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employment armor korea .pdf



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I\SSIFIE


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d'R~


OPEUTIONS

ftESEAlICH

OFFICE




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<';F"-.J. ;;g~--, .4'_
2'~_",,. t·,(;.~_

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REPeRT


THE EMPLOYMENT OF

ARMOR

IN KOREA

vOl-LIME

I

"


«. W MQe.OONALO
E. D STRONG

W V{I'IROYEN
L J BREEN
C. BiLLINGSLEA
R w. BRITTAIN
E_A, JOHNSON

DClUDttl flO, AIROI.IJr.{ Imt.:;;:~
OO~ 0:1 ),~~,~~ ~o,:; ~:;'i

Far East Command

UNCLASSI

""'::'f

!

UNCLASSIFIED

'l'\lle dooument cont,ln. in!"ormot1OD

the Natlonol Defense or tb.$
[Jnited s~.te. withl" tile meanlDg or the
<;sploruoge l,S"'s, Title 18, U,S.C" Sec_
arre~ting

tions 79) snd 794. Tt.. transmission or
the revelatIon of lts oooteota 10 aDY
"'"Dna" to an unsuthorized person i '
prohlhited Oy la...

LIBRARY


i,u.,,""

;
1 "~~""'<'N
1M ,,~= ,~hu"".",,'~ "~"!>l .J ~
t~!>"", I." 'H 0"p."m,.~, <>i h~ ;U""~ 0r~'''''''''' RM~,,,d, Oh,,~ ~~
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UNCLASSIFIED
SUllJEGT,

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. XlIi iii£SlWli' ,-

lc Ma,ch 195Z

ORO_R_1 (FECI. "The E"'-plo)"mcn' of Arrroo. on Ko,ea"

I. Thoo he~ctq"""'o,-. nO. ,-~cdv.d ",,-ct ,..v,ew~d con-.rr,"nt. (rom
Army Held FOrce;; .nd in,e,-o.ted D<partonent of the Army a8enc,e. on
'he Opera',on. Re,ea.ch Offoce R.po",. OHO_R_l (FEe). 'The Employ_
",en' Q! Armor;n Korea" and oo" ..dc . . ,hdt .he .epo", provide.
valuable Teference mat. . ,a' w,thon Hoc '<~l'e of ,t. CQv"'~ge. A.
poin.ed out '" the note immed,atel)" pucodonB pangnpn • on page
~ of Yo,umo I ••he 'x ~ ~ oQndu,wns ~ x x
ar< d.,.'vea p<i",arily
hem .he le •• on£ ~n~ -.pe'ience ~[the KO'ean ""rnpO,W' " ~ • -'.
Th;, (act. ". well a. the !"~t .hat .h.,. • • ~,""<.I "pauci.y 0'
aec~r~'. ",focmatwn in <"''',~ f,eld,. should "e .aken ,nto .,,_
count.n orde,- 'n~' tnc report may be PC"p.,,-.y cval"a'~d.
2
The .p~eH,c commen" wh'ch ;ollo.w ~pply '0 the conclu_
sion• ."d . . commendatwn. w",<n a.e p«.<nto";n nu",be . . d p.ra_
~r~l'h. on pages l.o 0; ~{Vol"",. !:
UNDER '~_'C'C'"'>;'IONS"
Fa,aguph 1 _ Whether Qr not convoy ~",_Drt and patrol duties
put "une<ononucol" mileage on tank. " depender.t upon the situa_
ban_ If v,e",ed 'n the Hght o( 3 grave .""",,on, ,ncn <"'p'oy_
",ent o( 'anh ",ay o. "~la"v~ly «onumic.;." The comm,nde,- con­
te"ned on,'" con"de" 'he (acto," tnvolved at .he ""'_ and "'a". the
n.e ••• ary dec '>un.
Pa,as.apn 4 _ The p. . o<nt taOLe a( equipmen' (oc an mian.ry
div,",on ."thoTi~e. L15 med,um tank._ Th" Dumbo< i. con, leered
adequate.
P,,,,g,-aph ~ _ Cu",ont acmo" .,nd infantry (\o"';n~. which h~,
been p.ove<J sound in comba •• preoct-;bes the or~ani.ation of tho
'''''~ _ ml",,',-y team doco,dmg'o miMion. '~rr.m, ",0.
Tn. ,n_
I.n'ry <1ivi"Dn,. .0 o.sanlzed~' 'U p".mit 'he cmplopncn' eo",_
"oned_

-'=­


~

.WlIh iNiWtkbhilL
COpy

UNCLASSIFIED


UNClA.SStFtED

.~

COpy

FrP',
MIX • •hi6iJst1iZ
SUBJECT

L .

ORO_R_! (FEC), "Th. E"'pLo)'m,nt "lA,,,,,,"

,n

Korea."

Pd,agraen b • HaJ Onenov hea,'y d,m", been empLoye" ,n Korea,
'he M_l. clnd ,h. M4AJ wuuLd havo boon dd,n"cl,. odc'ooscd. The
M.lb and the M_46, w,th the" armM and ~'m p.""" SU?""" to th'
of tho M_l4 and M4A', w""l" "ave .'pp""ed,". e<t''',vd, on,,,e
fav,"a"lo

I,",,,.

p",_,£",,,b 7 • The pcio"p,d rca'o". (or exco.',", loS'~"c ond
mainter.anc<" pro"'em' ~.;;ocL'lcd ~·"h the M_l6 anu M_46 tank. were
the rold"ve moxuencnc, o( "pe'dlm~ personnel. ,"c!f<e"ve 0,,1_
n""ce ,upport, ddccts no' p't con-.ded 'n "" M.4&, .'nd tho ee_
""ded ,oaG '.<t.
P'",~,"ph

I)
Th,. e<,"elusion "'.ould~" e<\n.,d"e~ w"h ,be
bnwled"e 'hot the number of KoreQn mme. !~,d co,d" not be ac_
ourat<ly de'orm;ncd
P"'"~'"rh

17 • W,tP,

"e~I,~'hle "~C'p'wn,

and ,,,'c,,,,,y '.m" """ ,\>1"

,p "~'r. 'o",""~'

,"m' "f 'he

P"',"

t.,~k

'~en,c""g

eo",:,",. '"unh",m",", comrr'·'o>c.",O" equlp",.n' w.," ~ld on" ,n a pOO'
"dte "f ,ep.,,". ,nd no du,menting "q,"pmen' w., ","cd '" me,,' 'he
peGu],;" terr"ln condit:OM of Kore". The '''''''ion 'mp,uvd w~en
",on and '~""~r

",,"" '"'" ~e ..· " ...'.

,8 _ The t.mk has .In ,mpor'.ant ,ok ,n the c<>ord;_
na'.~ "n,i_tdnk plan ~nJ, a. ,v,denc~d ,n paragnph 15 of 'h~ ,on_
oIu",on" ;, .ff"t;vo ,n '"at '01,.
me I'~ht ta~k ;' be., ,u;,.rl
for convoy esc.o", and" ,·"n"cio,.d ,ufi:c'"~t:y ,""sf.""ry f<>r
,h,. task ,hot, op"" ..1 ve1>,d" need ,,0' 00 ~o,· .. I"p~d f~, th,s
,,,je pu'po".
P","~r.\ph

.,,.ok.

Pa",,~,.,ph

11 _ YOn"! eV<lw",inn "f 'he cHeel"en ••• o(
c<.u'J-'~"d w"h niSh' v"'~n dcv'ce, C~"M' be m~d" "nt'l devdo?ment
and field te,bng oi .uch ci"v,e," ba, heen """p.ete'

"NDE"

"~ECQMME;N"/l.TION5·

Pangcaph '< _ The 10,,,\,,, H"w,tz", """""ted 0" llw '"~~ was u'cd
;n Wo'l~ Wa' II "nd, "' ., """It 0( 'hat exp"'l<tlCO, h~. ".en >b~n_
d~n.d [or CO'. nigh >,cloo,ty WedPOn.
Sel'_?ropoiloci MlIllc', ".,"
the capab,hty of a"un"n~ the a . . aul< Gun rolo.

,< _

Pa,agcaph
The mob"c an",>cc"ft vch;<lcg PO""" the
stated characte"ot;o" a"d "eveloptnont ~(" op«ial veh«l. 10.
th; • • ole pu'p~,e i. cQn"der<" ""des".!)I •.

UNClA.SS1FlEO

co:py

,npmil 1m 01:&116.1 •

UNCLASSIFIED
SUBJECT:

Oll;O·ll;·1 (FeCI. "The En;ployn;ent 01 Mmo, '" KD<<a, "

Fuagnph 11 _ Dev.'op=enl at p,,"€nl '" lollow,~g two g<n<_
rallinco, Inlrared .. Ioeing con"-d,,ec '0. u,. ~[",",,,,,,afidcu. gun_
" . . . and ~,iv.,", S,",ch hght ~.t"
l"uv;de '''''ct ligh"~~ .."
be.ng ~"vdop<d (," ,n".nation on ,ank 'uno,",

'0

Farag . .ph 19 _ Tho following oq'>ip",ent;. p,e . . ntly
v<lopm<nt:

a. Tan"

~ndo< ~c_

mounted 'O,,~".

d,

Jet min" c]eM,ng devico,

c,

T""k

"'"""'cd

'otMy hoc,

Fa<aRraph lb _ The rroam elf"... '" development of rrom", i, towa<d
,'~on' 'ha' can be atl.med '" th~ noaT 'ub.e,
Th" emb,~c"
<!evelopmenl of ~ la=ity 01 non_metallic, .:,.ped ehacge. anti_lanK
th.".

mm. . w.th ",Huene< fuseo, ,orne of "h,eh w;U be .ui'abl. for u".
,."Ih a meohameai mme pl~nter. lnfluenco lUBe. emploYlng two 0'­
more physical pheno=cna. such as v;b'~'>Dn and m ••. netic [i<ld ••• how
gre~1 promi.e 01 enh~nc;ng ,nh.r~nt capab,Ehe, of .h.p~d ehar8"
""h_lank nunc •. Lcng ••,ngo developmen' " 'nwa.d 'hose ;'em.. I . . .
likely 01 .ttauunen' m 'he n#" futu,e. Auny n.;d Fo<ccs has .ub·
=,tled duft oha<act",.t;c. 01 ~e< .. , omp'.«d anl;_pe"onnel nune.
than can b • • mplaced oy a'" drop, "andard ~r"lle,y, 'Qcket'. o.
"",.t~ ... Activ;,y ," " , . ',~,ol i. ," pre.en, devoted
d.l . . m,n ••
<ion o(IMoibili!y. A, rap;dl\'~' 'he mQre bd"" problem. are
'olyed. ~ICd'er cm~ha"i. can be pl.cod on wh,,' ace~' p,."fit tho
"'",re yisoonary dpproache. 10 'he problem

'Q

P~ •• g",ph

lc • The folLow;ng equip:nent ,. cu"en!1y under de_

velopme.,.,
MddlLic rrome dckct"r, ANIP"'S_3.

o.

MetaL""

~nd

non_rnd-allic rroino detector. AN/PRS·4.

Tank mounted rroine de'ector and er .. d,~ator.
Other de'ector.

COpy

oper~lon"

on

dM~,cnl

UNCLASSIFIED
Jilt 'rtmalO'

pnnc'pleo are

UNClA.SSIFI£D
r:opl'

r':]lih IF uWil64

und" dHel~p"'.nt.

Am,>n~

pr,nc;ples, dna on the

by.,

m,"e.

"'00< ,\ro dotccto," opeut;"g "n aco",,;o
'" U,e eac<h" ,r,,'"n<t.c ,,,,Id ,,'"."~

,.ria<.~"

Re'"a,eh i. unclo< w~) t .. de:ern.ine coe" p<in",v1e, oj mine de·
t«"on wb'ch can 0< u"d tor mine, bur"d", dep"" beyond :he Cdpa_
b,",,"" 0' pc"."t ,,-.,"< ,;o<oc,,,=,.
i?~'a~'dP"

, _ Tank, ,'co p'N",ed on the b""" .. f ,,"",rem<nts,

)"1>< ,"(.<ntcy <:1:v",un" all""",",, 1)0 ",.<l,"", t~""".
on Pdf~~'aph 4 ""der "CONCI..r.;SIONS"I.
P.r.'g,.ph 6 - To""c ,,"" no
t~ ..

"Cm"m.no"","".

CO""''.
(uHill.

de",""ble_

The

(Soo """'mont

r.",. C,,"<I ;n

I'~ht"'t

th" «PMt 'u '"Ppo.t
tar.k. ,ba, ""II dQ Ute )"b. ;, ,,'

T<", to ddte indoca'" ,ho' " mod,~m '~nk 'hat
liktly welsh m exoOSS of 40 ton •.

H~u"ome~'s ~,l!

Pau8raph 7 _ 1, ,. con."k«d 'na! tho proouc_"on 01 taoh
oanno! bo dete,nHn.d on an a"b",~,\· p<o?M'wn"L oa,,", Tanks
mu,' \0, prod ..,,(] dftCr " " oe,<o,","o" '"he Iype .~""v "c"Md ""d .p.
prop .. at" ,abl., of c'~ ..m?adon ar.d equipm.r.t '0 m.'~ ""d eq"'p Hnt
ATrr.y have been developed.
P,".~r.,ph

il _ Such tc~".ins i. c onJo,t<J ~t the 50cvi« ~chu"l'.
and Mrny Fiel" Forc'" aC" Current!, ","dy;n~ way' and mean' 'o~",d
it. ;"-,provemer.t
p""",,'ph 12" 4t1 "".""o·na] "'''''y fle",,", r"r , , , ' , ""o~,ve
exton",ve So,v,ee ,o.tong before thc), are acceplcd •• slanclud eq"'p_
",ent. At an)' h",c tOo"eaft. . . . uch dcv,~ . . aeo _"",hated when it
c""],, e.t>b,,,h<i Ih~t they a« net c",,",b"hng,~ Ihe <vm1tat wo"ho_
"e.. o( to'e veh,de_

LIBRARY
MAY 7 1952

COpy

1,1 REUBEN E, JENKH,S
REUDI':N:,,; J>;NI<!NS
MaJ"" G"n."~l. GS
A •• i.la," Cl"d 0' Star,. C·j

!

-

,

/~ UNCLASSifIED
"EE2lilllJidlGJiIiO

,

UNClASSIFIED


.. ","

."
.-'.'~-

m.'-I

"

C~n.".l


Th. A-j"t'nt
~"i""t"",nt ' f

tlo, Arro,l

2\, ~.c.

A=IC'., A"ist,r.t CI.i.f of

·",.~;"'gto~

1.

Att,"."" h

"OP""\

C,",

St,~[,

,bo"o 3UO;00!.

o.-!.


~roF're;

by

te."

C[""·cicc••

Jl.oe'roh Coffie. (c-;::), 1,,- >aol '00."....".0. ,ou:t :1,) ,;V,""" OO,Le' 0:
the ",prt ",ro tor.orecd to ~'rorto,"r.' ' f tOo ""Ii '"ithout ~o_nt 0.".
22 July 19,1. Or." "=c.r,," '"0 fift)· (150; oopi", of
rop0,-t '.,ve
""or, 1",,_i.,",0 ;p,ntioo, ... ,.-""" Q!h,c, D"rort",,",t. 0' '" n'C>, b:
tr." Qp."UOfl, ,~o,e-rcr, 0ffio<, I ,"lao< "'":II"b~d. ic"" {~, ,Jv,noo ilo­
fo"""tior. 00",,_, '_vo ,no" sent to te.O Wor Cffico, Lw_"~r., ,nd \,'~ (2)
.dv,noo 11'.fo,"o tiQn 00,10, to n· Lof"n.e !'.Poprc" E"r", (.Md" 0;'

",t.""

c"';.,,,"".

th~ OW'''''''-'' ~..."o'",r. OUico, For ~.,t
]:0 0,1',,, d,o!r!t"_
tion ~" bo"n .a~, cubid, tho f " 50s! COlmll'r.d nor ;, '"l' ,o"tcc"hh~.

2. Thi; ""port h pooH.""d ir. two .01""0' ,nd '0"0"" th, pc,!od
1 ioly 19,0 to 8 A.odl 1951. Thi, 1-tt<" r'nc~s 'Ici,~- I ,,<\ci Co'l(; s\'ff
!:"oo",n<1"", O".S/W":"I, ", f",,.t :;0. J, "0' ;'led "Po, l.Odic !reor ".",ort"'
(6 .1!'ril _ 10,,..".0 )',',1), ·.-hE" is • ,,,.,,,lo~~".t to Vo!u.,., t. ,elu,"' IT
i. n'_" iM1ujed iT. u i . r'"",. sino" in'~rlL,tion ,_ont<Dooj '"0" in i,

E.. ,".U,l")' scp"crc;np,

d,'.

~or

Vol""" r.

3. 11>1> ,'port b • cor..pooo-noi,· ,oJ v,l~",lo ,,,.. :,.;. of tr.e
o",,;':',T£nt of "'ro" '-~ ~O".". :t "100011 to 0:
vol~o '0 'p­
"ropd••' . "hOol,. 'cords, 'no ot~er
OC'_,,"O',- -,st~ tt_, '"Hc.,
tcclviiooo 'nJ L0riot~"1 "CPpo,.t or 'r"",".

'"0_"0'"'

F",h"·:,,

4. C0,i" o~ cc~=o,. olh""d ("o~ ,olccJli,,'. co"",."';, 'M ,';ff
.'ctioo' of 'ili, hc'dq"'rtors hAve 0.." f\',ai.hoi! to the Dirocce" O,ar"_
'1"," 'ko',rch O~~io", F" Eo.t Ootnr..."L

UOClASSIFlED


----

,,

UNClASSIFIED
AG JSl (10 ~cp ,l)GC-O, 5utj:
rc..., C'iO-R_l (ITe)
5.

S!o-ci~ie

"""""nt.

~n

Roport

Q~

tho """'lO)'mcnt of

th- cor_clu.'-on. ,nd

It.' r(]port " . pr"cntd ill Inolo,,,,,"o 1.
\, ,tt<oo<o ooro,ito .s rn',o,cre <.

.~

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of

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C. c. H. ;i;..~1
4 hol'
;. S?ce,-nO :o=nt. _ CfiO_~_l (,~G)
COl~h,l
ACC
Adjut.,.t
Oo,.,,,.l
<. ~r"t. Sb " _ 0"0_,_1 (i"'C)
J. ClOCl_'_: (F3:), Vol. I, e 'rr ,1, Cop,' .i'l7J

4clISj¥.o,-, Roper' '10. ), 2a .'un 51, COl'"

4. C·:.")_R_l (F"\C), Vul II, 8 ''''' 51, Cory ilZ)

Q..n
UNCLASSIFIED

t

.I:

SPEClFJC

~

_ OiC-1I-1 (FlOC)

Follo"illg ,ro .o-<1fio ,o_nt. by tho Co_nrl",,_in--Chicf, For <:>.t
Qn "c.' cno"luoion, ond r,co=c"d,~io", ,r ,,"Joot ro:>ort, \',1= I.

,.

'n

p,", 4, P'Il<' 2. Th~ pr",ent t,elca Of o"gmi,,'io., for
In[,ntry div",ioo • .teeri," 1]5 ~'nk,. 'fr.i, i. ccn,l1,rco '"""u'to.
::. •or. 6, ""go 2. Tho rcl,t.\vdy ."~'"ior pcHor""noe ",oed.
tho """ .od ;"oj, t>n". "ro d~c t< COe f, ,t t),·,t l',;istic 'od 1& in_
t,n_no, 'C'PFcrt t·.''''' "cr_, bott.. '"ir.'d to h.nol, thc<" typos "r.d co­
ploco,,"nt l'°rt, ·.'oro _~°i.l_blG in voc"r cueotiu" i.~ cO"",,,i,,,,p. "
toe 11.46 °C.~ lao typ'.o. Th,;rs A,1IIY h,. h,d r_r wo-tor ""."ric"".' ~in.
the' I.IUJ or'" 1<24 ~'nks thofl with th' 1146 And 1126.

or

3. P"r .. ?-f!, pogo <. SIn," tc.l.' r~po't, 10:0.1·'0;,,1 f"lure, _r.d
"",ink"'no. probL,,-, t.'''o ~o"" ""tori_ll.y rodu'cd b] tho ..... h,l ~f M"
equip""nt ,nd b7 tho 'ddit].OIlol .,,. .. ieno. g·inod by u'iII~ unit ••
4. ?,r, 11, P'"" 3. I!o"l' unit. "xpre&w! on opinion thot tee
JH for ~".u'lUc. ro,u).ti«g r""", C""''V !DiJl~. ~,. too ,on"rv·tiv".
i. eonoidorcd lho~ ,hb figor, ot pr,"cnt is do"r to 75%.
5. <'ro 11., P'S' 3. S.v,r.1 u.'lih ~UoSHM tho "Hoot].v""o.. of
n'll•• iIlco I¥'''Y '.oe,,", ."IlJ\O' arc o\cried <l foct or ilwpor. Th, o.irI"

o>plodor, fIB), i, too c""boroo"," to cpor.\..o on """t of to"

~o.d. 11\

Kore ••

o. P.,," 17, p,.go). :u..c",,",ec.cnt oont;"'~,. in oO",,,,.,.>1o.',ioo.,,
ro,ol.t of b.ttlcti'.ld _oriC""O, troini.n~, ,nd tk '"SI'" ' f 'd#­
t\or.• l r.din
',hieh .,~ "P"~lc of rdioblo o.a,Uan eVe" oxtcnded

no

r·".~

•.

"t.

8. P,", 10, pogo 4. It is 1l."1d.r,tC«l t.'\At the <Iove.lep",,"" of •
lig;,t or",,~od "chicle 'mbodying the p<l.~oip1e, ootlih<d is ic. prcgo. .,
'\hI. v,hiolo b _cn ". the "Still!l!>"" oM ~o""ts tou!" c'libo, W ,",od.ne
gun. ill • t"","t cio,ilP,d for ",,\u'\\,i".~ in _ m1iflod 141 liVlt t'ok
et."ol.••

10. p.,., <'>, p•. go 4. S,t~"H"" of .,.~., ,,<to by or""" fore,," wl.th
.......t"_1·1~ ,~t1-t'"1< =-l.r.o. ~".., b, ir"pr>otie.t ill. """!" •• tu..tioo, boo,u,~
of the p.oyohclo,~o.l ,,,d "hyoic.l ho",r<! to :.iono1y troop• • Muld th, ••
or•• , "" 1,tor r"coOUl'icd. ".-cOOl.""od contlnu~j rcoo_roh ,.".; ",p11'1o of
toe p.obl.,. of ro='o loth"l ",.iII.', ""p'.biG of ,.li_,t~r>l.i",t'Dr.•

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itl!Alltll
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t,;;;.

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lk1<'''' :, J. 'trur,t C 1it1:i"l!~:u, E. A,

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fI... ~""d.

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"""~.L>'
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"""~"'n" 1,;P'"-<'Af:o: [.

1'1>0 loud, ct e!;o> np¢ot Ut lArge11 ,,,¢­
"""",,,", rt!h """'.Of "e~h<i~! duM.,.g t"", 1'<',.106

1 ,full 1950" to n "-"""""Y l-55J, A<-tl.-H1-=­
two.v ?l J",,~"'7 195} -!U)d il Ap'U 19" i .
\>t'l.tlr <It ••,,.. e~ til t.pp"tlO-U7 or ApP6ndlx I.

~

~

h, ...,,,""

l'fVI""lh~~ ,.toh tc "~PPUB t""j~ app",,~_
1a~1"'" or tho!t h_lpful .o~~ .. ,.atiQ...~ and .... ht"""~"

~~9n~

'<>7 C~l~""l Wlni"", ll:. lOith<>r~ (i\J:'O!~ ..
COl'" ".",M-r. or ~~
Al'M"",d 1Jr\lh op..... t!..ng ltlt11 tho Etg.".th ~.
(l1'fle~l', US E1~hth """"'")

1) llay

l~'jl

I

,


CONT£~"T3

l"o..... ord • • •

• •
Summ.ry • •


• •


Pro~l& .. •


• •

• •

Faot • •




• •




Dheuulon
• •
• • • • • • • • • •
• • • •
Conel".1on. • • • •


• •

R. e""""endat Ions

• •

• • •

Problem • • •


F oet..

• • •
• • •

• •
Dhe~ulon • •
• • •

• •
TaoUod &lploYlWnt of Friondly Ar:oor • •
• •

Tank units in Kor.e • • •
• • •
• • • • •
• •
Taetieal Employment or Ene~y Armor • • • • •

UlI Tank Cu"alt1u




Nort"-Korun Tonic Cu~altl.. • •




Tuftlc~l>ll1ty and TerraIn

••
• • • •

Tank_rnroontry Te.."worlr a..~d C"""unlcatloos • •


Cold Weat"er Operation • • • •


• •
IIdnt.n.noe and Loglatle Suprort ••

• •
R.eo..... nd.Uon. and Suggutlon. fro", T""~
• •

Conolu.lons • • •

• ••

• •
Re cO!IE1ondatl ons




• •
Al'pendl" A:
Armor ';I'o.rtore in tt>o Eight"
In Korea.
Pro~le.. • •


• • • • • •
• •


rae t. ••




Diacuulon

• ••
••
Conolu.tcn • •
• •
• •


R.commend~tlon. •
• •
• •
• • •

APP"ndl" a: Employment or A"",or in X Corp. • •
• •

Introduction • • • • •
• • •

• • • •
Ot-lg1nal C""'l'o.1tlon of Unlh


Erc~lo:'fll!~nt of Tank& • • •


• • •

• •
TrU'!'1oob1l1ty • • • •
• • • •
• •


Tm.k Ce.u.. lt1u • • •
• •

• • • • • •
Tank_Infantry Te_ork • • •
• ••••

O,.,ration of Tank. In Co1~ ... ather
• • • • • • • • •
1I!~lnt~n8noe and T.og1stl~ Support


• •
Gr... ~&c"""'.n<\etion$.
• ••
• • • • • • • • •
Annex 1, Unit B.....kdo"" of X Corp. c .. uUtl".

Up to 1 January 1951

• • • •
• •
• • •
Annox 2, spo.re part, for Tanlc. Received by

lot Tank Battdion (liarin... ) In Korea •

Append.l" C: TActic. of A""or_rn~ontr-y_Art11lery 1n
the Kor.~n Thoater • • • • • • • • •
• •• •
• •

"74
76

• • • • •






• •
o

0

0

0





• • • • • • • •• • •












• •





0

0







• • • •



• •



• •

0





• • •

• • •
• • • • •


• • •
0





• •



~f·~t:;r;og.t!~·o; ~.
011 -rMk




0







0

0

0



0

wur.,... ..
0



0



0

0












• • • •
• •


o • • • •




• • •
• •



• • • o.
0
0
0
0
0
0

• •



• •
• •
Cocuaoo 3:rs te ..
• • • • • • • • • • • •
Tactic. • • • • • • • •
• • • •

Tbo oUtaok ••




~.oult.
Opo~atlO11

• • •

C""",,omt • • •
• •



• •
J.ppe<1dix a: ~ank So.t~al1on CO<mun leatl On.




• •



of

ln~~o<tuctlon

•• , ' •

0



0

,

••












• • • •
• • •
• •

• •

••••

• • •

,.,.
, ••••••

~ec_ndat1on.
..,
"',.

Annu I: Tank Co,,.,,,mlHtlon Quutlonn&I~. and

.An.... rs
.• , •

Outline SpeoU'1e Q Uo"o Q!' Hdio S.h
Appendi%
Employment of Land ~!ne5 In l\orU
Summa,.,. • • • • • • • • • • • •
• ••••••
Probl.m , .
••••••••••
••
Introduction
•• •

OS lIiM Opol'atlon~
p,.OpO•• d Innovations In lIin& Dellv6ry • •

Conoluolon..
• • • • • • •


• •
Hoeo_onda Hon,
•••••••••
••



- .. "

0

Anne1 1:

"

4,

.,"





Exehonge Rate:



Snemy



••

~in~.

, .

• •



• • • •
• • • •






Dloou .. lon , ••

0



• •
• •







,,~::::~::~;::::,,;',"' a~d Inr~ tl"l'

• •

• •




o




• •






'0

• •
• •










and US








Ca.uo.ltlu.
••••

••

Ene",y 111M. and 1!1n" DpusH"". •
Vie . . of Reapon.lble Poroonnel on Lond·
lIiM U... !n Ko,..,&

Pe~aonnel ond TrainIng
Supply and hp.nd!t" .... or !Ant! ~Ine'
In F'llC



• •
Uoe of ~8l'th A"gor~
E..ph .... "'.nt •
• • • • •


• •

'"

'"

-'.nne" 7' SPe..,. Blnplo,...""t or Lo.n<!. Wine. In ~or. . . . •
App8n<!.h: J, lkIehWtloe1 fIolUbll1ty on<l Combet Zone FUo1
Logl_ttcs of 1JII TWtk. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
!.hllllll"",

• • • • • •


• •
!'rQbl. . . .
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Fseu • • • •
• • • • • •

Ph."uion • •

• •
C<mc lU8i"".


~oeo"",ondatlon •

Appendix L, Ropo<t on
to S April 1951 •

• •
lntroductlon
• •
• • •
D(,ouu1on
• •

• •
Conclusion.




6tl~ fr~ ,~

• • •
• • •



• • • • •

• •

• • •
• • • •





hrlod 21


• •
Jon.,....,



• •
••• •


••
••
• • • • ••
•• • • •



• •











• •
• •
T ""k Cuua1 tiu



• •






""
",
,eo
",
'"'"
".
'"",

I',

'!'Ables ""d Plg"rea
T.h1e lA, Eighth ~
Authorhod strongth
Ot~r

'Jnlto

COrp8






• •

Organ1.atlon and
• •



Auth¢rl.~d

roll owing
.tollcrdng

••
• • (ollowlng


Strength

StNongth of











• •

US Ton~ C••.,slt1u to 11K Ilineo
X Corp. T""k CU,,$ltles Up to
cal 1'80:1
Brukdown
;;'f;;~::O:";::':";il 1951
• • •
1:

Unit











urn

of X



"

"
"'5

""
""

""
""
""
"'5

,.

~JI!!.

""t1.. , "I: utn_ lIit..""i>g.taJ • •
lbtl"l'"t.,M., «tH:. III b.".,,,• • •
_ " " 1 ; . t "Nt ",,,",,,,,,6 ,*""T'>~
1 "00 lX Q".". ¢u...ltu# V; t~

.

p,

. .1.Af4. .1t . . . t.•• . . . . .

t,





"

c,,~.

u.)t1~.

1'/5t> ""'" :n .U\~u'S 11''' •.
Pl !<arU: l';"...."., 'f4 1'''til< to...... •
'f, 16_ st a"" Ci.,.ahu,$ "


,6,

....
, . , ... , ...... ,
stg;,n JoNr ••, x """".
....
1',

U$ _ " "

;:;",~.hl"~ (':\:}y"

~u

l u.,~

• lr'

!\1:wcr ~~u. t~ lIi""~ s.t."... ""'"

,,8

... . ., . .. . . ., , . ..
"=MM<i Jj4 _

"'"

'"
'"

Sf 7{, LQ . .'U'

2. lH~'c"'''·A..''''r 4".:l r-Z,rl'"
"J "'!.mi• • • • • • • • • • • •
2, eu,,,,lt1-,," ""'" L~.~u ~~

.., . .,








'"
",
'l'
i.!

• 2~6
• 251

2n

• •

• • • 'I'




Y,

:r",,1c.

-


,::-,

. .. . . ... . ... . . . . , •
.......
, ........ .
lM.au""
t>ifl'n.nt
o"".""'~t!~~

t"~

• • , ••••••••.••••••••••••

m
,'le,"
sil

'"'


""

,"

Table VI. Appe~dh J: Mor.th!:r Co,t D1J'fuenttals on
Shipping T42 Tonks u Com,,,,,.ed with M46's • • • •

Ta,lo VI!. Appendix J, Fuel Con~umed p.r )(onth ~y
1200 T""k~
••••• • • • • • • • • •••••••

Table nIl, Appondix J: Difference in Fuel Con ..... d
in Six I!ontl>.. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• •
Table n. Appendix J: T8.nk.... R.quired to Supply Fuel
Diff.r.ncBs for Six )(onth, • • • • • • • • • • • . ••
TaM. X, AppendI" J, Tank Ca~, Requi... d to S~p~ly Fuel
o:fr.renC6. for Six )(on~hs • • • • • . . • . . . •

Table XI, Appendix J:
Truck. ~equir~d to Sup"ly To\>~l
Dlfto" ....... for-'Six M~th• • • • • . • . . . . . •

1"0)6 XIl, Appendix J: liumber or F_Jo' ~ O!"'lHUd rrom
Fuel Smvingo • • • • • • • • • . • • • • • • . . .
Table XIII. Appendix J, EXce •• !.og!et!eal R6qu!"'~~n"
Over Six_llonth Fe"!e>d In E,'uropun The~te!' • • . • •
T~bl~ 1, A?pondlx L:
Tanx Cu"oltl. . (Kill.) • . . .
T"ble II, App."dix L: Cau,.. of M.ot.• nioOl Fan""" by
Typo • • . • • . . . • • • • • • . • • • • • • • •
8_11
!'hotograph. of UN ond NK Tonk~ . . • • • . • • • • • •
Figure 1, Appondlx A; 3~latl"" l'requ6rocy of Occu!'eence
of a Glven Oponlng R""6e
••... . . • • • . •••
P1~ur. 2, Appondix A,
frub8b!l:~1 ~h.o~ the Oponln~ Rang~
will ~e IAu than tOo GIven R<mge • • • • • • •
!'Igur<> 1, Appendix It US .nd NK Atmor St!'<On,o:th • • • .
Figure, Appond!.I 1, Annex 2: E".... y )(("e nelda
In .( Corp. A""o • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

!'igun, Appendix I, AnMX 2:
EMnty S1"acl &nd Platoon
J(1nofl.ld Fat"'"n• . . . • . . • • • • • • • •

F'1gu~., Appondl~ I, Ann$" 2:
H~~~rt.d Min.fleld
PUte~o. Uood by NKPA .
• • • • • • •••••
Figure, App.ndix 1, Annex 2; &ne",y Bo" Mlne . .
FII'Ure, App.ndH I, Annox 2: ~odlf!ad TVD-O \line ao
Ussd by NKPA , • . • • • • • • . . . . . . . . .

Figure, AppandiJI: I, Anne 2: North Ko!'.an 1~.p~o~!ud
Anti?e,..onneJ "1no • . . • . . • • . . • • • • • •
F!gure. Appendlx 1, Annu 2:
POMZ_2 AP MihB • • • • •
Figu~., Appon<ll" 1. Ann.~ 2:
Oh'nose [",?N,v(,ed Mlne
• '19
~il<U!'~ 1, Append!x I, Annex 6:
A&rial Photo~r~ph ~f
g~rth_Auger Plan •• Along MSR
••• . •••.••.
FIgu..... 2_6, App.ndlx I, Anne~ 6:
E"rth AUBer onct us
E~perlmentol Mine EmpHoet1lento
•••••••...
271
f'~gure 1, App6ndl~ J:
Doll .... g Sav.d Per Yonth ':>y Shluplng
T-42's in Pl.c. of )(-46'. v •• I!onth~~ DO)!vo"Y Rato • •
r(~u~. 2, App.ML~ .1:
hn~ ·,';.lght !~ 'l'ons v~r",s r; . . ~l'n.
Gon.ornpt(on !n G~llon. ?e" Mll. . . . . . . . . . .
PlI';urs ~, Ap?ondlx J: Holl Tsnk Cor. ""d 2-&.ton 'rl'Uelt~
Re~ul~ed to ~oV6 "00 D:rrol'ence !n Puel Bet"een M1JA)'.
""~ \'-1,6'.; and T_~2'. ~nd M_~6' •••• ~an~ ~11"" p.r
\!onth • • •
. . . . . . . . . . . .

'"
'"
'"

'"
'"
'"
'9'

'"

'"
"
","

'"
m
,"
",
,"
",
"S

r

,,"

'"
''"

....... .. .
vii

,,'

FIgure 4. Appendix J,
1I"",~e~ of F-80 ?lillie. 'I'~.t CIlII be
O~~.hd On the DHf.renoe In Fuel Bet_eon

111-46'.; IlIId

T~2'.

114"". _

and 111-46'. vo. T..... I< l!l1$O h,. l!<>nth
Tanker., Ran C..... and 2.i_Ton

Flgu,.., ,. Ap""ndl1 J:
TrUCk. R.qul~.d to l!O?& ~ho Dltr.r&noe 1" Fuel Boot.... n
N4A". and N-46's; and r-l,z's 4nd 111-46 Tank. Tho
number of F_80 Phno. '"'-10h Can ~e F1""" on 'I'ho~e
Differ.no. . In Fuo"l.

90.

T ..... k IItle.

p""

,,111


Month • • • • • •

"

......

,

UNCLASSIFIED


PROIIJ""

The p:<'obleOl 10 to eval\UlU the e"'lllo)'lllent of ;,rO)Qr 1n Kore.. ,
conclu.lon. th~refrom, a"d to reco1lll!l~nd logistic action
to iOlprove the eftectiven~.s of armor.
to

dr~.

FACTS
TIl~

ot

tan~.

terrain and roadn@t of Korea precluded tile eOlplol'l"ent
In the 1IlaIlner ot the aules "hlch operate<l in w.stern

Europe and North

~trlca.

Light 11124 tan~. w~!'e the only arn>Or ava1J.able for com.,1t­
ment to combat at the outbreak of the Korean campaign.
Tbe medluOI tank unit • • ent to reintorce Our ar~r arrived
and entered combat in ~ugust 19;0, equipp"d dth 1141.3 1126, and
M46 tanks. British Centurion, Churchill, and Cromwell tank~
arrived in Tfovember 1950.

DI3CUSSIQH

UNCLASSIFIED


ARMOR IN KOR;lA

S1"ce the ~u"'l>.r of Bt";l.ish tanK" co""Ht~d -a. f ... i" eo",~
"ith tbe number of u:-, tanl,,! th~ concl""ons aod reco1ll_
IIlond&tiO(l' of this report are Idrgp y bas~d on nxp<c1enc~ with
US tank5.
PH1'O~

CO~Cl!!SIO'IS

Note, TM conclusions rrade hece1n .C€ der1".-d prirIl8.rlly
fro", ~h~ lo,.ons and exppri~nce of th~ Korun camva1g". In &
",UHary oporat1o~ of a different cr_drdcter, oertain of the.e
oQnelu.io.~s ""Y not be applicable or ~ay hav~ to \)~ ~.terl"lly
",o,J1fi~d or <tltHed.

1. c'~ ta~k" havp
the Korean op~rat1on.


b~on

"sefully and effectively

~myloyed

in


2. tho t~,..,.a!n ~neo~nh".d )" Koru 11lllit~d the mus e"'ploy~
...nt of hnks on a ..tde front &0 wa. """",,On In E~rope o.nd !.tr1c••
,. I'rhUe terrain ha, denied the fullu~ u.e of armor. "r"'Qr
has b$~n .uffic!ently ""rs ..tn~ to Berve In ""'ny <llfr6 .... nt eapM_
lttu. Som6 of the .... s~oh . . conv")' escort and ?otrol d~n . . .
ha-.e p~t t'<>""Y and ~n~oo~o"'lc ..l ",110'<':6. on tho tan~ ••
4.

On t~e basis of Korean experienoe. so~e 150 ta"'~' ca.~
"mptoy@d by each infantry 11,,1<10". @nn in ,"olmt.-.ln­

,,~~r',Uy
OIlS tHuin.

he

5. rb.. use a.,d nu",~ar of a'$ip~d ta~ks .hould h rlex1ble
depending on the team mis.ion. The rru~"r ~y vary from a t~~~
pJ.atccn per 1nfantry compa~y "hen the ca.pture of a 11!oit~d ol)~
jectJ.ve against nort:Jdl oppo.1Ho~ i. lnvclv"';. to one tank co"'~
pany per ~nfantry OQ~pany wnen tho capture of a ~t5tant obJeotlv€
against hpavy oppo.ltlo~ I. lnvo<vpd.
6. On tho nU1. of th@ir o"er~all p~rrl}r","""ce and OU<lal.ty
rate., and con"ld~rl"g t~eh advanoed "'~U of "",c~anical develop­
"'~nt. the M4A3 ann M24 tarLl<, .e,~ b~.t suit~d for u •• 1<1 Ker....

7. Mediu.. ta~\<. (i.e •• 1!46's aod l!26',), while aclmittedlY
powerfu, and @ff.ctlve ~e~p~n., ~e~e a v@ry SeriQU~ logl.tl0
and rna!nte~ance pro"l~rn in Korea.
v~ry

8. M~onanical failure. &~Qng all typ~s of tanks In Korea
were @xtre1llely high.

9. On tho hasi. of 11rn1 t.d evioenc~. aJ.r attack aeeoUilted.
for 40 peceent or all oaemy tank losses irr Korea, a~d 60 peroent

or ul en.....v tHU losse~ o"nBe<! ~y UN ''''''pol!8.

10.

On the Oa,is of limited evidence. napa11ll n. the most

dr .eapon thus far .JS~<\ to Itorn.


~ffectlve a~t1tank

,

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4. Impron tho quality or oe..,,,mleUlon. b.t..-n tanh lind
infant ..y by IMproVe"",nt or "qUI""..nt and traini"g.




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5. Procure ... dl"", tOUlk. at 0 rat.. that .111 provide about
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to tne r<>qulreTllents ro~ annored dIvhlon••



-S. C _ <II! ... <11"" '35 t"" WtI: for ",..,••nt US pcoduc' ?Tt, 0_,>'\"
take od~Ollta~Y I." lower log'..t.;I.o .. l .upport ... q"'-~.""'n'" .nd, •• eo",;>ared
t.o tn. ~Jh, ito JO perc.a< ,~v\ng In ,teel.

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limitation. of each member in tho Infantry_Omlor_air ... tllh..,. t".....
(Jene.... l

Give oal.id.ratlon to .l1m1nation of all devloe. of
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p:r~htI>H.~ by 1<>...
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I

TIlE EllPLOl:MEllT OF ARMOR IN KORI!.A

PROBI-E M

Th@ pronl@~ is to evaluate the @~loyment of ar~or in Kor@a,
to draw conclusions thenfrom, and t~ recollllll@nd logisUC a~t1oll
to improv~ the @ff~ctiveness of armor.
FACTS
Th~ t~rrain aoo rDadnet of KOI'"ea precluded the e~ployment
of tanh in the mann@r of the a"",io-s which opHated io westHn
Europ~ ancl Qorth Africs.

Light W24 tanks Were the only armor a~ailaole for
m@nt to combat at the outbreak of the Korean ¢a~palgn.

CO:r.Jll1t­

Th@ m.<l1um tank unn • • ent to reinfo"ce our a!'O<>T arrived
entered eo..bat in AUgu.t 1950, equipped with 1.!4A3 11126, and
M46 tanks. British Centurion, Ch~rchill, and Cromweli tanks
arrived in Novemb~r 1950.
~nd

DISCUSSION
Ta~t:lcal

Emp1.oym ••~t of

Fr1e~dly

Armor

Tho opiI\10.' he'.d by many in Olilitary oircles prior to the
attack ~y the North Kor~an5, tnat the ~€rrain of Korea pr€c1.uded
thp u •• Qf tanks, ..as COrrect in the """,~.r in which tn@y were
probably thln~lng. Thp emploY"0nt of armor in great f~ree to
destroy and .catter the enemy, in the ,tyle of t~e GerOl&n army
:In 'h~ USSR, th~ oppo.lng forc~. i" ~orth Africa or thp Allies
in .. ~.t~rQ Europe, wa. def1nitely ~enl~d by th@ ierraln and road_
n~t.
How~v@r, a. the North Korean army ~"mOn5trat"d, th~ tank
Can oe pNf1t.aoly eOli>loyed eVen Wlci.er the ¢onditio[ls 1OlpO,ed oy
t'.e g.ogupny or the country.

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'I'AC'lIC.4L EIIPLOlllElI'r OP I'lIIEIIDLY AHMOII
the to,.,. ot emaIl t... k

ror~u

organl .. d around a Unk unit,
made long .trik&. Into tho enemy
nus .lth con.tdero.hle 'U~Moa (aee AppendLt CJ. The . . opere_
tionA e.xtend.. d trom tho hktong River up to the pooHio". o~ tho
Eishth 1.... y north ut PyoDgJang, prior to the .tta~k ot the
ChInne Oooa"nl.t !i'oroeo &h""t24 Iio?e..ber. Till> exhtec"," ot ""Y
oppreciahle armor io the po••••• lmo or tho en.~ ended hero.
uou~lly

ot

~ompany oi~e,

~rmor

On tho .t:her Iwld, the X Corp., .1thd .. nlng trom tho InohoD_
Se""l area and londlng ~.I" at: ~on.an, employod t:heir tank. on
oxt-nol" reoOJlDdaoon ......11:. . . Intolltry_oupport 1'• • pon•• .and
. . dl ..101on&1 ""d 00l"l" ""UrT<II. in tho II' op.ruiona to the north
and northeut ot Wo"un. LltOl. or no ene .. y a"",or .... eneO'Uoh,..,d
durin" this pertod ~"d Unk unlta ",o...d up to tho Yalu 1\1'08" at
Jlyo"",jln and arOund tho ChO.l" Rounoir loee .l.ppendix B).

the .ltl>d......1 ot
• 'llloo tub tor
and includ.d tlloo

'M



In.uttiolect eon­
( ••• .l.ppoondLt <;).
Thb pilau . u marked by ntromoly aggre .. i,,8 e"...y In.tantry
aoUon. Ther. aro a nUlllber ot in.tanoe. reported ot tntOllt:ry
attAcking tank. at elooe range .hlln t&nk~ found thl>moelvu .out
otr er de.er~od by our
ouppor~1~g torce..
I.t
or more
tanb .0.... preunt to provide mutu&l .upport, the . . enemy action •
..... . . ldo", ..uo .... ru1 and ure u~udly very co.tly. Tho ... ctle.
employ.d agatnat thl> t .... k. canod tirat t= 0 hony ooncentratlon
ot omon ...... ~ t i .... on the tank to attompt to knock ""t perhcopea •
....dl0 anhnnao, ""d uterna1 ..ut01ll&tic 'eaponA, &nd tllu. blind
thlo o~e. &od prennt the., t",., erfeotlvely tlght1~g th.lr .... hlo1•.
Clon·1" attach ..... tbon ...d. to d"",aso tho tanko dtl> pole or
... t.bOl .hargo. and gronadu. CCF el1mbod on tho Unk """ tried
to toao grenlld", thl'oug» tho hotoh.

0."

,.0

Th••• IIttaeke, particularly In tho X Co~p. aroa or opera_
tions I.e northe . . t Jro.... a • •er. uoually ..&de at night. B8oa".e
ot tho Inetr... tty.no •• or the CCF . .apea., tho coyer1ng tire

"


DISCU3SIOJI

no.,., oth.~ ""a~h,. t!lll\<8 derutod the en....,. tn nu..l,. all !<no,""
h,.t...,oe. or thh \<lnd. It _,. Illoo be said tlat .. h"" the pra._
enee or ou.. taDb ....
to the ."""'}' io ad ..".o, he gonorall}'
oh.,...,d 0 _r1<e~ reluctance to preas on athck. When . . . . 1ight __
.ltho .. r .."" moo"light,
fi ...... or r .... burning ..llhgu-­
111"",1noted tho. .""'y, our t""k. deotro}'ed th... In gnU n"",bon.
it sutficl.nt ouppll.. or 11K "",d 'liP ....umltlo" ...... annable.
A. tluo .rt. . tt ...." . . . ot the n1ght operU!""o ot ou.. to.ob .....
aotl ... ly d.poInd.ot upon 00" eIh..nU light
It 1. clur
that. nlgbt_.. hlO>l dn1 •• In \:anko should be provldod ... ooon
aa po. . lblo It tanks aNI to be employed agaln.t an ."""'1 oporat_
IDI ~"n.t l}' at nIght.

1m"""
""011,,.

00"""".,

....

,

to .Iploit
of Tuk
~t th the
, and the
• diot""c" or

tre_

CCF and HK

gon"ral
column • • 0uId attack northw.~ alon~ tho
hlgb.a}'" hltt!ng the onemy alang the tlOll~!ng ridg" eo<!. In_
tlicting u "'~ny cUll.HI . . . . pooolhle. Tho t.,~ fo~ . . . or~!lJl_
bed in a.ntlolpatton or the ett".tlon we .... ,

tha

Inrantry_a~o ..

1. TF Bartlett. compr1oing tho 64th Tk Bn, 1. . . Co C; 2nd
BD, 27th rnt, with mOrtar platoon and ane platoon of quad .50'8;
platooD of Co A, 65th Sng Em; M<tdloa1 and Slg""l D&taohMnts,
25th Dlv; ODd organic T~P.

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unit.

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~¢ntr~1)~4

U1 tho

?U'~ ~ ..

ll""'"''''

,*",

"Pt'nlllg. U1,

_ttl>. tho l'l'

~_ ..Ihh ...

;_w.~.

<I.. ~~,,~ .. """"",h,,~hn.
(J ....

<1'

~~

<J'<""I .50'.

~ ~~"r ~b~ih ~~l ~.n~ ~~Qn.l ••




DISCUSSIOI

2. Tho two infantry platoons whi.h were to b. tl,..t In U.
......,,It ... re ",c",nted up tront; tbey •• ,.., ~n taot tactic.lly dh_
poud while riding tho tanl...
When ti,.~ oame ag.in.t tho oolumn, it halt.d immediatel,.
and the Intantry
deplO1ed.
~.

."0

4. In the .. buno. of n .... tho &I"IIIOr re>d. the Infantry . .
far •• "".. Ibl. Into the po.ltlOt> to b. takon undor aHaok.
5. -A. f.,. ~ pos.Ibl.~ w•• In this Inotan •• t .. ken to moan
.Ithln .ff•• tl~ • • ~ ..ll Arm& ,..ogo of .",oh .n~y a. might be hOl~_
Ing tho podtion. H tn.t point the for"" .... dopI01.d. l,.ro_
.poctin of tho aN .Ituation.

6. Tho platoon or quad .50'. "40 split into h·o notions Clr
tl'll'u b ••lauoh; tb.. y woro u.od with the load o"'"'),>"nl.,. 1.... I<>g
non. in NlMrvo.

7. When any .nomy foro. w•• looatod. It •• , .ngagod "lth
d l gIln. by tho a,..,o,. Rnd by the quad .50'0 onoo tho lnt""try had
dl • .,ount.d and .as ready.
8. Ur .t,.11<.o and Hold ..rUllery 1'1,.0 ...,.0 callod Cor .t;
every opportunity.
9.

Tho cQlllblnecl IUtol bllrrago<l. all g,.ouncl that tho lntantry

..... ",It l.lne . . . p""p.,.lng to Uke "ndor attaok.

h the InC""try 11no .tarted to ..... uH a hill, .he vehlcul..,.
fire wa. s.ne,.&ll-y ehifted to tbe ernt and tho .,.tillory tire •••
lifted to ridgo. ~nd ooc.po rout... ~t that point. f1r. coot,.ol
panod Into the n.and. of tho Icfantry c .....""d.r w»o . . . ",o~l"g lOp
with h1. artlll.ry FO; tb. fo~or thor8att.r dlrectly oontrollod
tho Cl .... f,."", al'lll"" ao<l quad. until tbe 1'1111 n. Uken. CO!llJrl~nly •
.",. man mO~lng In tne load or noh Infantry platoon "ONl • rod
p<onel. "" tu. baalr.
Tl>1. enablod tho tann to toll"" vlo"ol1y tho
.dvocco of tho In.l'antry, and to .bltt tlNl IJoto tho bu,.t ot .".,.
otrang pOint. onocunterod. The quod .50'a p"o~.d nry .fr.otl~e
ouppo,.t napon. 1n thlo typo OC opor..tiOt>, but requ1I'<1 modlflea­
tlon to ~ult them for. dual air_g,.ound rol••

Tho ."ce.n ot thio ope,.atIon shew. whot .an b. a.hlond by
.. tully Intogr&tod tank·intantry team. Both ton~ and Infantry
comm.nclor. attributod Ita .~oco •• to ~h. merging or tho two sta.!'f ••
cau.ing tl>om to a-ot not u tonk8r. ond Intontrym,on but ......n
contronted .lth . . . 1n81. pro"l....
tonk.is
. ."II
.a­
; ~"~~,~~ .••1n ofKoru.
maintenanoo problem

"


TAC1'IC.u. IDiIPLQilIEN'l' OF FRIEllllLY AIliOR

_.

equipped

et'fect1ve,
It to ~0ge rapidly
tlw .1tUlHI""



_HIl the ex.eption ot tho 75-_ gill> In the 1124. which lacked
.urtl.!en' power to 09<lroOlO.. the u ..or or tho T~ at .. o.~ &I18le_
ot I"pact Or location. the 8un. mounted In oW' tank. In Korea
_re abh to penetrate .tth r.1U1ge ehoO the .r,"-or of tho T}4
..hon HVAP Or APC ..-unIUon . .o uUd. IiYAP aollllunitlon ..... part!c­
uhrly efte.Un, o.poolally In t .... 90-1II1II1 gun of tho 1146 or 1126.
II. number or oUn aNI reported or proJeotlln or this type pene­
trating .n • ..,. """or &I1d ttlen p.... lng out thl'oUgh the othor oldo,
n . generally good'i hit • .ere nglotersd usually on tho
tlrot ohOt (080 AppendlI 0 , Ope"lllS r""sea .aried trom point
bUnk to 2.000 l .. rd., lIowe ....,r. on tho ..... rall:. tho op.nlng rang••
... r~ 1... tllar, dOO yardo (H. Arpondl~ A), (Jun .toblllzor. ond

0Unli.,.,.

"


DISCUSSION


cant

~o~r.et~.

wor. not u.od un~.r tho terraIn condItIon. or
!{orG" and e<>"l~ hRV& \>een &llmInated .lnc.. tho.6 devlco. oceupIed
n~~d8d .paoe .nd required eon. T_iuabl. ",stntenanee.

Tank

~t8

in

lore,

Tabln I and II .hOw tm. a~",Ored unlU of tile UN force. In
"cHon 1n Korea. While tho doalgn.tlon, equl?"",nt, and U.ign­
_nt of $""'" units, pa.~t!eularly ~h. tan\< b&ttallon~, ha, "o&n
eh""ged fro," ti... to time, it 10 beUeved the.e table, !lr~ euen_
tlally cOrr~et a. of 1 January 1951. It _ill bo nohd that the
d:.tributlon of tank unlt~ to the divl.lons yarl~. cOh.iderably.
Eo.ever, SO of ,hoo first or tho yUr, each US div1&lon wa.
Quthor~ud $ atan~Q"d t.nk torc. of one Unk batUllOn of thr""
companlu, tbree :roglOl<lntat tank co"?~nl~~,and <m6 dlvBion 1'0_
~onnalounc~ co,"pany.
With tho 8~ce~~lon or the I'<>c~nnU'3anoe
~o~panle. &nd tho tank unit or tho tdqth ReT Airborn., ~hich ~po
authorited M24'., aU tank unit. oxcept tho.e .1th the Morin ••
Qr. ,uppo •• d to ho eventually $qu~pp.d with ",,6'.. The J<arinu
will oontinue .Ith )(26 Unb.
HowUer, tho act~al Qr..o .... ~ .t,..,ngt~. t.a. hun d "~nd6nt on
tho .uppl" of tpaj""d ver,onnol, and, lacUng ouch p.c.otmel, •
nUll!ho~ of hn~ companle. hau not bun aotlvated.
Furtho~",or.,
the tyveo or tanka ualgnad have u~led bo~auu or tho limIted
~"pply Of the ..."thorizod typo. In the F$~ h . t .

III 8d~itlon to armored unit • • hown In the Uble., thl"ee
Un\< unit. of the nth Erltl.h B~lg"de hay. boen in aot1on ~lth
tho Brlthh ~ruloor tOllk, til<> 55-ton Cent~rion, the 40~ton
Churchill inrantcy_.upport t~nk equipped with flam. thl'ower", nnd
tho Z8-ton Cr¢~~tl reconnal,$.ne& tank.
Attn 00"'. uver1enee .. Uh :he Centurion, I t was found th.at
.u1te~ f~r the op.ration&l
.n~ terraIn conditIcns eneount.."~d ,n Korea.
it 18 primo-rill' •
heavy_gun tan~ dulgned to,. the upro •• purpOM of flp,htlng
hu..,- eno"'Y $~rnor, which by tho tl". tho Centorion ~oa<h~d Koroa
h.ad bUn largely destroyed.
I~!s not equipped .ith a~",,-uate
s .... l l arm. for ulploymont ... an ir.r"",ry_support ".'pon.
thl. typo of tank n . net particularly

Und~r tho road oondltion. of KQN'a, It. weil\ht and length
.ere a aevoce handieap, restrlotlr.g Its oper.tl= to th~ ""'-In
road.. I t . limIted r~fuoling rang<>, ap"roxl:no.tely ~O mil•• , .. U
a further handicap !>eeau.& I t req~lrod too ~roquent ~fuellng
Ol'l the ma".h.

TAetical

E~plDy~nt

of Enemy Armor

ilhon tho North Korean ar"y cro,"6d the ,8th paull~l 25 J~n<!
1950, the .p".rhoa<l of tholr advanoe ,,&0 tho l05~h Armored DI_
v101~n o"".!sting of throe Un. ,""gL",en~., th6 lD7th, lG9tl!, and


•"


,••

TABt.;,; IA

0

•"
0

8e

Dlv Tk ~.
39th M:aQ,
A_J CO'A

,

eo

1

79'" HV~'
Co I, ~

"

Co' •

,8

0

0

i!


Tk Co'.
,,1 th


,
0

" "

,

"

"


0
0

~ec'm

25d,

,, ,

,
m

rC"AI.

(al ~~ch cc,,~~c,y e~"!,,,'~d ",,:, Mi,6' •.

(1)) ~.ch c~"'p"nv e~"lpp.j ~!t.,

:.:\.A,".


lo! Zq~iope(\ ,~th '_!:,' ••

(~) G"e oo~_oaey ~~u~r;~d ,,"h ~,2)"

,,,j

tho "'~"inlnf_ cOTl1;,anle. wlth ~:V3'3.


, ::I.;.} d0'~~' aoe ):,2 "H,-[e~o". "eo !ncluded in unit .tren~th'.
"" ~o~,p~ny A, the only co",pany of t',. 79th T.,,~ ","sE,m In ~1lat~,._<,.,
te"'eoral'lly to the 25th Inf.ntry Dlvl,iQn.

"8$

a,.lgr... ~

TACTICAL EIIPLOYMEJIT OF Jo:N]:;}IY AHMQR

JC CORPS

AJ!~vR

QRGILNIZATION ILND

~':l'HOREED

Dlv Tk Rn

SrR~N3TH

DlvTkBn

ht, A_D Go',

Flam" Plat(h)

ilocon
It_~ (1))

,'"'", ,,
'"'"'" ,

hch compo:ny 6luippoc with
Equl?pOd with ~4IL3'"
Each pbtuon equip~ed .. Itt.
~.ch eOO".pany equlppe<l ~1tt.
bach oomp~ny egu'pp"~ with
&qulpped with ~24'"

"

S

~~

"

M26' 0, 0

~4A, dozors,

~26's.

,

M26'., ; ):1">,, do,ops,
)'~A"s

a.n1

~',2

.

"C,

, .

"C,

1

~,2

~:'2.

DISCUSSION

";I,

20~rd, all equipped >11th the o"sole3.$"~
Ruoehn ",od\"m tank,

dth about 160 tank. in 811. Thi. dlYhlon ."0 later nlnror~.d

by the 16th and 11th Ap",ond arJgM&s "Meh .-ero, in poUlty,

. _ n uoIor6d regiment. or lag. battallon., u thooy ho.~, rup.¢_

tivoly, 4, ~nd 4:) tank. (000 Appendix Fl.

~he

d!vlolon, who>n ' t

r.~ch.d

Choehlwon, "pl1t 1nto it,

eo,"penent ... gt ... nt. "hieh thll"".ftH

opH.t~d lnd"llo'~d~~tly

1~

Tho br!~gfu
.6.. 0 moved fro.. Pyongyang .ornsH... an... the c<mtllct bep,an.
Tho 16th appear.d in action for tho ~1P.t tl"", on tho Naktong
front in the ~ttack tQ'll'aNi Yongsan about 1 Sept,,,"er. Tho 17th
"ppear9<1 .. ':lOut thl> ."me t1"", 1n the Jldun~ area nodheut of
Taegu.
­
the Ghogyo, l\urnoh"".Wugwan, ",".d hbu_dong ar.a..

Other armored unlta kIlo"" to hAve b.en .ctlvAt6~ prior to
Novo",bor 19~O ... r@ thl> 17th I\echaniuoi ~iv:.lon «:th 41 tank.;
tho 41st, 45th, And 46th A""or~d ~eglrl'mt. ~lth 10 hnks ~ach:
and the ;"rd I!ecb..nhod Ro!,:lmont ~Hh
tank.. The original
.tnngth of all thus unIt. na ahout ,20 tanka, and up to
NOV8nlb.r 1950 thoJ' ar" b.lIn.d to have r"o.'v"d ",or,. 250
. replaoe..,,,, t s.

1,

In the .arly atag&! ot the war, Unk. wer., ooldly unt

in dayl1ght ~""n the llnn ot advance far in front ot the ",a1n

ood:y, for thl>ir eHeet on tho :norde of til<> N.i.tlng ROK Army

I.eo Appendix DJ. The ROK'8 b.. d l1ttl@, .xe~pt a re.. 57-"'" AT

gun. and lO,-mm ho~it •• r., to combat the~. The 24th Infantry

Div1aion, when It reaohed Mr.Q, ,,'" not aole to help materially

oocau.e !t, ,,"apons .8r8 not .dequato tor the Job. The to...

light hnk. . . tth Which the dhlaton " .. 8qul~p.d ""0& .. Irteolly

the only antitank .-sopon, ovall...ole: the 2.~6_inch bnoon ..a.

~rf8otlu only at Y.~y .hort r""gu ""d oould tbon p6n6tr~to

only certain .... ~t~ of the armor !r tho anglo of Il1lpaot n . olos ..

to 900. A. p~ev1"u.ly _ntl",,~d, the ~2J, .. lth l u 75-""" ~un

and light a,..,or
ea.Jl~ OV6CeO"'" by tho !loavior and "10""

p","ertul r~ with Ito 8S-.... Qr""':nent.


"s..

Conuquo.ntly, ~"",ll gro'.]", of eno:my tank. ropnt.dly pon._

trated our pO.tHon. In th<> front and n""luI, ourran our troops,

...~d thr~ot througb to oomm"nG po.t, ""G artillery po.ltion ••

Tho •• tonk attack. "er6 followed qUiokly oy lnr.ntry, In ,0".

o~a8' ... Ith ~or. t~nk •.

With the arrival of ho"bo" anG righter aircrsft, more
.... tiU.. ry, b.ttor ..... k~, and tho j.5-inoh hazooka, tho lo~ •• s
in enemy armO~ ~ounted rA?idly, forcing a chang. In taetlca.
Tank. were movBd only at night find oono.... l.<l. <luring tho day in
gron$, oamo~flag .. d po.ition. dug into hllhld •• , vIHag.>., and
other locations ..her. a~vonhge could oe talren of tbo te~r.ln
and folia"•• The nIght ",o~e",ont of the tank. n . made at .10"
.peed beea"u or til<> oondltion ot tho road. o.nd ll ..ited vl.ibillty.

,• p, ,,, '"
, '" '"'"

••, l~1 p,
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TA"1." 'HC
T'lIl\ C••U.LTIES .'" LOS""" '" rtf• •• ""nC""TAO" ""

r.-.-.-••-.,,----,--.c:-:-~::.,--.•-';---.~-,:...-..-:_rC-:or .".:.

'."""'n

..,.,,.,,
..-'
L

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AT Gun.
10)

I

I).'! ' 1.6 (0.8)

"""""""
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TABIE III"

",""AUIlI" • .., L"'"BS ElY IT..


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Art"'.,.,.J Co."
-
- - ,- Il.b) M 1O.b
1 C., I'
,., 119·>1
U
10.8 I ,.,
-- -- ,.
-, - - '"- U- 0.6)
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IQ.8) ,.C
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1"')1°·8
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d
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11.41 1,.9 )
10·9 11.6 I
-1- -­ -'" 110)- -- -- -- -- 85.7 1101 7
-

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,n.«.b'. "ok, .... 0.... "
'1 19~" ,"u,,, 1.", .to,".

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90 O?j


1 (')


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lb

'"(e,

7) 141'
9 (2

(~J
,14 In!

I


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<; (61

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I

I'h£>.e tactic., co~plod ~lth ch. rH~"~ low nob. oha"aet~"I.tlc
or til<> T;4, pocOlltted th~ enemy tD pIao. hi. tanks In foc-.grd
.ttack ~o.[t[on. on ~ nu",b.~ or oc~a.lu~. "lthout the ""o.~cd~e
of QU~ fopc.,. Long blll".t, of autom.tlc_"",apon. flr • • ero '"P­
po~.d to ha~. beon u •• d by the );o"th Kor •• n. a • • me'n. of 00,,_
ooaHng th<> ,oud. of tho! r.l~ht rnov.m.nt of th<>lp hnl[., but
lnte~rogationo or p"19on~", of wn~ f"Orr, t.nk unit, toned to con­
n,.", 'hls ,u,oo,ed >tranga", (.a" Arrand!x DJ. ~alll ~oad. ware
'"ed chiefly, with occ~,!onal u,e or ,ecandary road, and fa...,
hn. . . Jeploy=nt off tho po.d. Into r!oe paddles or !ntu tc.o
hllh ~a., ~ ~arHy.
In vin of the ll'lpro,'oJ ~"allty of nu" d@fen.e., tank
.ttaeks Were ~."d9 with ~.o"" e.ution, u.ually at n~ .. llgn' of
day, ,10.61y rollo•• d by idant~y.
Wr..~ the enemy wu rla,ed on
th6 d.fen.iv. aft.r o"~ ero"ing of the Nakton~,22 Se~'~",b.r,
he ."'~loyad hi' t~nks o.nd 76_,,~ •• If_propo1l61 guns In ",ore or
lou flxod poaitlo~'-·dug-ln anJ csm"una~ed in building"
~.oun­
tajn d6f!lOa, 0r rO'd blook.-.Wlth the in'entl"" of $"bo,hlng
oue t""k. and Mtor eolun:ns op ~18cin" thorn und6P flanl!inr fir.
(.M Ap,ondlx FJ. Wh!le tho.e daf&n,l~. ",ea8ures thooret!o~lly
prOV!Md tha 816"'''''' af ~u"prl.~. '.h.y ""c" J>6n"""Hy ~nouooa •• _
rul as t~9 lIai,on aIrcraft pate'll!n~ .. he~d of our advance ~r._
qu&ntly d&toot.d thOM O"b·,.Mda •. ~om"tl~,"., too, the bad
gunnery of th~ ~Iorth Ko .. ean Unl< ,"d g'>n c"e." ~t this period,
6nabled Gue tanks t~ ovo ·OOM th& inltl~l 616m,nt or .u"prl,.
and ,.et~~n th<> f!"" .n.c.holy.

·."d b6en force; o.ok to the
parallel, tM'" ... ~o,.a" unit.
;"I,.tu~lly cea.ed to ex!".
TM 105th ANlmred ClJv!.lnn ~'" 1~t6" e.poeted roeon.tltut.d but
Its opo"at10n' have boon "~la'lv.ll" l1",lt.d. Lo . . as in tnnko
~~~6 olmo.t lJO poreon •.
lnfo"rr.atlo~ f~o", prl.oM" or w~r
[ndlcate. that tho o8sualt\", uon" t . d c"."' n . also ntr• .,,81y
hJ!\h (.u Apper.dl~ ~).
.

,""h

lJy th~ tl"" the N~rth h,...an.

h."

UlI T""I[ CaoullltiU

Tablo III Is a oondenut!on of t'n~ easuoltie. 'nd lO.3e3
by US tUld ~llied ~c,"or.d unit,. Th. Infor",atjon I~
oom~lete to Janua~v ,95) fo~ 0:1 \.L~It."
.... 0
a. IMlc .... :!.
$001" ad1ltionSl c~aualtIe. wer. lno\>reed, In nu~,bar' not kIlo,"",
'MnR tonk. In tho hand. of orlnanoe 'nd ongiMOc unn,.
re~ort"d

"0

Tru. ~ Corp. ca'·JOlt, nDO~t was ba,ect 0<\ fi,..t_ht,nd !nfop_
mation Qbt.!neJ dlpaetly f~o". tho unit, in,'oh~d ( •• a Appendix
Bi. The Eighth Ar~y r.cord .. ba"d O~. "epoct. .nd ~."terl"l
?co?a~.d by tha ,,~!t, Cnerr.,.lve.' H~ct -'n int"pm.tlon ,ur~lled
dl~eetly (.~e Arp~ndl" -;1.
lsbla ;, .how. the .~th"'·lZ.J stp"~~th, t~. total ca~'"aHI •• ,
ood the p.ro.n' o•• u~:tie, foe all """,or6d unIt. on ~hlc~

,

70,11

"~

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DI3C1J3SIOK

1nfo<'lll&t10n 10 available. For t~. prpo •• ,,~ this onaly.1B, /..
Corp. !. k.pt s~parate fro~ ~1ghth Al"IIlY because, In tho por1od
of thlo report, i t wu " "epa~ato unit operat1n~ In terral~ and
under oondltion. oom6"ha\ dirt.cont fr'om tho •• 01" th.. EIghth ~r"'y.

caus.
oocurred

-,

a oasualty woo
relatlYe>y mtno~
thn
tank. to ~ocomo
lmtty
.ne..,..
In .uoh cUe" H wa,
a
decide .hethor the o~.udty .as tho result of
torraln, t&ot~c~l .b.nd0nm~nt, or d~,t~u<t:Cn by our 0"" or en.... ~
foroe •.
In tbt. r~port. it. h~. be~n the poHcy to Use,. the
eaa'"~lty on the bO.1s <:>f th6 1nltlol rea,on for tl", t&nk b~co"'lng
disabled and not on a lat"" .otl~n 'NUd, ~.I~ht " ..vo "C6~~1lt
gceaur dac.ase Qr de.tr"cti"n.

hom f1g~r&' .uppl1.d by the Ord"~,,oe Qffl("n, F",;~, and
frem ~i~hth Ar"'Y tank
~~port., • total of 1,2,1 tor.:"
rOwu&nto the ~u"' of the tanh I" h8~d. of t~o'-,p., In hand. of
rl.l« ordnance ""l'., av~ll"ble for I""e fr<lm <erp. o~ ~rmy
.torage, .11 10... s fro", 'he be~inn1nf, of te.• cQnflict, ani all
hnk" ov&e".,.d to J~r&n Or 'h<> Zone of Interior_ Thlo fJgure
doe. not Inc)u,1. tonl" 1n .terot 'tora~. In Japan. I t I. ""lle~d
tu repruo~t •• olo •• ly 8, pr.'.n~ inf~r.~at:tc>n p~,.",[t., tho
total ~~ml>.r of tank> I .. u,d for .on:oe at 30rr.e period In H..,
Korun OA,",p~ II!:".

st.",.

In tho p.~!od between sar)] July and ",id_Ja"uary 1551, 576
tank. M variOu. typa. have beco"e ca,uAltl •• In 'he Hghth AC",y
and X Corps, On th" basta of tho total of 1,2,1 tank., th:.
UpU".~" a J1J percen' c ... "a)ty ,.~t. In tho ,ix_",on~h p,,~toc.
The tot.l 10. . es [n tank. :n th:. Eroup of ca."altie. . .er. 256
unit., or 44 P&rC$o.t of ,h. ooMl Moo'altIo3. Tho total l.o",
rate a~ C""'I'~red 1"1th tho ~~",be" of 'ank. In ."o"leo W80 apD~o._
1",a~oly 21 ~e,·cent, I'our hundt'"J ~nd "I"h~, oe 71 pepcetl~
tho total eas~alt!u, wees ca,,,.d by ~.a"c~. o'h~ tbar. • ne".Y
aotlo~, I."., "'ecner.lcal railu"e, terraIn, Or aodd.nt,.
Mech.n­
100.1 failure ~ccoun\ed for tl<> outk of the nanoattle ca"JaHle"
repres~nt1ng 60 ~e~cent o~ all c~.\>alt1e.,
Of tho re~a:r.:ng
casualt1 •• , which ",,~e ,ho re.ult of en$",Y action, 64 tanh, or
n pe~oent of te.• toUl ca,,,altle,, ..ere ct&rr .. ~ec 01' de.troyed
by ",lne.; 26, or
parcent, ~e:·e Irnooked out by antitank ~un.
1ncludt"~ bazooku (probably cartucedJ In 'h~ h.. ~d. of tho enamy;
22, oc 4 percent, were lOst to ~nro.nt,..y attack; "r.O )7, or ,
percent, . . ,..~ ca.ualtl~. b.caus~ of tonk fiee. II.b"ndon~Ar.t ror
tAotfca~ rea. on. accounted fOr ?;, or J, peccant.
Mo~tar flro
and a~ttllery oau.~d 16 addltlona~ oa,ualt:es,

of

4.,

UN TAJIK CA3!1AIn'rES

efrlcacy of th<l
168 c&.~a)tlu
••• uO-Hie. c&~.ed
I • • ho,"" In

chargeable
br ..0 chAn 1ca 1
Table V.
TABLE V
CAS"ALTIES CA'1S3D BY

ENI::~

ACTION

,-,

&h&ndonrtlO~t

a~tlon

Tho> n".. ber of tank c&sualtl&o cauoed by mlnn Indlc.to. tho
&tr&ctl"onuo of a "ell-planned ..1ne p~ogrD In .. d&fen.lve 0J>&~~
Uion. Th<I North Koroana, while thay omployod mlnn hI' .. Ore
effectively tlutn tha UN foren, dl<1 not, ~o far 8.0 tho record •
• how, uoe the.. 1rI any great concentratlono Or In .ell_planned
flold •• ~evedhol ••• , tho I'athe~ random di.trlbutlon of their
min. . n , .ufflcl&ntly oU&ctlve to knock out nearly a. ","ny
tank. 164 out of 14, I f tactical atandonmont Is excludod) as all
thoir ott.or woaPQn. "","bln.d. )'u~the"",or4, our tankA _~e not
equipped dth anr device. for detecting o~ elu~lng mlnu,
In
faot, In sn1l10 C~SM, hn~A tho~_.~Jv~s wera u3ad to dHect tho
pro.en". of minH, ond exploded them .-1tn re.ultant da"",y> to
the tan •• Antltan~ gons appear to ~. tho noxt m03t oUocthe
... apon, .cco~nting for 26 c03~alt! ... , An (ntere.Un,:; aopeot 10
thO 11 c... ~altle. In tnt. ootogory tUt are "epocted 80 cauud
by bUook8.. I t ""'-Y "" pr8."",ed thot OTlO.t !f not all of the.e
.UpODO -'e~e o&ptured ""terl~l- t~rnea against our forcu.
It
Is abo Intere.t!ng to note, os Is done lst.~ !n thl. report,
thet a""",1' tho North KO~6a" tank caoualtles, 13 tank • ..-ere
dutl'oyed by hazooku. Th. tanka 10.t to Infantl'Y action are
g"nenlly ~e8ttered among a nu",~er of tank unit. -.!th OM e"­
copt ion that tend~ to ern9haolze ~ndu1y the power of !nfantry to
destroy to-n~.. Thl. exception 10 the 0"'. of Cooper Squadron,
29th BrIttoh Brlgado .hleh lo"t 12 Cl'o",,,olh ~hon the •• tank.
were orappsd ~t night In a narrow <I.fll • • hlle .ltMI'ulng n"'~
U1JongbU (ue Append!.%. E). If "e Mgl~ct the .ccore charged to
capt~~ed buooku an<l the Coopor S<!u.dron inCident, ..~ find the
onemy ••upon that ..-n. ",o.t effoctlvo against our tank., n~xt to
..1nu, wu tan\< fire, .hich cau.~d 17 o.uu&ltlU.


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