podemos también usar el Tiempo Presente Continuo
para hablar acerca de actividades que ocurren más o menos en este momento, pero no
necesariamente en él.)

Examples:
Sally is studying hard for the exam week. →Sally está estudiando mucho/duro para el examen
semanal.
I'm reading a really interesting book. → Estoy leyendo un libro realmente interesante.
Are you practicing your English for the trip? → Estás practicando tu inglés para el viaje?
We aren't working hard these days. → No estamos trabajando duro estos días.
The Present Continuous Tense is also used to talk about activities happening in the near future,
especially for planned future events. (El Tiempo Presente Continuo se usa también en un futuro
próximo, especialmente para futuros acontecimientos ya planeados.)

Examples:
I'm going to the dentist next Wednesday. →Voy al dentista el próximo miércoles.
Molly is coming for dinner tomorrow. → Molly viene a comer mañana - (for dinner: a comer,
al almuerzo)
Are you doing anything tonight? → ¿Haces alguna cosa esta noche?)
We aren't going on holiday next week. → No vamos de vacaciones la próxima semana)
32

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras

Difference between Present Continuous and Simple Present
(Diferencias entre ambos tiempos verbales: El Present Continuos describe acciones puntuales u
ocasionales que están ocurriendo ahora y que pueden continuar en un futuro más o menos
próximo, mientras que el Simple Present describe acciones que suelen ocurrir de forma habitual y
acostumbrada.)
I am taking my mother to the hospital now because she's feeling bad → Estoy llevando mi
madre al hospital ahora porque se siente mal.
I take my mother to the hospital every time she feels bad → Llevo mi mamá al hospital cada vez
que se siente mal.
I take my mother to the hsopital twice a year for a check-up. → Llevo a mi madre al hospital dos
veces al año para un reconocimiento general / chequeo.
More examples:
Where are you going (now, at this moment)? I'm going to School. <> I (usually) go to school every
day to study.
Where are you going tomorrow? (planned event) I'm going to London by train <>I always go to
London by train every morning.
I'm going to change the TV channel to watch a soccer (football) match. <> I (usually) change the TV
channel to watch football matches.
I'm not going to buy a sports car. <> I do not/don't (usually) buy sports cars.
What are you doing now? <> I'm doing nothing / I'm not doing anything <>I don't do anything in my
leisure time.
Where are you going now? I'm not going anywhere <> Where do you go on Sundays?
(on Sundays: los domingos) I don't go anywhere on Sundays.

Non continuous verbs:
to believe
to dislike
to doubt
to imagine
to know
to be
to want
to cost
to seem
to need
to care

to like
to love
to hate
to prefer
to realize
to recognize
to contain
to owe
to exist
to appear
to belong

to remember
to suppose
to understand
to want
to agree
to astonish
to hear
to see
seem
to smell
sound

_______________________________________________

33

to deny
to disagree
to impress
to mean
to please
to promise
to surprise
to taste
to possess
to own

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras

(*) "That" se usa también como pronombre relativo: The car that is parked here
→ El coche que está aparcado aquí.
Examples of demonstrative pronouns used with the relative pronoun "that"
This is the car that John bought yesterday → Esta es el coche que John compró ayer
This is the table that was painted in blue → Esta es la mesa que fue pintada / se pintó en azul
This is the money that was robbed from the bank → Este es el dinero que fue robado del banco.
These are the bottles that contained the wine. → Estas son la botellas que contenían vino.
These are the fish that she has caught. →Estos son los peces/pescados que ella ha
pescado/capturado.
This is the road that was built in 6 weeks → Esta es la carretera que fue construída / se construyó
en 6 semanas.
Those are the keys that she found in the parcel → Estas son la llaves que ella encontró en el
paquete.
This was the knife that cut the cake. → Este fue el cuchillo que cortó el pastel.
That was the wall that stopped the truck. → Esta era la pared que paró al camión
These were the screws that fixed the propeller. → Estos eran los tornillos que fijaban la hélice.
Those were the trees that caught fire. → Esos eran los árboles que se incendiarion.

Note of interest: Omission of "that" in some cases
The fish that she caught was very big (Objective case: Se caught a fish....) <> The fish __ she
caught was very big. → El pescado (objeto) que ella (sujeto) capturó era muy grande.
The fish that was on the ground was very big.(Subjective case) → El pescado (sujeto) que
estaba en el suelo era muy grande.

Possessive pronouns
Pronouns

Possessive pronouns

Possessive pronouns

I

My (book)

Mine (the book is mine)

You

Your (book)

Yours (the book is yours

he

His (book)

His (the book is his)

She

Her (book)

Hers (the book is hers)

It

Its (base is square)

Its

We

Our (book)

Ours (the book is ours)

You

Your (book)

Yours (the book is yours)

They

Their (book)

Theirs (the book is theirs)

(I) This is my house; the house is mine
(You) That is your car; the car is yours
(He) These are his books; the books are his.
34

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
(She) Those are her shirts; the shirts are hers.
(We) This is our table; the table is ours
(You) That is your swimming pool; the swimming pool is yours
(They) These are their pets; the pets are theirs
________________________________________________

Reflexive pronouns
Los pronombre reflexivos del inglés son: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves,
themselves. Pertenecen a una clase de pronombre personal y se diferencian según criterios
sintácticos.
myself (maisélf) - me, yo mismo
yourself (yorsélf) - te, se, tú mismo
himself (jimsélf) - se, él mismo
herself (jersélf) - se, ella misma
itself (itsélf) - se, a sí mismo
ourselves (aorsélvs) - nos, nosotros mismos
themselves (dzemsélvs) - se, ellos mismos

myself (maisélf) - me, yo mismo
I cut myself with a knife. Me corté con un cuchillo.
I painted the house myself. Pinté la casa yo mismo.
Bring me a mirror. I want to look at myself. Tráeme un espejo. Quiero mirarme.

yourself (iorsélf) - te, se, tú mismo.
You will hurt yourself with that knife. Te lastimarás con ese cuchillo.
You have not been yourself lately. No has sido tú mismo últimamente.
Johny, you have to believe in yourself. Johny, tienes que creer en ti mismo.

himself (jimsélf) - se, él mismo
He looked at himself in the mirror. Se miró en el espejo.
He himself prepared everything. Él mismo preparó todo.
He will kill himself with that motorbike if he is not careful enough. (Él) se matará con esa
motocicleta si no va con cuidado (si no es suficientemente cuidadoso).

herself (jersélf) - se, ella misma
She burned herself while cooking the pizza. (Ella) se quemó mientras estaba cocinando la pizza.
She fixed the car herself. Ella misma arregló el coche.
35

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
She took a knife and defended herself. Ella tomó un cuchillo y se defendió.

itself (itsélf) - se, a sí mismo
The bird threw itself into the water. El pájaro se arrojó al agua.
The proposal itself surprised everybody in the room. La propuesta misma sorprendió a todos en
el recinto.
They want to create a material that can repair itself. (Ellos) quieren crear un material que se
pueda reparar a sí mismo (pueda autoreparar)

ourselves (aorsélvs) - nos, nosotros mismos
We put ourselves at risk in that situation. Nos pusimos en peligro (riesgo) en esa situación.
We can finish the project ourselves. Podemos terminar el proyecto nosotros mismos.
Let's introduce ourselves. Presentémosnos.

yourselves (yorsélvs) - se, ustedes mismos
You all can consider yourselves lucky to be here. Todos ustedes pueden considerarse
afortunados de estar aquí.
As you yourselves can see, this has been very easy. Como ustedes mismos pueden ver, esto ha
sido muy fácil.
Girls, don't limit yourselves. Chicas, no os pongais límites (no limitaros)

themselves (demsélvs) - se, ellos mismos
They found themselves in serious trouble. (Ellos) se encontraron en serios problemas.
They themselves wrote the article for the newspaper. Ellos mismos escribieron el artículo para el
periódico.
The boys bought themselves a dog. Los chicos se compraron un perro.

Nota: by oneself (uansélf) = alone (alóun) - solo (sin nadie)
I live here by myself. Vivo aquí solo.
She went on vacation by herself. Ella se fue de vacaciones sola.
_________________________________________________

Tiempos Voz Pasiva
Present - What is done? The car is washed
Present Perfect - What has been done? The car has been washed
Past - What was done? The car was washed
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Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
Past Perfect - What had been done? The car had been washed
Future - What will be done? The car will be washed
Future Perfect - What will have been done? The car will have been washed
Future (going to) - What is going to be done? The car is going to be washed
Future Perfect (going to) - What is going to have been done? The car is going to have been washed
Future in Past - What was going to be done? The car was going to be washed
Future Perfect in Past - What was going to have been done? The car was going to have been
washed
Conditional - What would be done? The car would be washed
Conditional Perfect - What would have been done? The car would have been washed
Modals - What (could, must, should, …) be done? The car (could, must, should, …) be washed
Modals + Have - What (could, must, should, …) have been done? The car (could, must, should, …)
have been washed
_______________________________________________________

Possessive Case (Forma posesiva con " 's ")
the daughter of the politician → the politician's daughter (la hija del político)
the intervention of America → America's intervention (la intervención de América)
the plays of Shakespeare → Shakespeare's plays (las obras de Shakespeare)
This are John and Mary's houses → Esta son las casas de John y de Mary.
Paul's coat was found in Edgar's car → El abrigo de Paul estaba/se encontró en el coche de Edgar.
This briefcase is Paul's, not mine → Este maletín es de Paul, no mío.
All my father's ties are made of silk → Todas la corbatas de mi padre están hechas de seda.
My brothers' new cars were imported from UK. → Los coches nuevos de mis hermanos fueron
importados del Reino Unido.
The army's strategies have to do with spying → Las estrategias del ejército tienen que ver con el
espionaje.
The horse's neck was full of small wounds → El cuello del caballo estaba lleno de pequeñas heridas.
____________________________________
Comparative and Superlative (Comparativos y Superlativos)
Grados de los Adjetivos
Los adjetivos tienen tres grados de comparación.
Grado positivo, grado comparativo, grado superlativo:
37

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
positivo

comparativo

superlativo

tall
alto

taller
más alto

the tallest
el más alto

big
grande

bigger
más grande

the biggest
el más grande

intelligent
inteligente

more intelligent
más inteligente

the most intelligent
el más inteligente

expensive
caro

more expensive
más caro

the most expensive
el más caro




John is tall, but Bill is taller than John.
John es alto pero Bill es más alto que John.
Jack is very tall. He is the tallest man in the team.
Jack es muy alto. El es el hombre más alto del equipo .

Monosílabos

Comparativo
adj + er

Superlativo
adj + est

small
pequeño

smaller
más pequeño

the smallest
el más pequeño

tall
alto

taller
más alto

the tallest
el más alto

young
joven

younger
más joven

the youngest
el más joven

old
viejo

older
más viejo

the oldest
el más viejo

new
nuevo

newer
más nuevo

the newest
el más nuevo

long
largo

longer
más largo

the longest
el más largo

short

shorter

the shortest
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Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
corto

más corto

el más corto

big
grande

bigger
más grande

the biggest
el más grande

fat
gordo

fatter
más gordo

the fattest
el más gordo

Bisílabos

Comparativo
adj + er

Superlativo
adj + est (y → i)

easy
fácil

easier
más fácil

the easiest
el más fácil

happy
feliz

happier
más feliz

the happiest
el más feliz

crazy
loco

crazier
más loco

the craziest
el más loco

clever
inteligente

cleverer
más inteligente

the cleverest
el más inteligente

tender
tierno

tenderer
más tierno

the tenderest
el más tierno

humble
humilde

humbler
más humilde

the humblest
más humilde

gentle
suave

gentler
más suave

the gentlest
el más suave

narrow
angosto

narrower
más angosto

the narrowest
el más angosto

polite
amable

politer
más amable

the politest
el más amable

Adjetivos Largos - Formación del Comparativo y Superlativo

39

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
Adjetivos
Largos

Comparativo
more + adj

Superlativo
the most + adj

expensive
caro

more expensive
más caro

the most expensive
el más caro

modern
moderno

more modern
más moderno

the most modern
el más moderno

beautiful
hermoso

more beautiful
más hermoso

the most beautiful
el más hermoso

elegant
elegante

more elegant
más elegante

the most elegant
el más elegante

interesting
interesante

more interesting
más interesante

the most interesting
el más interesante

dangerous
peligroso

more dangerous
más peligroso

the most dangerous
el más peligroso

Formación irregular de comparativos y superlativos
Adjetivo o Adverbio

Comparativo

Superlativo

good
bueno

better
mejor

the best
el mejor

well
bien

better
mejor

the best
de la mejor forma

bad
malo

worse
peor

the worst
el peor

badly
mal

worse
peor

the worst
de la peor forma

much
mucho

more
más

the most
la mayor parte

many

more

the most

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Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
muchos

más

la mayoría

little
poco

less
menos

the least
el menos

far
lejos

farther
más lejos

the farthest
el más lejano

far
lejos

further
más lejos

the furthest
el más lejano

Sentences with the interrogative pronoun:
What (Qué, en preguntas concretas y como exclamativo; lo que)
What is this / What's this? This is a car → ¿Qué es esto? / ¿qué es eso) Esto es un coche
What is that? / What's that? That is a house ¿Qué es eso? Eso es una casa
What food do you like best? (Qué comida ..........?
What are these? These are some keys (Qué son estos.........)
What are those? Those are some shoes. (Qué son esos..........?)
What was that noise? It was a metal box that fell to the ground (Qué fue ese ruido?
What were the consequences of the crash? None. ("Cuáles" / qué -tipo de- consecuencias...)
What were the results of the test? ("Cuáles" / qué -tipo de- resultados......?
Is this what you think of her? Yes, indeed.
What was it that you ate? Raw fish. (¿Qué fue lo que comiste? <> ¿Qué fue ello que comiste?
I wonder what (qué) happened yesterday.
car: coche
crash: choque, accidente
do you like best?: te gusta más? (what things do you like best about...?: Qué te gusta más de....?)
happened yesterday: pasó / ocurrió ayer
house: casa
indeed: de hecho, ciertamente
I wonder: me pregunto (to wonder: preguntarse; maravillarse, asombrase)
none: ninguna/o/os/as
raw fish: pescado crudo
some keys: unas/algunas llaves
some shoes: unos zapatos
that fell to the ground: que cayó al suelo
that noise: ese ruido
what food: qué comida
you think of her: tú piensas de ella

Sentences with the adverb "where":
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Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras

Where (Dónde, como adverbio interrogativo o exclamativo)
Where is / where's my hat? It's on the table.
Where's the table? It's in that room.
Where's Lucy's purse? It's in her room.
Where is the money now? Don't worry, it's in the bank.
Where are the tools? They're in a box in the garage.
Where are the coins? They are in my pocket now.
Where are Jane's and Roy's houses? Outside the city.
Where are John and Mary's children? They're playing together.
Where was the purse?. It was in her bedside table
Where were the nuts? Which ones? The edible ones?. They were in the kitchen.
Where were the almonds? They were in a bag on the table.
Where was Lucie? She was behind a tree in the middle of the garden.
______________________________

Where (Donde, como adverbio relativo)
This is where I usually sit to watch TV.
He was in a country where people are very kind and sincere.
She was born in a country where human rights are banned.
Here is where all the magic begins.
I found a bar where beers are much cheaper.
Figures that show where benefits may end up.
We want a world where all of us are treated well.
A school where nobody speaks English.
This is a country where the staple food is rice.
all of us are treated well: todos nosotros seamos (somos) tratados bien
almonds: almendras
are banned: están prohibidos
bedside table: mesita de noche
begins: empieza, comienza
behind a tree: detrás de un árbol
coins: monedas
figures that show: cifras que muestran
hat: sombrero
I found: encontré / descubrí
I usually sit to watch TV: me diento habitualmente para vet la tele (to sit: sentarse. V. Intr.)
in a bag: en una bolsa
in a box: en una caja
in my pocket: en mi bolsillo
Jane's and Roy's houses: las casas de Jane y de Roy (individualmente)
John and Mary's children: los hijos (niños) de John y Mary (de ambos)
kind and sincere: amable y sincera
kitchen: cocina
Lucy's purse: el bolso de Lucy
may end up: pueden terminar (acabar mal en este caso)
middle of the garden, in the: (en) medio del jardín
much cheaper: mucho más baratas (cheap + er: más barato/os/a/as)
42

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
nobody speaks: nadie habla
now: ahora
on the table: en la mesa (sobre la mesa)
outside the city: fuera de la ciudad
people: gente, personas
playing together: jugando juntos
purse: bolso (de mujer, normalmente)
room: habitación
table: mesa
The edible ones: las comestibles
the staple food: el alimento principal
tools: herramientas
walnuts: nueces
was born: nació (To be born: nacer -- I was born in 1956: nací en 1956)
Which ones?: cuáles?

Here & There

(Aquí & Allí)

Here is my book / My book is here.
Here are the pencils (that) I found.
All the notes are here, in the drawer.
I have found here some screws that are too small for the door.
I wonder if it is here where they found the corpse.
There is (the place) where I go to have lunch. (nothing to do with: "there is / There are")
I was there at 10:30 (ten, thirty)
They were up there on the mountain. (up there, down here: allá arriba, aquí abajo)

for the door: para la puerta
I have found: he encontrado
I wonder: me pregunto (I/you wonder; he/she wonders; we/you/they wonder: preguntarse a uno mismo)
if it is here: sí (ello, el sitio) es aquí
in the drawer: en el cajón
note (a piece of paper money): billete (dinero)
nothing to do with: nada que ver con
on the mountain: en la montaña (in the house/room; at the station; on the road/beach/mountain/streets)
pencils: lápices
some screws: unos tornillos
that I found: que encontré (to find: encontrar -I found, I have found)
There is: allí es (no confundir con la forma gramatical there is & there are)
they found the corpse: encontraron el cadaver/el cuerpo del fallecido
to have lunch: a/para almorzar
too small: demasiado pequeño/s
up there: alli/allá arriba
where I go: donde (suelo) ir

Sentences with the interrogative pronoun:
Which (Cuál)
43

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras

Generally, "which" is used for selecting/identifying cases (En general, "which"
se utiliza para la selección / identificación de los casos) :
Which of the old cars is yours? That one close to the road sign.
Which of them broke the glass? That guy at the bar.
Which of the cities listed below is the capital of Montana? I don't know.
Which is the best frame, the black one or the white one?
Which of these two women bought the umbrella? None of them
Which one do you prefer? That one over there.
Which of these are yours? → ¿Cuál de estos es tuyo?
Which of them is burning now? → ¿Cuál de ellos se esta quemando ahora?
Which of my cars is the fastest? → ¿Cuál de mis coches es el más rápido?
We don't know which of them was used. → No sabemos cuál de ellos se usó.
Of this three, which is the best? → De estos tres, ¿cuál es el mejor?
Which of the cities listed here is the capital? → ¿Cuál de las ciudades de la lista es la capital?
at the bar: en la barra (del bar)
bought the umbrella: compró el paraguas (To buy: comprar - I bought- I have bought)
broke the glass: rompió el cristal/vaso
close to the road sign: cerca de / al lado de la señal de tráfico
do you prefer: prefieres / preferís
I don't know: no sé (I don't know which is the city: No sé cuál es la ciudad)
I think: (yo) creo / pienso / me parece (que)
it was Ankara: (que ella, la ciudad) fue Ankara
last summer: el pasado verano (last winter/year/month/day: el último/pasado invierno/año/mes/día)
listed here: registradas aquí (en la lista de aquí)
none of them: ninguno/a de ellos/as
of them: de ellos
of these two women: de estas dos mujeres
suffered an earthquake: sufrió un terremoto
That guy: ese tío/individuo
That one over there: ese de allí
the best frame: el mejor marco
the black one or the white one: el negro o el blanco
the fastest: el más rápido (fast + er: más rápido; the fast + est: el más rapido; sólo para monosílabos y
bisílabos)
Which one: cuál

"What" compared with "which"
The word "what" is used in a more general way (there is no selection where to choose
from) ("What" se usa de una manera más general (no hay ningún surtido/selección de donde
escoger) :
What is the difference between atoms and elements? → ¿Cuál es la diferencia entre átomos y
elementos? <> ¿Qué diferencia hay entre......?
What is the creepiest thing that society views as normal? → ¿Cuál es la cosa más espeluznante
que la sociedad ve como normal?
44

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
What is the most dangerous animal in the world and why? → ¿Cuál es animal más peligroso del
mundo y por qué?
What are the main consequences of global warming? → ¿Cuáles son las principales consecuencias
del calentamiento global?
What are the most common names on earth? → ¿Cuáles son los nombres más comunes en la
tierra?
What are the differences between capitalism and socialism? → ¿Cuáles son las diferencias entre
capitalismo y socialismo?
What was the first make of car you owned? ¿Cuál fue la primera marca de coche que tuviste /
poseíste?
What were the reasons for the massacres and the persecutions? → ¿Cuáles fueron las razones
para (de) las masacres y las persecuciones?
What were the last words said by the teacher? ¿Cuales fueron las últimas palabras dichas por el
profesor?
______________________________________

Sentences with the interrogative pronoun:
Whose (De quién, cuyo/a)
Whose car is that? It is / it's his → De quién es ese coche? Es de él (suyo).
Whose cars are those? They are ours → De quién son esos coches? Son nuestros.
Whose purse is this? It's hers → De quién es este bolso. Es de ella (suyo).
Whose money was that? It was ours → De quién era ese dinero? Era nuestro.
Whose fault was it? Nobody's → De quién / fue era la culpa. De nadie
Whose dog was it that bit you? → De quién era el perro que te mordió
The mother whose child was found dead. → La madre cuyo hijo fue encontrado muerto.
The police is searching for a man whose car was found in Barrington Hills. → La policía busca a un
hombre cuyo coche fue localizado/encontrado en Barrington Hills.
A firm whose name was well known in Britain. → Una firma/empresa cuyo nombre era bien
conocido en el RU.
To help a father whose situation is hopeless. → Ayudar a un padre cuya situación es desesperada.
A country whose history is written in blood. → Un país cuya historia está escrita con (en) sangre.
They are men whose lives will be examples to others. → Son hombres cuyas vidas serán ejemplo
para otros.
___________________________________________________

The use and absence of the article "the". (Uso y ausencia del
artículo "the")
In general, wine in Spain is very good, but the wine of this region is excellent. → En general, el
vino en España es muy bueno, pero el vino de esta región es excelente.
45

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
Flour is made from wheat, but the flour in this pot is made from maize. → La harina está hecha
de trigo, pero la harina en este tarro esta hecha de maíz.
Butter is a dairy product, but the butter produced in this farm is the best. → La mantequilla es un
producto lácteo, pero la mantequilla producida en esta granja es la mejor.
Trees are plants, but the trees of this road are ill. → Los árboles son plantas, pero los árboles de
esta carretera están enfermos.
Men are rational animals, but the men of this club are wild beasts. → Los hombres son animales
racionales, pero los hombres de este club son bestias salvajes.
Cats are animals, but the cat on the roof is mine. → Los gatos son animales, pero el gato sobre
el tejado es mío.
People tend to be generous, but the people of this generation are better informed. → La gente
tiende a ser generosa, pero la gente de esta generación está mejor informada.
Rain in this area is seasonal, but the rain that fell yesterday was terrible. → La lluvia en esta
región es estacional, pero la lluvia que cayó ayer fue terrible.
_____________________________________________

The verb "to have" determines possession or obligation.
To have (tener o haber) Negative form

Interrogative

Interrogative negative

I have
You have
He has
We have
You have
They have

I have not (haven't)
You have not (haven't
He has not ( hasn't
We have not ( haven't)
You have not ( haven't)
They have not ( haven't

Have I?
Have you?
Has he?
Have we?
Have you?
Have they?

Have I not? (haven't I?)
Have you not? (haven't you?)
Has he not? (hasn't he?)
Have we not? (haven't we?)
Have you not? (haven't you?)
Have they not? (haven't they?)

To have past

Past Negative

Interrogative

Interrogative negative

I had
You had
He had
We had
You had
They had

I had not (hadn't)
You had not (hadn't)
He had not (hadn't)
We had not (hadn't)
You had not (hadn't)
They had not (hadn't)

Had I?
Had you?
Hah he?
Had we?
Had you?
Had they?

Had I not? (hadn't I?)
Had you not (hadn't you?)
Had he not? (hadn't he?)
Had we not? (hadn't we?)
Had you not? (hadn't you?)
Had they not? (hadn't they?)

(I've)
(you've)
(he's)
(we've)
(you've)
(they've)

46

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
To have in gerund (having)

To have with DO as an auxiliary (British English form for possession and
obligation; obligation takes a final "TO")

I am / I'm having
You are / you're having
He is / he's having
We are / we're having
You are / you're having
They are / they're having

Do I have to?
--- I don't have to
-- don't I have to?
Do you have to? ---you don't have to -- don't you have to?
Does he have to? ----he doesn't have to -- doesn't he have to?
Do we have to? ----we don't have to -- don't we have to?
Do you have to? ---you don't have to -- don't you have to?
Do they have to? ---they don't have to -- don't they have to?

The verb "Have" is used for form "Past participles" (El verbo haber/tener se usa
para formar el participio pasado: yo he trabajado, tú has pagado, él ha mirado, nosotros
hemos viajado......)

I have
You have
He has
She has
It has
We have
You have
They have



been, had, worked, found, gone, lived,
written, listened, talked, looked, put, seen,
paid, bought, read, finished, washed,
taken, become, begun, broken.....and so
on.

I have been in this situation before → He estado en esta situación antes/anteriormente.
They have had little contact with other people → Han tenido poco contacto con otras personas.
We have worked hard to buy this house → Hemos trabajado duro para comprar esta casa.
She has found the key that she was looking for. → Ha encontrado la llave que estaba buscando.
They have gone to London several times. → Han ido a Londres varias veces.
How long has he lived with you? → ¿Cuánto ha vivido contigo?
Has he already written the letter? → ¿Ha escrito ya la carta?
Have John and Laura listened to the news? → Han oído las noticias John y Laura?
I haven't talked to them yet → No he hablado con ellos todavía / aún. (to talk to/with sb)
They have looked at it several times. → Lo han mirado (a ello) varias veces.
Has the boss put things straight? → ¿Ha dejado / puesto el jefe las cosas en claro / claras? (to put
things straight: aclarar, dejar claro)
Have you seen my coat anywhere? → ¿Has visto my chaqueta por algún sitio?
I haven't paid the fee because it's too costly (expensive, dear). → No he pagado la cuota porque es
demasiado cara.
We haven't bought the new fodder for the cows → No hemos comprado el pienso nuevo para las
vacas.
Jane has read the novel and hasn't made any comments yet → Jane ha leído la novela y no ha
hecho ningún comentario todavía.
I have finished my homework so I can play with my friends. → He terminado mis deberes así que
puedo jugar con mis amigos.
47

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
They haven't washed the pickup truck as they had promised. → No han lavado la furgoneta como
había prometido.
The group has taken measures to improve the situation. → El grupo ha tomado medidas para
mejorar la situación.
We have become the first firm in this country. → No hemos convertido en la primera firma de este
país.
They have begun a new campaign to fight poverty → Han empezado/iniciado una nueva campaña
para luchar contra la pobreza.
Mary hasn't accepted the offer to become a partner. → Mary no ha aceptado la oferta de
convertirse en socia. (offer + to become: oferta "de" - para- convertirse <> offer + of a new job:
oferta de un nuevo trabajo).
We haven't broken any rules. → No hemos roto ninguna regla (Sing.).
__________________________________________

To have something done, fixed, washed, etc:
Take a look at these two sentences. What is the difference in meaning between them? → Echa un
vistazo a estad dos frases. ¿Cuál es la diferencia de significado entre ellas?
"I cut my hair." → Me corto el pelo (corto mi pelo)
"I have my hair cut." → Me cortan el pelo (tengo mi pelo cortado)
"I cut my hair" means that I do it myself. → Me corto el pelo quiere decir que lo hago yo mismo.
"I have my hair cut" means someone cuts my hair for me (in this case it's probably a hairdresser).
→ "Me cortan el pelo" quiere decir que alguien me corta el pelo.
We use "to have something done" to say that another person does a service for us. → Usamos "to
have something done" para decir que otra persona nos hace un servicio.

The grammar for this is pretty simple:
Have + object + past participle
Let's take a look at a few more examples:
'We didn't want to cook so we had a pizza delivered.' → No queríamos cocinar así que nos
trajeron una pizza ( tuvimos una pizza entregada)
"I had my car washed at that new place by the station." → Me lavaron el coche en ese sitio nuevo
cerca de la estación. (Tuve el coche lavado en....)
"I had my watch fixed by an expert in jewels." → Me arregló el reloj un experto en joyas (tuve el
reloj arreglado por...)
We can also use 'get' instead of 'had' and the meaning stays the same. The sentences above
now become:
"We didn't want to cook so we got a pizza delivered."
'I got my car washed at that new place by the station.' → Me lavaron el coche en ese sitio nuevo
48

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
cerca de la estación.
'I got my watch fixed by an expert in jewels.' → Me arregló el reloj un experto en joyas.

Future
"I had my watch fixed" tells us about the past.
"I am going to have / get my watch fixed" tells us about the future.
"Going to" tells us about a future plan that has already been made. → "Going to" nos habla de un
futuro plan ya elaborado.
We use "will" for something that has just been decided. → Usamos "will" para algo que acaba de
ser decidido:
I've just noticed how dirty my suit is. I will have it / I will get it cleaned soon.

Questions
Imagine that you like your friend's new haircut; you could ask her:
"Where did you have / get your hair cut? / where did you have it / get it cut?" → ¿Dónde te cortaron
el pelo?; ¿Donde te lo cortaron?
You can also ask: 'Where can I have / get my hair cut?' → También puedes preguntar: "¿Dónde
pueden cortarme el pelo?" (Nota: haircut → corte de pelo > to have / get a haircut)
And as to where your friend's car has been fixed, you can ask: 'Where did you have your car fixed?'
→ Y en cuanto en dónde ha sido arreglado el coche de tu amigo, puedes preguntar: "Dónde te han
arreglado el coche?"

Services for a busy world
As we all live in a busy world, we don't have the time (or skills) to do all the things that we need to
have done. That's why we have a service industry that will help us to have things done for us. → Ya
que vivimos en un mundo ajetreado, no tenemos el tiempo (o las habilidades / la habilidad) para
hacer cosas que necesitamos (tener hechas)
Take a look at these examples:
A jeweller's shop is a place where you can have your watch fixed. → Una joyería es un sitio donde
te pueden arreglar el reloj.
A dry cleaner's is a place where you can have your suit cleaned. → Una tintorería es un sitio donde
te pueden limpiar un traje.
A florist's is a place where you can have flowers delivered. → Una floristería es un sitio donde te
pueden enviar/entregar flores (a donde indiques).
49

Anglès per a principiants. Carlos Mirasierras
A hairdresser's is a place where you can have your hair cut. → Una peluquería es un sitio donde te
pueden cortar el pelo.
A dentist's is a place where you can have your teeth checked. → Una consulta de dentista es un
sitio donde te pueden revisar la dentadura (los dientes)
An optician's is a place where you can have your eyes checked. → Una óptica es un sitio donde te
pueden revisar la vista (los ojos)
A garage is a place where you can have your car repaired. → Un taller mecánico es un sitio donde
te pueden arreglar el coche.

Using "have something done" for bad things:
In all the examples above we have looked at services we can pay for if we want. We can also use
the same expression when someone does something bad to us. → En todos los ejemplos de arriba
hemos visto servicios por los que podemos pagar. Podemos también utilizar / usar la misma
expresión cuando alguien nos hace algo malo / contra nosotros.
For example:
"Jenny had her car stolen." Here Jenny did not want someone to steal her car, but someone did it.
→ "A Jenny le robaron el coche". Jenny no quería que alguien le robara el coche, pero alguien lo
hizo.
'Have you ever had your nose broken in a fight?' Nobody wants to have their (*) nose broken, but it
could happen! → ¿Te han roto la naríz en una pelea? Nadie quiere que le rompan la nariz, pero
podría ocurrir. (*) their, posesivo plural para nobody
________________________________________

Have + been

(Haber sido)

I have been working the whole day. → He estado trabajando todo el día
You have been away for a long time. → Has estado fuera / ausente durante un largo tiempo.
He has been on the black list for years. → Ha estado en la lista negra durante años.
We have been the first to prove the theory. → Hemos sido los primeros en demostrar la teoría.
You both have been in danger. → Vosotros dos habéis estado en peligro.
They have been abroad for ten years. → Han estado en el extranjero durante diez años.

Could + have + been

(Poder haber sido, en pasado)

I could have been a civil servant. → Podría haber sido un funcionario público.
You could have been in Italy. → Podrías haber estado en Italia.
She could have been a poet. → Podría haber sido una poetisa.
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