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Headquarters Us army equipment .pdf



Nombre del archivo original: Headquarters Us army equipment.pdf
Título: ARMY GROUND FORCE, EQUIPMENT REVIEW BOARD, PRELIMINARY STUDY, 27 JUNE 1945

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HEADQUAR'l'ERS
.h:UROPEAN 'l'HEA'l'ER OF OPERAJIONS
UNITED STATES Am
AlJQ 887
27 June 194!:1

AG 475 UpGC

SUBJECT:

.

TO

ArJrtv Ground Force, Equipment Review Board, Preliminary Study
The Chief of Staff, United. States Arrr(r, \lashington, lJ.C.

1. Reference is made to letter from General l.Jarshall to General El.senhower,
f1le o~DUDS/72740, dated 12 l~y 1945. (Inclosure 1)
2. The subJect study has been reviewed by Headquarters, 6th and 12th A.rmy
Groups, Th1rd, Seventh, ~inth and F1tteenth US Arm1es, XVIII Corps (A1rborne~ and
this headquarters.
'
,3. Each sect1on o:r the board report is attached as an inclosure WJ.th the
remarks and recommendat1ons of this theater. (Inclosures 2 through 20)

4. This theater 15 in general agreement with the maJority of the recommendations expressed in the board report. The major exceptions and additions are briefly. __
outhned below:
-.-

.

!.•

Armor W1th the Infantry D1vis1on (Section II, par 8c(5)).

It 15 the opinion o:f this theater that some arm'Or should be orsanic
1n the infantry div1sion (See Cable E-96884, this headquarters, dated 10 Februar,y
1945).
...

b.

Tank Destroyers (Section V).

It 1s recommended that future development o:r tank destroyers a,pd tanks ~
be comb1ned to produce veh1cles capable o:r perfoi'Dll.ng the llll.SSJ.ons currently beu~
performed b,y both o! these weapons.
l.
I



A1rborne Eq,U1pment (Sect1on VIli, par 46).

It 1s recommended that the developnent doctr1ne :for airbornP eqU1pment ~
It is not bel1eved pract1cable to chm-nate the spec1al equ1pment requ1red to transport, drop, and assemble a1r1Jorne
personnel and equJ.pment, and that reqUJ.red :for usc durJ.ng the purely a1.rborne
assault phase when troops c1re expected to have to operate as a (7rouo or munteP,rated,
self-custa1m nr: um.ts.
be the m1n1D11Zat1.on of specl.al equipment.



.AJ.r 5'upport •:.qlLJ.pment. {~ectJ.on IX, par J1r~a).

lt. is recommended that all high performance a1rcra:rt remaJ.n an or~am c
part of the aJ.r force, and that normal r,round force requirements for lJ.aJ.son and
helJ.copter type aJ.rcra!t be assJ.gned to the r,round forces, but cont1nue to be supplJ.ed and uld.J.ntal.ned by a1r force tyPe um. ts.
'I

I

SE€RE~
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REF ID:A65584

SECRET
e.

Seacoast Artiller,y Equipment (Section I, par S2a).

It is believed that the basic concept of coast defense as outlined
in the board study' should be revised to lay emphasis on mobile equipment with a
minimum of fixed installations.

!•

CODDDunication EquiPJ!!nt (Section XVIII, par 88).

lhe ma.Yi .,., practicable integration of the CODIIlunications system is a
worttv" objective upon which to base the future development of signal equipment.
However, it is not believed practicable to effect compls te integration under the
responsibilit7 of a single agenc7 and maintain the highl1' desired, present basic
principle of cOIIIIII&JJd responsibility tar signal cOJDIIIUilications. Tact1cal development and training should be a responsibility of the Signal Corps •

FOR THE THEATER COliWIDER:

~~
R. B. LOVETT
Brigadier General, USA
Adjutant General

20 Incls:
Incl 1 - Ltr, Gen 11 Marshall to Gen 11 Eisenhower,
dtd 12 ~ 1945.
Inc1s 2 to 20 - ETOUSA Review of .AGF Equipment
Review Board Preliminary Study (Sections
II through XI in duplicate) •

r

SEGRET
- 2 II

REF ID:A65584

seeRET
-COPY

~oDGDS/72740
Col Shinkle/wdg

12 Lay 1945

Dear hisenhoaar:
BrigcacL.or General Benjamin G. Ferri& and Colonel H. p. van 01'11181" are
delivering to you copies ot Arm:/ Ground Forces 8luipaant Kevi.ew Board Stud¥.
This stud¥ is sent to ;rou tor your rev1-, remarks and recOI'iiRttndations.
Identical copies are bol.ng sent to General l:.acArthur, General llCflamoy, u.nu.
to the major cOI!IIlRilds here 1D •'a&hington. This procedure is being tollo"Wed
to det the beat opinions available on the equipment needs now and in the
tutu:re ror our a~. The dl'"\.a so eathered \"ill tom the bas1.a or a study
whic}J wl.ll have a s'l.ronc and l:HJt.Lfl6 otrect on our oqu1pwont.

I consl.der t},is s t.ucij• oj equipment u£ paranount e.nd .l.a.stJ..n.& Jmpurt.mce.
lou "nill reme.mber the ·:estervelt noard after ~lorld 'Jar I and ita diroct err( ct on 1.hc .... capons witi• ¥~hich you are now equl.ppcd. uvon tl1o exce.Uenco or
this new study wUl depend to a large degree our f'uture progress 111 the
all-iJILpOrtant. tuld or woapons.
General rer:ris and "'olonel .;an (..n.cr ~ro oJt. your dl.Spusoll to aasiot. 111
the mechan1.cs or your review. I should appreciate it i£ they can retum to
t.to or :Jepa.rtlnont ,JJ.1.l your re~uarkl- and racOJ,nendat1.ons on the study oi' tne
Jo.quiprn.ent Ravin noard prior to )0 JUne 1945.
}o.. aithtully

yours,

(Sgd) G. C. l
G4meral of the Arm.Y L'Aight D. F.1.senhcmer
. uprene Commander, l·lllelt ~.xpud.~..t.J.or.aey Forces
Jleadquarters, Communications ono
..uropean Theater or Cpora1..J.Oll9, u.M
Pllr.J.s, !o"ranca

·,

" l

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sEeRET

~rahall

REF ID:A65584



CECREll

.

:&:.rCIJBA. REVIItl OF

- .A1W!' GRaJID FORCES. !QUIP11EUT REVI:&Y BOARD.
PRELIMINARY REPORT SECTION II. IRFAN'l'RY B1JIPIDT

SeotiOD•II is oOZLCNrred in with the tollcnriDg additiou and exoegtiODSa
1. Add to par 7a

•ne proposed weapon should be capable ot autOJII&tio

ad sead.-automatlo tire • should have a Ftmade discharger aa

part, ad should be equipped with a

b~

aD

integral

atud and cleaning rod.

Conaldera-

tlcm shcnlld also be giTC to the provision ot a tlaah hider and silencer
similar to the attaohmeD.t OD the German MM4."
2. Add to par 8a(l). "This gun should have the tollowiDg desirable
teatures1
a.

Autamatio headapaoe adjustmmt.

b.

Barrel which will not OTerheat under sustained tire. or a barrel

deaiped tor. rapid lDteroh&Dge.
o. .1. prorislon to p81"11d.t the use ot both belt and mquiDe feeding.•
8e

Add to par 8a(2)1

11

!his

'1188pCID

should also have a quick ohange barrel

ad autamatic httadapaoe adjuataeJrt features.•

4.

Add to par 8b(l)a

atabillV•

"Traverse should be iDcreaaed w.l'thout loss ot

Reae-.rch should be condacted iD the uae ot light-wipt all07s
I

ad 1!!8tals
&.

tor the purpose ot reducing

.

Delete par 8c(2). Reaaozu

t~



.tght ot all mortars. n

!he developiBLt ot tiDk clestroyers aa

a separate oategoey ot Tehiclea la not reoQ1111181lded (see Section V).

The 76mm


reooilleaa CUD ia be11eve4 to be a satistact01"7 ourreD't replao81118D'b tor the
&7mm CUD•

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BECREll

..

REF ID:A65584
BECREl
6.

Delete par 8c(5).

Reason:

be organic in the inf'antry division.

It is strongly rec0J1DD811ded that t&Dka
The tank-intantry team is insoluble in

attack and mat be thoroughly integrated as an organic team.
7.

In lieu of' last sentence, par 8d(l), substitute:

"!his wapon 11:1.11

replace and not supplement the 2.36 inch launcher.••

a.

Add to par 9b(3h

"The new vehicle should be Jll)re rugged than the

present iVeasel and desicned to w:l.thstand long trips over paved roads at
convoy speeds. 11
9.

.Amend par 9c(lh

"The present ind:lvidu.al web equipment should be

iJiproved by reducing 1ts \Yeight, mcreaaing ita coJIJtort, and providing batter
f'a.stenings 1nthout othernse chang1ng its characteristics."
10.

Add to par 9da
(

5)

Hight firine; d8Vl.ces should be provided for all intantry

11 (

6)

.An improved form or d:ltf'used light to create artii"1oial

11

vreapons.

:moonl1ght ror 1n..t'antry operations should be provided and placed under di vision control."

- 2 -

..

REF ID:A65584

,.

ETOUSA REVIEW OF
- .AlUt! GROUND FORCES II EQUIPI£NT lU.'VIEW' BOARD II

PRELIMINARY STUDY SECTION III 11 ARMORED EQUIPMENT

Sect1on III 1 is concurred 1n w:l. th the exceptions and addi tiona outlined belowa
1.

Add to par l2aa
"{ l)

The power to weight ratio must be increased over present stan-

dards to provide far greater tlexib1l1ty and a power reserve tor extra hard
go mg.

{ 2)

1~ore

s:Laple mountings and couplings should be

pedite engine changing.
2.

deve~oped

to ex-

I.Atss 1ni'la.mmable fuels should be. exploi ted. 11

Add to par l2ba

"( 1)

T\l,e suspension system must be so designed aa to provide tor con-

tinued temporary Opelation eDn though

dama.~e has

been incurred in part of the

system.
( 2)

Pr1mary consideration in track design should be given to reduc-

tion of ground pressure, eight (B) pounds per square inch 1a suggested :maxim\Dlle
( 3)

Interohangeo.bili ty or tracks betnen corresponding type of

vehicles should be maximmn practicable 11 and the general purpose combat track
should be capable of rnountint; ice cleats or caulks. 11
3.

In lieu ot par l2d 11 subst1 tute 1

"The development ot guns should be

predicated on the pnnciple that the best tank destroyer gun is the best tank
~;un.

This development should be based on the requirements or 11 and m1der the

d1rection of the us1ng serv10E18e
(1)

Lon~

gun tube l1fe should be reduced 1n £aver or

CECRE:ll
- 1 -

hi~

velocities.

REF ID:A65584


GECRE1
(2)

Tank gun ammunition tor present calibers sh-ould be fixed, ud

of auoh lengtb and diameter of ba.ae of shell case as is aeoeaaary to insure
adequate rate of fire and BJIIIIluniticm ato-.ge capacity; and to avoid exces•
ai ve gun breeoh size, crowding of the fig.IJ.ting compartment, and ex:oeaa1'98
nanipulation of &mlllUili ticm in unpacking, ato111ng, and loading.•
4.

Add to par l2a
11

f.

The noise produoed by tanka and other full tracked vehicles

nmst be reduced by reduction of engine, ema.uat, traok and other mechanical
noises.
g.

Intensive acientU'ic research should be initiated With a 'View

to producing improwd armor plate of greater strength and resistanoe and leas
wei~t.

:Methods of counteracting the etfeoti wneas of projectiles employing

t."le !':onroe shaped charge pr1noiple must be discovered.

Continuing effort

should be made to exploit radical designs in tank hulls to obtain maximum
advantage of conformation to provide increased protection without increase
in weie;h,t.

h.
1'1ght1n~

5.

Every effort should be :uade to minimize crowding of the

compartment consistent w1 th tire power requirements. n
Reference par l3a (1),

(2~

and {3)a

It is recommended that the

classification of tanks as light, medium, and hea'VY be abandoned, and the tanks
l1sted in these paracraphs be referred to as "reconnaissance", "exploit1ng",
and "infantry supporting" tanka, respectively.
6.

Add to par 13c 1



"Amphibious tonka should be desit;ned especially

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-6ECRE:l

REF ID:A65584
'

GECREll

tor aaaault landings • and future development should provide tor tiring the
tank gun while still floating.

Traokll should be

~esigned

.-nt to aid :lll ora:wling up steep or al!ppeey bankll.

With special equip-

These tanka ahould be

operated by organic ,amphibioua asaault battalions and not by standard battal.....

ions trained and re-equipped tor apeoial operf tiona."
7.

Add to par 13d•

Amphibian kits should permit the uae or the p:ri.maey

wapon while the whiole is f'loati.Dg.
alao

••t the

Dewlopment or tank landing kits should

requirements of riwr crossings. including ability' to oi'Oss our-

renta.

e.


Add to par 14s
"a.

Rocket launchers must not interfere in any way w1 th the use or

the tank• s nonral armanent.

b.
300

~rds

A f'lama thrower as a primary waapon should be capable or 250

range with a fuel capacity ot 500 gallons. and output of at least

five gallons per
9.

to

shot~

and a positive ignition system."

Add to par 15oa
"(1)

Consideration should be given to the provision of' seats that

taoe out. and ar,mored aides equipped with a quick release device to raoili•
tate rapid d1amounting.
(2)

All personnel carriers should be designed large enough to carry

the combat bed rolla and rations tor the crew as well as the men and their
equipment.
(3)

One of these cargo carriers should be readily adaptable as an

armored oammand post vehicle.

- 3 D

BECREll

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REF ID:A65584

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SE:GPE:1

ETOUSA BEVIE1l OF
- .AR!4Y GROUND FORCJ!:S, EQ'JIPl:ENT REVI~Uf BOARD,
PBELIUINARY STUDY SECTION IV, FIELD ARTILLERY

Seoticm IV is concurred in with the following exceptions and addi ticmsa

J...

Add to par l9bc

llflowaver, sufficient fire control equipment should

be retained in uni ta to preclude OOI!lplete dependence upon the oollllllOD tire

direoticm center when it is necessary or desirable to decentralize.•

2.

In lieu of last sentence par 2la, su-batitutea

merly performed by the 4.5-inch gun should be undertaken

11

The missions tor~J

all-purpose

antiaircraft guns in the caliber band 90 - 120rnm ass1gned to artillery

3.

Add to par 2la:

"ImproveJI'l8nt in these weapons is desirable both

as "wo accuracy and as to •V&aring qtali ties, particularly Wl.th reference to
the B•inch g1m.

An acc\\racy equal to that or the S-1.nch howitzer should be

sought for all hoWitzers.•
4.

Add to par 2lb:

ed to these guns could be

"It is possible that r.dssl.on& that will be assignperfo~ed

better by free rockets and guided miss-

ilea; however, until such time as the accuracy of these weapons .can equal
that or artillery, a limited number of such guns should be developed."
5.

Add to par 2lcs

capabilities be
6.

"It

11

recommended that a rocket with Sl.milar

de~loped."

Add to par 23:

tars be capable or

fir1.n~

"It is desirable t.llet all guns, howitzers and mor-at a minimum. range or 4,000 yards.

er guns as such should be om1.tted from the chart.
Section V.)

Tank destro:,-

(See renarks, par 28,

It is furt~er considered that either, but no~ both, a 76mm gun

or e. 3-l.nch gun should be cn·eloped. 11
ing:.y.)
- 1 -

BECREll

(Note - Chert S"lo 1ld be ar.ended accord-

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REF ID:A65584



BECREll
7•

Aclcl par 26aa

"az:lnllll traftrae should be iDoorpora ted 1D the

cleaip of all oarriapa. •

a.
18Dt

Acl4 a pe.r 2?a(t)a

"'n

OOilJ\DLOtiOD

with other eleotrical equip-

tor looa1:1Dg, direot:t.Dg, ad adjuating the fire of all diJ'!Iot or

111-

direot f'i:re •apcma on hoatile targeta, radar equipment ahould reduce the

uae ot •pa, auz-vey, and obaenation iD the maneuwr of tire or these

wapcma.•

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REF ID:A65584
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ETOUSA Rl!."'VIEvi OF
- ARMY GROUND FORCES, EQUIPMENT REV'IE•l BOARD,
PlU.LIPfi:NARY STUDY SECTIO}I V, 'rM:K DESTROYER EQUIPMENT

1.

This theater does not concur in the basic premise of Section

that a separate line of tank destroyer vehicles is required.

v, viz.,

The characteristics

required in tanks and in self-propelled tank destroyers for fi&hting tanks are
so t.l1k.e that there 1s no justirica tion for a separate 1 i.ne or tank des trover
~

veh1cles.

The

rollowin~

ducussion on the basic aho.racter1Stl.CS or tanks and

tank destroyers is presented in support or this nonooncurrences
a.

Gun Power:

It is an essent1al requirement of tanks that they carry

e;ms of the maximlll"l annor-pierci:lg power that can be mounted on the whicle.
is also the primary requirement of a self-propelled tank destroyer.

This

For examples

if the 25-ton h&}lt tank destroyer can carry a weapon that will shoot throu,;h 8
inches of" armor at 1,000 yards, then why is not this sante vehicle the 25-ton. light
tank?

l

'l'he answer is that 1r the 25-ton vehicle can carry the more powerful gun,

it should carry 1t and it shoulrl be
b.
tanks,

fiobili ty

~rticularly

t~e

25-ton licht tank.

t,ob11i ty is the second nost inportant characterist1c in

or the

l1~ht

and medium classes, and

1ntended for use \11th armored dJ.visJ.ons.

e~pecially

in those tanks

'Tobility l.S also the second 111ost im-

;:'~Ortant

charec torutic 1n the desir..n of tank destrol•er equipment to be used

~rmcred

divisJ.ono.

In

t~e c~se

Wl. th

of tanks to be used 1n close support of 1nfantry

dl.Vl.SJ.ons, az,tor motect.Lon ?.Ssumes c;reo..ter 1mporto.nce and thero l.S a universal
opl.nJ.on that less mobili tJ,
tank for

t.~!J

t1urpose.

~nrtJ.cull\rly

as recards speed, can be accepted 1n a

In combat, J.n support of 1nfa.ntry. there l.S less opportuni. ty

- 1 -

BECRE)

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REF ID:A65584
BECRE] -.
tor 88D8unr, the terl"&iD ia pnen.lq lea a aui table tor taab, Ul4 ~ aN
trequentl)r oBD&liled, pnwntt.Dc .aeuwr1 thus the

•1• of aa.r :lDona••••

Theae taotors haw dnelope4 a clesin for greater proteott.on in 'bbe 'tiiDk ua•d
ill this role.

Likln11e, w:lth respeot to the taDk deaVo)rer •qu1PD8Jlt, oom'bat 1D

'
FRAMCB has 4eJDODatra.te4 \bat
the auperior ma'b1l1 ty of our tlmk destzroJer whiolea,
partioularly as to speed, • • not

aD

esaent.ial require.at.

ai"'IIDr proteotion •s cleaire4 tor operation• of thia

tnMt

Like the taDk, liON

:lD. olose support ot

i.Dtantry.
o.

Al'lllOr Proteotiona

ThiokDeaa of ai"JJU)r ta.kea third plaoe :lD. the ooa..



flioti.Dg oha:raoteriat1oa 1D 'both the tank and taDk deatroye:r whiolea when oon•
ai4ere4 for

employD~nt

1D the role of an &J'JIIO:re4 41"ri.aion. .Aa outliDed 1D para•

graph b above, when in support of infantry cl1"ri.aiona, greater protectiOIL ia cle•
aired and a sacrifice 1n mobility, particularly With respect to apeed, ia
a.coepta.ble.
d.
turrets.

Overhead Cover a Initially ouzo ta.nk deatroyer vehicles ha.d open top

The i'ightinc in EUROPI haa deDIODatrated a requirement tor closed tope

to the tuzoreta.
••

ISchine Gunaa

To date our tank destroyer vehicles have oa.rrie4 no

machine guns except for AA uachi.De guns •

Thia la.ck or •chine

be a disadvantage, particularly in offensive ba.ttlea.

~una

haa proven to

In this aODDeatiOZL, it ia

wall to note tha.t the United States tights defensive -.rs but ot'fenaive ba.ttlea.
The add1tianal weight and complica.tion required to put comparable machine gun fb8
povo~er

into the tank destroyer deai&n is amply Ju&t1i'ied by the addit1ona.l oi'tensi"ve

ll.."ld dei'onsive pol'ler that can be obtained at a neglig1ble loaa to the vehiole•a AT
oapab1l1 tios.

Prov1d1DG machine eun i'ire pOl•r tor these self'-propelled AT guns

enables them to i'ir;ht

Wl. th

the infantry on a par with a tank and thus be employed

proi'1tably in the absence of immediate

~d

large-scale tank threats.

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BECRElJ

REF ID:A65584
GECREll
f.

Fire Control•

The aa. type ot integrated direct fire ccm.trol ayatem

and auxi.liary indirect fire control equiPMDt are required. in 'botll. taDka aad
tank deatropra.

g.

\

llla.acellaDeo\Uia

Other cbaracteriatica required iD the two whiolea.

suoh aa gro\Dld pressure, speed, nsicm., e1fo., are essentially the sa..
h.

Turretsa

So long aa salt-propelled tank cleatroyer guu.s muat haw

-turret glm mounts parmi tting 360° traverae, then their characteristics 111.11 be
basically' those ot a tank.

It ia ar;reed that salt-propelled tank cleatroyer gua.a

should be constructed w1 th 3800 traverae •

Ollly by abandcm1D.g the 3600 turret ac

an AT r;un motor carriage 'be 'built that will differ materially in ailhouette and
characteristics from a tank.

The 360° turret is an easential feature of the glm

mount stablized in ele..,.'t.l.e and aziDII1th as visualized iD this paper.
2.

It is reooJIIIIIID.ded that Section V be deleted and the t'ollow.lnr; addi tic:ma

nade to other sections ot the reporta
a.

Change par 13a, Section III, Armor Equipment a Replace "The following

tanka should be developed" by "Th.e folloWing tanka, tor use also as tank destroyer

(i.e., tankjtank destroyer), should be developed."
b.

Add a par 2le, Section IV, Field Artl.llery Equipmenta

~~There

should

be a. t0118d tank destroyer gun developed whose primary mission is the destruction

ot tanka with DlXimum thiclal.eaa of armor."
3.

It tank destroyers are to rerain in their present status, the following

cha.ne;es are reao•:t.-.Jnclcd 1n Section Vt



a.

Delete par 29rh

b.

.Add to pa.r 29bt

11

a.

Add to par 32aa

"Indiract f1re control equiPJnent sho\lld also be

provided."

Capabla or roo.d speeds or 40 miles per hour.n

REF ID:A65584
GECREll
ETOUSA RBVIBW OF

• ARl4f GROUND FORCES 1 EQUIPiaT REVIEW BOARD
PRELiltiNARY STUDr -

SECTION VI, CAVALRY EQUIP!DT
Seoticm. VI ia ocm.ourred in w1 th the f'ollow1D.g addi tiona
1. Add to par 35oa

lt'fheae whiolea are apeoial purpoae whiolea and are

intended f'or general uae, rather than f'or organic equipment of' Jllllohanized unita."



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GECREll

REF ID:A65584


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CECRE:ll
I!.'l'CXI CA. lL!: lfl.!o'• Qlo•
-Ani~

Glt UNu

FORC~S, ~JJIY.".&"'T
I-~"JCLD ,D.A..'r.!

...

lU:i''u::il .ar.AP.D
STU'slY'-

I

93C.a:IOJ!T V_I, Al .L':U.J'h.C,lA!<•.r ~t,iJIP. El~~·

Section VII is concurred in w1th the tollm1ing adnitionsa
11

And to po.r 40a

1.

.

In addition, mobility" of' all m.ounta ahoul'i oe tn'

creased and better on-carriage sirhts
A certain

sm~1nt

at

a~or

antia1rcrat~

Since

• part ot
1s an intesral

to

~rouna

roles.

tor

~~e

rorce team, \"he improvement at v;eapons should also be directed

~reatcr ndaptabili~

'~apona.

be provided for autcA&tic

tor protection of personnel is also desirablo

automat1c wea,ans mounts.
~~round

shoul~

toward:~

J•aunts Should be capo.olo of rapid,

emplacement and withdrawal, and weapons should be capaole ot tirlJlt, at
negative
2.

an~lea

of' elevation in all uirect1ons.".

Au.d. to par l2o.a

11

All mounts tor

an"~;;ie.ucratt

sn.ould be or "Ghe self-propelleC:., niU1 c::lp1e type.
l"l&Chinc

~n

is ot sllch valt.e that carc£111

betors rc ,lacLJ1b th1s Neapon by

T:1e-

.f'o110\11n:.; &rt:Lnimu.m rates at' 1'1.re

r~st

~.

~118

u.nits in ar 7 "reu.s

ct'.llb'ar .50 antJ.aircratt

cons1dera.t~cn

20mrn gun.

be met oy

s'loulC\ oe :;1ven

In order to
~he

' unrJe veapon, '/! () rounr_s per mina..te.

{2)

·" tr.U.ltinlo Ytea•

•"'"r"' "'...o .,ar 42c:

11

af'toc ..;LvO,

new super-veloc. ... tv

(1)

on,

1..0

"'~ d

-:,., par 'Sa:

1'his ur.. shou1•i oo

Reaearoh

ryl!l:

8,000 roun~a J?Gr 11'.111Ute. n
cfp~b1e

o:

0%1{,11

in

s

C£1

ai: a :n:LnU""..ll'l r&.n{!;e of no e-rGa:l""l' "··~ 4,000 yards,. 1n C"rt!er t'o overl:. I'l

4.

l'!f':

~hould

"'"arlets
.:1e

1nc1u ·o n ..v. meta.o ~s. : tire cc.n:..rol

I

'•

'

REF ID:A65584


~

GECREll

..

Jin'OUSA. REVIE'V' OF
- AR!lY GROUND FO.tlCES, ~UIPKl!.""NT REVIi« BOARD,
PRELIMINARY STUDY ~

SECTIQN VIII, AIRBORNE EQUIPMENT

Section VIII
1.

l.S

concurred in nth tqe following additions and exceptions:

In l1eu of par 1&6 1 substitutea

•I

The Airborne Dinsion should be

11

capable of the same sustained action as the ground division and should be organized and equJ..pped in accordance with thl.s coDCept.

In addition to the combat

eqUJ.pment. of the standard J.nf'antry chvision, special equipment is reqmred.
Thl.s equipment

involv~s

that necessary for transporting, droppina, and assamblin&

or personnel a!ld eqUJ.pment 'after dropping, and material designed to be used
during the airborne assault phase when the airborne troops are expected to
operate as a group of unintegrated self-sustaining units.

The following are

specJ..al equ1pment reqm..rements considered essentJ..&la
a.

Non-osc1llating parachute,

possi~

of triangular desJ..gn, with

means of deceleration.
b.

Light-weJ.ght parachute for gliderJ.sts.

c.

Quick release dence for parachute which obviate
removal of
I

eqUJ.pment.
d.

Small equipment bundle complete with canopy which may be Jumped

on parachutJ.sts, released during descent and controlled by line attached to
jwnper.

e.

Quick release tie-down tor lashl.ng equipment in gl1der.

f.

Improved equipment for droppJ..ng supplies and heavy eqUJ.pment..

The present. method of droppJ..ng supplies is inefficient WJ..th reference to the
ratio or pay load to gross weight, and lacks necessary pattern control.

'.Lhe

use or bomb-like containers, technique of release, and aid to develop ac•
- l-

EiE:CREll

I

-(

REF ID:A65584
SE:GRE:ll
curacy should be .Lnvest.l.p;ated so that droppl.llf of eqUJ.pment and suppll.es can
be done from vary:mr alt1tudes \n.th the pattern and accuracy of present day
bombl.ng.

.1.11e use of bonib-l1.ke cont.uners nth t1.me or prOXJ.mty (fuse) para-

chute release dev1.ces should be l.nvest.Lgated to permit droppl.ng of suppl1.es
from h1gh altl.tudes and at greater speeds.

Research should beg1n immed1atelY

for the development of para-crates and frames to drop larger cal1ber art1llery 1
vehLcles, raa.Los, etc.

It 1s bel1eved that loads of

~reater

wel.ght and di-

mensl.ons of tne one-quarter ton trucl. . can better be landed by gl1der.
E•

In1proved communications, a1rcraft to a1rcra1t, to perml.t last

nunute l.nstructl.ons ana coora1.nat1on between units.
h.

Improved comrnumcat1ons, eround to a1r, to permit airborne troops

already on ground to l.nstruct l.nCOI'I'Il.Df troops as to best land1ng areas.
1..

Contl.nued amprovement l.n pathf1nder technl.que to 1nclude use of

l.nfra-red, raaar ane d.1.rect1onal antenna.

drmnes.

J.

LJ.ghter we1.ght gas mask.

k.

~treamll.ned

a1ds for brl.efl.ng a1.rborne troops at take-off aJ.r-

'.L'1.me allowed for thl.s all-l.mportant 1nstruct1on l.S often 1nadequate.

The use of rubber sand tables and recently developed photos 1s suggested.
1.

Camoufla£eC Jump SU.Lt 'Wl.th removable ll.ner.

m.

Infantry r .Lfle recommended 1n Sectl.on II of

s!1ort~:r

lene1:rh or

d=td.cltabJc f,tock to fac.1.ll.tate JW'lpl.ng.

wlll.Ctl

n.

L1.gnt-we1.eht wat.el p1 oof covers for all weapons.

o.

Operations tent and equ1pment bundle for umts down to compaey

can be dropped by parc1.chute.
p.

Improved day and n1ght assembly a1ds for personnel and

equi~ent.

Use of l.nfra-red, direct.Lon antenna and J.nduct.Lon frequency locator recommended.

- 2 -

'

REF ID:A65584

.

GECREll

.
q.
tl1e J m.tJ.al
r.

'Sta~es

2.

devu.e::, to ue U5cd

Olll

1n:

of ar• a.t.rborne assa11lt.

.PsychologJ.cal weapons, such

to be dropped Jn enefflY
s.

carry1.n,~

Pack board::. and other erl'I.Ll.plnl::nt

a~

battl::-fJ.t:.l"' no1.-:.c. muJa..nr• c.evJ.c..c s,

ll.ne~.

l.mprovement. J.n

Add to pc1r l1?a:

11

dJ

rborne m.ed.tc.al suppl1.es. 11

Al.rplane and ehder developn•t-nt sroulll J.nclucle con-

trolled deceleratJ.on, helJ.copter

des~ent,

sel1-seall.~1

fuel

ta.r~s,

rrotectJ.ve

armor ana arraa.ment., and hJ.ph cruJ sJ.nr; opeed. 11
\.

~.

Add to par 47c(l)(a): ·~rther stuQy should be made tmYard usJ.ne

fighter type
4.

~nrcrc.l.ft

as a more pra.ct.tcal solutJ.on for t.ovnnr,
I

Add to par 47c{l)(b):

('"ll.der~.n

"'l'hl.s 1~hder l.S prd.ctl.Cd.l only 1.11 casP J.t does

not requJ.re too laxee a land..Lnc zone."

5.

Add a par 47c(l)(b)(J):

"Power gll.ders capable of tc1k1ng off entpty

or ll.ghtly loaded wJ.th casualt.Les and returro.ne to base. 11

6.

Add a par 47e:

"For operatJon over rvate1, aucraft should be capaiJle

of floatJ.ng with full load. 11

- 3 '

GECREl

'\

----------------..........

REF ID:A65584

\



BECREll
E'fCU5A :U:Wli: r OF
.::; .ulP•.:;:..N't

- AID.IT' G'tOUi''D !\ .":.C .-3 1

~:LIL'UuuU

.mv .1.l!:1o

KlJdD 1

....TliD~ -

r..ZC'£IuN IX, Al t SuPPC ••'l'

Section IX 1.s concurred 1n ·u1th the follovnn;,; aad.L t.1.ons anu exce!...t.Lor s:

1.

In lieu of par

hOa,

subst.L1..u"\.e:

All hJ.gh performance cll.rcraft ::;,hould

11

remain an orgam.c part of the Al.r ?orces and normal Ground Ji'orce requ1rm•tents
for ll.a1son and hel1copter type a1.rcraft should be

ass1g1~d



Forces, but should contl.nue to be suppl1ed and maJ.ntamed
un1.ts.

It 1s des1rable to have

photo~raph1c

to the Ground
Air l•orce type

and reconna1ssance a1.rcra£t

ava1.lable WJ.th arnu.es and corps as reqw.red, but under no c1.rcumstances
should f1ghter-bomber and transportat.Lon

t~~e-al.rCraft

be placed orr.an1.cally

1n the armies. 11
Tlus latter statement 1.s made for the follcna.ng reasons:
a.

Operat1.ons lYith f1.ghter-bamber and transportat1.on type a1rcraft

can only be employed in a sector where we have
b.

em. ned

aJ.r super1.onty.

The successful employment of fighter-bombers and transportat1.on

type aircraft depends on the1.r protect1.on from enemy f1ghters qy top cover
I

which will continue to be furm.shed by Al.r Force fiehters.
c.

The fact that f1.gnter-bombers are not ass1.gned as orgam.c a1r-

.

craft to the ground forces aoes not preclude tne development of equ1.pment 1
tact1.cs 1 and techmques for close support of ground troops.

'l'hl.s reqw.rement

could be met by' des1gnat1ng a port1on of tne A.t.r Force d u:n.ne peace t.LJ'I'Ie whose
pr1.mary ml.ssl.on 1s to develop close support technl.ques.

Tlus appears to be

the most feas1.ble method of 1.nsuring that develo!)IIlent 1.s carr1.ed on 1.n tlus
most llnportant i'l.eld.
...

- 1-



GECREll

REF
..

ID:A65584

CECREll
4. Aaa1pmezrt of ~ght,e~'bollbere to groa4 toroee would Mke it
'

2111oh IIIDN

~

dlffloult to -..a Jhe air effort 1D tl"ont ot &DJ'

'b7 reaultiDg in a loaa of tlwbS.lity of air power

0118

&l'llf' there-

11h1.oh hN 'been a JDDat

:lllportat taotor 1D our operatS.ona.

•• !he loaa ot the etteot of pattem b0Jib1Dg 1D oloae aupport
opere.tS.qu WS.ll far ov.tweS.p &117 aclnDt&ge the groUDcl toroea _,. g&iD by

..

ftghter-boabere orp.D1oall7 uas.gnecl.

t. lD acae operatiou the

ha"f'111c

'bombing etfort • • ••ted due to poor

WS.ll 'be p-eatq 1Dore&ae4 i t alroraft are uaip4 organioall7 to groa4
toroea.
2.

Dllete par tab.

Beason•

!e

Delete par .Yo(l)e

Prea:lae out11zae4 in 48& aboYe.

~aon1

The operatiOIIII in th1111 theater han

pJ"'VeD beyond doubt that penoDDel operating airoraft 1D c!ireot aupport of
groUD4 troops -..y gS.Te uoellent support with na kDrnrle4ge of troliDd W.otiea
other thaD that uplaiud to tha at the preflight briet1Dg

bJ'

the GroUD4

Liaiaon Oftioer and the iZLtormation th8J' reoeiTe tram the forward oontroller

.

ciuriDg 'the :rlight.

will

alwa~

!be requirement tor a team with one oo--.ncter. w beU.en •

'be met aa long u ,.. oODtiDUe to deaip.te a Sup1'81118

Ccm~Mader

tor a theater of operationa.


Beferenoe par tao(') 1
It ia reOODIIIDdec! tbat the priori'ti)' be obanged 'bJ' 4elipating c!if•

ferent prhar,y Jld.aa:lou to aepaJ"&te aeot:lona of the air toroea and ohargiJJc
thea w1:th a aeoondaey m:laa:lon of ocmat&Dtl7 arl"IUlg1ng tra1D1ne; prograaa 11bioh

will ezzable other aeotioDB ot the air toron to praotioe 'the taotioa m4

-2-

BECREll

REF ID:A65584

'

It la bellne4 that the dJ"'ogi"CRUlCl te. oaa

feotl'V'e bJ :reorpDlalzlc ua4 Slllpi"O"t1.llc tM 7.UD aad

ter la the

Jt• ••. • • .•:re et-

'so •111.._.

wld.oh were

••t lllportaat tanor la tbeae operatiou &Del ahoa14 'be atuc1le4

with. the 't'l- of

•&»Jtillc the • - t,pe oater tor AI'IIJ aa4 Coq»a izlatalla-

&.

Delete lui; Uu of par Gb. .._., 11.1 I'Nid.ae cna1;li.M4 ill Ma,

e.

W

a'boYe.

to par ''•• •A Yer;y deftmte ue4 tor thia

:tor S.UcU.ate :N•auppl7 of 1aolate4 'allita.
eatabliehecl a't



tn•

It le eugeetecl that a pool be

Aftw lnel tor attaaiiMDb to opeatillc Corpa

7 • .Ud 1ao par 10&1

•:rart~aer

•nd.D& 8Dd SOIP&a' :ra4ar will

boJI'biDc.•·
a. A4tt to par

azul D1nalo•••

awlt7 aDd cln'elopamat ot -.toro-4&'1'8 ear17

do Dlall to illproft the etf'eot1Taeae of' oloae

aupport:

&Obi

alro:raft Biaa

.

·Pa.l"bh8r atuq aDd UY81opaell'b of' .... ~ L!aiaoa

Of't1oer a)'ll'tta Will do ..aoh 'to 1"811Wf'e the poaa1b!11t1ea of a abort: 'bolabiDge
A better method. of repor1:1Dg troat line looat1o1111 ahould. be d.neloped. auab u
the Brltiah Pbultoa •Jilt•.•

BECREll

-a-

(
1'1-

REF ID:A65584

--- t

.... -

GECRElJ
ETOUSA REVIEW OF
- ARL1r GROUND 1-'0RCES, EQUIPI!.D! RIVIEW BOARD,
PRBLIMDJARY STUDY -

I

SEC'liOH X, SEACOAST ARTILLERY EQUIP!.41::lft

Seoti-cm X 1a oo.Dpurred 1D W1 th the following addi tiODa and ezoeptiODBI
1. .Add a new par 52&, and 1'8Dumber 52&, b and o aa 52b, o and d, reapeotivelya

•a.

In the dewlopment of aeaooaat antllery materiel, fixed ..

aeaooaat defenaea ahould be dewloped for atrategio poiDta, but e:mpha.aia
ahould be plaoed on 1110bile equipment 111. th a minimum of fixed inatallationa. •
2. .Add a pa.r 53oa

•o.

Smaller oaliber automatio antiaircraft •apona,

to iDolude the 20mm., 40mm, and propoaed 75mla gUD.a, w.Ul be uaed in a dual purpoae role for defense againat high apeed motor torpedo boata and other faat
aurfaoe oratt.•

GECRElJ

.·- .

REF ID:A65584



c

.-- .

GECRE1

BrO'DIA BBVIEW OJ'
- ARM!' GROUID FORCBS, IQUIP!.BNT RBVIIW BOARD,
PRBLIMDJ'ARY STUM •
SECTIOH XI, FRBB

t

ROC~I

I

leoti. em XI :la ocmourrecl in w1 th the following acld.i ticma
Aclcl to par &lela

"'ll'UIId.Daticm, no:lae--ld.Dg. •windOW', md lea.tlet dla•

tributing projeotU.ea ahould alao be dewlopecl.•
Aclcl par 6le 1

•see reoCDIIIII8nda t1911 for rooket ill pal" 2lo, Seot:lcm. IV. •

..
-6ECRE1

'

\\

-. ..

--

-

--

-------------------------------------------------------------REF ID:A65584
.. •

• ... &

GEGREll
BTOUSA. RBVID OF
- ARm' GROUND FORCES, EQUIPMENT REVIEW BOABD1
I'.RELIMINARY STUDY •
8EC1'IOB XII, GUIDED JfiSSILES

....

.
Seotion XII is oonourred 1D 111. th the followS.ng exoeptions arad addi tiOD.sa
I

1.

Change par 83b to read,a

"To supplement the Taotioal Air Foroea .w:

2.

Change par 63o to read a

"To supplement the Strategic Air Foroes. •

3.

Add to par 65a

4.

In lieu of aentenoes two and three ot par 66,64rubstitutea

8 Illumination

type missiles should be developed.•
"The m1a•

ailes in the first three banda would have their prinoipal use as lang-range
artillery for ground foroe operations.

The very lang rage missiles should

be employed by the artillery in the support of strategio operations, and

should have the maxtmum
5.

Add to par 69a

rad~

obtainable with a reasonable degree ot aoouraoy.•

llprojeotilea desi91ed on the hollow oharge prinoiple

should be investigated.•

DECRE1-

REF ID:A65584
GECREll
ETO'O&\ RBVIinl' OF
- .ARm' GROtlND FORCES. EQUIPl.£NT REVIErf BOARD.
P.RBLIMINARY STUDY ._
SECTION XIII • BECOI:t.LESS GUNS

"Section XIII is oonourred in as written.

The reooillesa g1.m develop-

r.umt program should oorreot the 1'1.mot1onal dii'i'ioulties and limitations experienoed with this wapcm by this theater; rei'erenoe"lst Ind. Hq ETO to CG.
AGF • i'ile AG 472 OpGC. 22 June 1945• to letter llq AGF to CG. ETOUSA• i'ile
472 (s)(l4 April 1945) GNR~-1~22276• subJeots

1 ~eooilleas

Weapons"• dated

14 April 1945.




CECRE:ll

.

.

REF ID:A65584







GECREll

I

ETOUSA RBV'IEif OF
~

GROtnm FORCES, EQUIPMElr.l' REVIEW BOARJ)•
PRELUUHA.RY STUDY·

SECTION XIV • Am!tNITION

Section XIV is concurred in with the following additioasa
1.

11A

Add to par 72a(lj 1

-

that provides a completely

tiniah to be applied like paint should be dnelopecl

unito~

2. Add to par 72a(2) 1

surface."

"The minilllura requirement tor the steel shol!ld at least

equal the oore in present HVAP ammunition.•

s.

Add to par 72aa
"(5) Further design on the study of JA projectiles should teDd toward

increasing the ratio ot the night ot the burst:l.rlg charge to the wight gf the
shell proper.
"(6)
packaging.

CoDtinued reeearch must be conducted to improve ammunition

The following points should be streaaeda
(a)

Packages must be portable by one •n (76 lbs or leas).

(b) There should be protection from deterioratiOD UDder all
climat1c ooDditio:na.
pletely waterproofed.

Powder baga for separate loadiDg ammunition should be cam•
Incremeata for mortar ahells should be inclosed in improved

containers.
(c)

Package must be easily opened.

(d)

Package must w1thatand rough handlin& during Shipment.

(e)

Package must be eaa1ly and ecoaamically stacked.

(f)

There should be standardi&ation and reduction of dittereDt

(g)

Marking tor easy ident1ficatio:n in darkness should be

types per cal1ber.

improved.

It is fl..rther reomm118Dded that some simple type ot color code be

adopted so that where unskilled labor 1s used in handling, the d1fferent types

GECREll

1\

--------------------------------------------REF ID:A65584
- 2 -

SE:CREll
can readily aad easily be distiDguished.
(h) Model and code numbers should be reduced.
(7)

.

UDifor.mity in exteriorballiatioa should be sought amoag the

Taricua types ot projectiles tired
'

(8)

for all

caliber~

tro- the same weapon.

Tbare should be additional researoh in hollow charged projectiles
tram 75.mm up.

4e In lieu of par 72b.

•cartridge Cases.

substitute~

(1)

Due to

poss~ble

I

Shortage of copper. researah should be coDducted to d8T8lop a metal or abher subst&DOeJ

possible plastic. haTiDg the s81118 or better physical characteristics than

braaa tor uae in manufacture of cartridge cases.
(2)

Reduction in weight is an essential consideration.



Research

should inolude the possible use at a stable. durable ezplos1ve case Which

~11

supplement the charge &Dd be aelt deatroyiDge
(3) A cartridge case to eliminate difficulties of extraction &Dd
stoppage& with particular reterenoe to small ar.ma anould be deTeloped.•
5.

In lieu ot first aenteDOe par 72o(l). subat1tutea

•There ia an urge.nt

and UDitor.m dem&Dd for moisture reaiatant propellants possessing smokeless and
flashleas characteristics.•
&.

Add to c par 72c(2)1

"'!'his increased Telocity should. not be obtained by a

decrease in the weight ot the projectile.•
7. Add to par 72o(4)•
nlocities.

• •••••• • but not at the coat or loss of essential

Uadue emphasis on reduction ot erosion 11'111 result in loss ot nlocity.

and aa a result high Telocity guns may be developed that W1ll not giTe peak

performance on the battlefield."

a.

Add a par 72o(9)•

"All roun4a should be

manutac~ured and

inolude propellBDt inoremants up to the maximum. charge."

GECREll

issued to

.
,.

REF ID:A65584
.
GECREll

.

-3-

e.

"'leazaa ahould also be prO'I'ided tor adjustment ot the

Add to pal" 72ea

aeDBitiYity ot V'l tuzea ao that

•xt"NNIl

eftectiveneaa o&D be obtained agaiut

.



I

4!tteraat typea at targeta.

"The po11ibility of determilliDC the amount at propellaat

10. Add to pr 72ta
t~

I

eaoh pGIId.er lot required to eatabliah a at&Ddard. lllUZZle Yelocity tor eaoh

charge tor .,..ry weapon should be iDnstigated.

Powder

incr~marrts

ahould be

asaembled to produce this at&Dd&rd Yelooity, thua obviating diapersion tram one
paw6er lot to &Dother.

All OQIIIPOraerata ot the complete roUDd 'fit fixed &Dd aemi-

tized amun1tion auat be ot the ••e lots to insure identical powder, ahell weight,
&DCl tiDish..

Aocuraoy ia importarat, but it is essential that the necessity ot
I

segregatiDg artillery ammuuition by lot number at the firing position be eltminated.

BE

&DCl smoke shells should have same ballistic characteristics to allow the use

ot

.-oke shell in registration."
11.

Add to pa.r '72ga

"A. packagiDg for tracers should be developed that is

light in night, and provides adequate protection UDder all clunat1.c conditions •
.A delay act1.on tracer ia required for all calibers that will coJIIIII8noe illlmlination

at 300 yards. 11
12.

Add to par '72ha

"Research should develop an improved method of shell

tilliag to obviate the tendency ot the WP filler to settle
storage, thus causing erratic flight.

1

oft center' duriDg

The rollOWl.Dg should be developed•

(1)

Colored.. 811lok8 for spottiDg charges for heavy calibers.

(2)

An improved incendiary filler for greaades, rockets, NJd all

types at artiller,y shells.
(3)

A thin case, base ejection shell for use with incendiaries,

flares, and propaganda leaflets."

..}

REF ID:A65584
GECREll

..

11

13. Add a par 72il

111\llld.zumts.

illum1D&Dts should be increased.

~oth

Ball&•

aDd effeoti"f'8D8SS of battlefield.

parachute tlarea aD4 grOUDd buraiag flarea

should be
. a"t'ailable for projection tram a YarietJ of weapons.

Ballistics ot

illumiDBDt shells should be identical with those of the at&Ddard projeotilea.
'Silent Sentinels' suoh as grOUDd flares operated 'b7 trip wires, should be


improved."
14. Add to par 73al
"(1)

A. sate, impaot type ot offensin haDl greDade with aziJDum blaat

effect should be developed.
(2)

A combined hand and rifle grenade should be developed with

~

proved project1on features that eliminate the necess1ty1br special cartridges.
The possibilities of an 'on the spot'

OODY~rsion

ot the grenacle 1Dto an improved

shape charge for d1gging of individual emplacements should be ezploited.
(3)

Special effort should be made to improve hand grenade fuzes toa
(a)
(b)

(4)

Eliminate noise ot ignition ot

del~

fuzes •

•Eliminate 11parks during burning ot delay fuze •

(c) ~liminate smoke prior to detonation.
(d) Provide better water proofing.
A small hOGk should be prov1ded on the body ot all grenades i:v.

order to faci11tate convenient attachment on equipment, and thereby make the grenade
ava1lable for instant use with cold, gloved, or muddy h&Ddse 11
15. Add to par 73c 1



"The posnble use of stamard artillery ammunition

should be considered tor ground f1ring ot AA guns or correspondinG caliber.•
16. Add to nar 73dl

"The possible use of bacteriological agents as A filler

should also be 1nvest1gated.

The propellant tor guided missiles should and through-

out the flight ot the missile, maintaining or 1noreasing the velocity."

SE:CREll

-~:A65584

- 6-

17. .Add. to par. ?Sf1

"Thia dnelopamt ahould. 1nol\ld.e reaearah on radio

oontralled. miDea oapable ot bei11g aotiYated., d.e-actiY&ted.,. aDd d.etoated. by remote
control."
18 •

Add. to par 7S a

"h. tiDe CarrziDI Projeotile.

A projeotile Should be developed tbat

will oarey a line, a telephorae wire, prima oord., eto., with or without grappliDg

books.
1. H1f5h FrequeDOy Vibrationa.

The d.eatruotiYe etteot ot high

trequenoy Yibratiou abould. be extoeDBiYely reaearohed.. · ODe d.iacarery'iZL thia t1el4
-.y wall reDder our" preaent araeu.l ot 118apona oomplately obaolete.

aearch on weapou ud auaUD.itiOD abould take into aoocnurt aU

D81l'

Further re-

'd.iaoGV'eriea ilL

the field. of phyaica &Del ohaietr;y 1 aa well aa end.eavoriDC to improve our preaent
liD& at weapona.•

GECRElJ

- -=-· . .-. ., -\
,.

A

REF ID:A65584

.. . '







" .-"

GECREll
K".rVUSA t(6Vll!.,i C•F

-pD:Y

SR:.'UN!J Fv.i.CiS,

E~u J.H-"..:.):'1'

F.!!: IJ.J:.,'{

~OAI.lU

l'lU::Lll"IfARX' STUDY•

oono~rred

Section XV is

In

1.
.

Bh~ld

lie~

1n w1th the

tollowin~

add1f-1ons ana exceptionsa

of last sentence ot par 75a, subst1tute1_ 11 Care£1.,.1 cbr1nderat1on
I

be g1ven to

~ne

determinat1on or

.

mappi~ ~rmation.

Adequate support

~~e respcns~bll1VJ ~or pro~id~ng
aho~ld

~he

be ·1ven to

responsible

~

agea.oy .. •
2.

Add a par 75b(2)(c)l "A plane capable ot perf'or:n11r1p; n1~ht. p.notc-

,. graphic m1ss1ons.'! '
3.

"The follow1~ are aeureda

Add to par 75b(4)a
(a).

A li5ht, rapid direct proc8ss

the present slow,
dmot1on of'

b~llq,

reprodupt~on

mach1ne to replace

&•latin procea11 machine, to be used i.n

rapro-

1:.1e

overl~a.

'
Possibilities ol' ratograwre or so'lle
continuous :.one met4od

(b).

(or reproduot1011 of' photomaps s.(lould be mvestigatcld.
A two color

(c).

ot!se~

s1milar to present debennorf'er

p1ess of' capacit,y and

charactel1S~1c8

Lithogra~hic ~rasa.

I

(d).

I

A forced dryer for 2'4 11 x 6011 or larger ne!l;a"Cives f'or instal-

lation 1n tne reproduction
(e).
the

tr~in.

A safe model heatef re~1rin~ l1ttle ma1ntenance for use 1n

raprod~ction

tra1n.
:reprg~uctJ.c-n

(f).

A com.paot, ra. .,ia. printer ant.. c.eveloper for

((S).

A portable, sturdy' sin.• le control rectifying camera.



trac1nc;s.

GECRElJ

-

or

I -



REf. II;)·: A65584
I

(~).



GECRE:1

Redaaign multiplex e~ipment with longer tooal length so

'that high altitade

~

.~...

-.

photograp~ ~

be secured at larger scales than are

I

r

now poss1ble with 6 inc' cameras.
(i). A baae film or acetat~ less subject to changes in size as
a result of temperature and humldit,y variatia.a

than

the present topo baa•,
,

film or acetate.
(j). A atmple field process for calor separation work.
( k). A more durable and. waterproof paper.
(1).



W.minous mapa.

(m). A method ot'portr~ing relief more eaa1~ 1nterpreted by
the •verage reader.

(n).

A mapping camera and mount that will au.tomati-cal~ adjust

itself for tip and tilt and var,y1ng light condition •

.

(o).

A simple and portable field instrument for compilat1on of

topographic detail from aerial photographs.
{p).

S1mplitied methods ot obtaining mass ~roductton ot 9ect~

(q).

A new slotted templet cutter, adjustable to ~ scale of

c;raphs.

photograph with ancillar,y
(r).

equ1pme~t.

A machine prec1sion pantograph tor cutting plaster models

both on a plane swrtace and a
(s).
t~am

~o.me

surface (earth curvature).

A spec1al ~draulic press tor product1on of paper models

cement or metal dies.

(t). A mobile one-frame multiplex unit capable of

operat~ng

in
,

-2GECREll

REF ID:A65584
CECREll

i

~

(u). Experimentation should be oontiuued on

multi-colo~

printing

I

'papers to pbr.mit color reproduction of l~ited numb,rs of colored mapa.
( ,;)

.

A precise aerial camera with levelling equipment and remqte
I

I

I

oontrol navigat1on equip11ent ·(such as radar) for mapping photo,grapey.

(w). lmproved equipment for the duplication of negatives auto...

J1la'l.1cally.
4.


"The development of a continuous purification pro-

Add to par 76a

cess to replace tho present aed1mentation method should be unlertaken.

The

I

present pdtable equipment should be mounted 111 a trailer.
be developed for renderin_ sea water potable.
1n decontamination of

The d1soharge hose 111 the

~proved

present pur1ficat1on equ1pment should be
4n» lieu ot par 77a(l). suost1tutea

5.

'
Pesearoh should be conducted

impure water.

chemical~

Equ1pment should

to 1ncrease 1ts l1fe."

"Experimentat1on should be con•

' t1nuecl \'11th "bhe present 50 and 80-ton br1dges and t.ne proJected 125-ton bridge
to

seo~re

a

capac1~

of 200-tons w1th

~he

same equ1pment.

lular t,)rpe float•ccnstrucb1on to prov1de flexib1l1ty
and f1xed p1ers of d1fferent capacities
bridses should be prov1de
6.

.LJl

stloulCL
the

1n

~e .~ea1gnoa

us1n~ ~roops.

2-~ace 1n~ervals

also be
7.

~nat

~1ven

1t

~n oonstruct1n~

be invest1gated.

w1th solid decks instead of

l1eu of par 77a(2),

unsQt~sta~to~

sho~ld

~ubstJ.tutel

l~cks stren~th

11

The use of eelbrid,es

Tread~ay

treadw~s."

The present footbr1u.ge 18

at Lhe Joints.

"

A new bridg•

vrhl.t.11 1s s1nplo. read1ly portable. easily assembled by
anc capable or slvport1ns men

and 111

to Lhe

full field equ1pment at

u, to 10 feet a second.

eurren~s

develoL~ent

::- eferenoe 1 ~7b( 1)1

v~th

of an arMored

":-tecop~nend

-s-

~ons1deraL~on

trons~o1ter,

Lobe

should

self-launching~

variaule length transoms so that

REF ID:A65584



.

SE:GRE:ll
:oadwa.y Vlidth
8.

.Au.ci

be var ~ed.

11lfl;'r

11

a 4 ·a~....!!E.!. "I. 1sce,;L~~O!!.!.•
~o\

( 1)

scissors t:"Jpe ur1d..:;e shoulc.. be o.evelot,ec.' ca,•ttultJ of c&.rry1n((
he traus,orter sbould

a medium tank over a span oi' 80" feet.
I

(2)

~ortabla

equipment should be developed for

~e ~rTorcd.

...

re~ntor~1n~

exist-

ing bridges of all t,ypes.n
9.
wi~~out

ln

lieu of' .,ar 78a, _substitute•

n'•he engineers are at l:'rt.sent
A vehicle should be provide~

an armored reconnaissance vehicle.

wh1ch is tha latest type standard armored reconna1"&sance
I

10. .Acld

par 78ba

i;Q

11

~ar.''

The motor and chasns of' ~1s ve!llcle shoulc" b.,

of' a standard Ordnance ..ype. 11
11. Acid to 2nd sentence, par 19b•
~d,

''- under all condit1ons o£ water,

ice an~or anow and will not require high~ skilled operators or be so

slow 1n operation as to be impracticable."
12. Add a uar 79c•
(1)

'"tliacella.naous•

An effective method of'

l~ing and nautraliaing m1nes from the

air should De investigated.
(2)

~ina

f'Uaes should oa

~eveloped

that are

I

detona~&d by

1pcuct1on



tram mine detectors, together w1th means f'or defeating similar t,ype fUses
de~lopad

by 'he
(3)

ana~.
1

Tarnaand 1 or a substitute should be prov1ded tor

~se in

I

i'acili~at1n~

removal of
(•)

'j

(5)

non-metall1c mines.

Protection should be developed for use or personnel angagtd

in clearing minas and
I

£r1end~

~1ne

a~t-cking

detonator equ1pment should

a strong f1ald ot radio anergy
at a safe distance.

i'1xad tortif1cat1ona.

an~

~e

developed

thus would set off rad1o

_._
QECREJ

-

w~1ch

produces

activa~;d

mines

.

'
REF lD:K65584

..


.

(6)

..

....
'

A mine 11b1ch becomes inoperative aDd safe to halldle after

· a s1x-month or other period Of time shoald be developed.. 11
I

'

1

~,

13. Add a

par

79.la

nfha following are adcliticmal

equi)m~Snt require-

meDtsa

.

a.. A. m:U1tart aDg].e dozer with intell"al .front armor for both
operator &Dd eDgine, with a .frcmt II.OUDted cab.

PreaeDt aftlm' on bulldoZ81"s

-is iDadequate.

b.



.l quick-starting, &1leDt 1 depelldable portable motor for pro-

pulsion of assault and atorlll boats.
in this field.

ihe electric Dlotor baa possibilities

The present outboard motor is unsatiatact017 ill that it is

exceedii'Jiq dit.ticult to start, UDdepeDdable in operation, requires excessive mainteDaDce aDd a

h:Lg~

trained operator.

c. A lighter night assault boat that is seaworth in aw1ft waters

am w1th

a

m1rrtmnm

d.


capacitY" ot l3 men.

A light_, stable reccxmaiasance boat

ot 6-man capacity,

...

ea~


mueuverabl.e in currents up to U teet per second and 11'1th a noiseless -pro,

pul.aion UD.it.

e. A self-propelled craft haV'illg ahal.low draft 1 low silhouette,
loading and unloading ramps, capable ot traDBporting so-ton loads such a.
I

tanka or heaq art1l.lery1 and with such overall dimensions and night as to
parmit ea&y' cross c0UIItr7 transport and eaq launching.

This craft ahoulcl

be maneuverable 1n 11 teet per second currents.

t. Selt...propelled rafts capable

of operating in currents

teet per second an4 with capacities trca 8o to

lSO tons are required

ot ll
in

order to provide earq armored support in river crossing operations.
g.

Standard protecti"" booms tor bridges.

- 5-

"'

~e=E:~G~P~E:~ll

These boams should be

I

,........----------------

-

-

REF ID:A65584

.

SE:CRE:ll



.

I

portable~

eaa:llf erected, and effective agaiDst noat1Dg miDas, Ulldernter

swiDIDars~

Dd.dget subma.riDes,

barges~

and explosive loaded speed boats.

-

h.

Tbe developaent of' 1ASDIC 1 tor "'• in atreiUilS should be con-

1.

.A. shaped charge powerful enough to penetrate

'
tinued.

15 teet ot

re-

1ntorced ccmcrete.•




-GECRE:l

-6-

REF ID:A65584
BECREll
ETOUSA

l~IE'1l

OF

- ARP!X' GROUND FORCES, EQUIPJ~iENT RA"VIEU BOARD,
PRELU1INARY STUDY SECTION XVI, CID::JdiCAL EQUIPJ.ENT

Sect1on XVI is concurred in with the follovling exception and addi tiona 1

1.

Add par Blc 1

a suitable

m$&n8

11

A aampline; k1 t should be developed which will provide

of ccllect1ng samples of

-

a~nta 1n

the field from contaminated

p-c\Dld or ftg&tation and from gas clouds or an-osols."
2.

Delete par 82bl

Reason1

It 1a bel1e'98d that the logistics rmd

dant;er to friendly persarmel would make this 118apan \Dlsatiafactory and that a
rocket or Jet propelled 'W8apon would be more feaai ble.
3.
smoke

Add a par 82ea

"Research should be continued to improft the mechanical

~nerators."

4.

Add a par 82fa

"Research should be continued on 1i11118 1 delay and VT

fuzes for 4.2" mortar."

\

SE:CREll

REF ID:A65584
"

&: --

DE:CRElJ
ETOtJSA REVIEW OF
- ARMY GROUND FORCES, EQUIPta:NT BEVIEtl BOARD,
PRELIMINARY STUDY

UCTION XVII, TRANSPORTATION
Section XVII is concurred in with the following exceptions and additions•
1. Add a par 85g.
( 1)

"~isoellaneouaa

All motor '98hioles should be desir;ned with a view to elimiDat-

ing as many special maintenance tools as possible, particularly in the lovmr
echelons or maintenance.
(2)

As a matter ot principle, reliance on commercial vehicles should

be abandoned, and military types developed w1 th emphasis on standardization

ot component parts and assemblies.
(3)

Close coorcUnation must be maintained with communication develop-

ment asanoies in order that vehicle eleotrioal systems Will be readily
adaptable tor radio and radar.
(4)

A shelter or superstructure to fit on the 2!c:-ton truok and/or

a sui talala trailer to convert them into a CP vehicle tor coii'IIIBJlders, a shop
truok. or supply truck is required.
(5)

Provision should be made tor salt-sealing fuel tanks in air-

bome vehicles • 11
2.

Add to par 86a.:
"(5)
( 6)

Improved tread desir;a. tor wat and dry traction.
Development or an airtir)lt pneumatic casint; on a safety rim to

el1m1Date inner tubes."
3.

In lieu or par 86b( 7), aubati tute 1
"The development or an improftd general purpose track With attachments

tor snow, ice, sand, etc."
- 1 -

SE:GRE:ll

...

~F
IQ:A65584
r...-..nr
pcc1 <L q

4.

Add a par 86o( 6) 1
"The development of a aeries or standard engines hanng tour, six.

e1ght, ond twelve cylinders, all engines having interchangeable parts, suoh
as pistons, oonneottns rods, bearings, valves, electrical accessories, oil
fJ.lters, and instruments."
5.

Add a par 86f:
11

!!1scellaneous.
(1)

Automotive research should also include 1

The development or clutches and brakes to last the normal lite

or 1.he -vehicle.
(2)

Improved sealing or assembl1es a~ainst v•ter and dJ.rt.

(3)

The development or waterproofing methods and materials which

uill eliminate necesnty tor immed1ate de-•terproofing after wading or
svd.mmJ.ng of vehicles.
(4)

The development of better safety features, and eliJUnation

of veh1cular blind spots, such as cab posts and body projeot1ons •



(5)

The development and provis1on for all vehicles of an explosive

charGe, and place tor same, tor ishe1r emergency destruction."
6.

Reference par B7b( 1) and ( 2) I

truck for 1!-ton truck.
7.

develo~.nents

c..

.

In lieu of par 87d, substitutea

Rec()Jidnd substitution or 3/4-ton

"This group should be eliminated when

in full track or 'Wheeled veh1cles provide superior mli tary

~~r

871:

"':he development or a

excoed 250 lbs and capable or

sus~~ned

li~tweisht

operat1on under 30 miles per hour is

necessary tor traf£1c control md "Lessone;er service.
be udapto.ble to po.ra.chute

notor :;cooter.
9.
~nated.

1.1..;h spoed

droppin~
J.S

motorcycle not to

Such a vehicle should

and should replace the present airbome

not a. prJ.m.e requuite in military motorcycles."

Ue.f'cronce lJ.lr 87k( 2) a i.teconunend. th.a.t
- 2-

'Wll~on

type tra1lers be olim-

.........._

--------------

~JP-:A65584

ETOUSA REVIEI.I OF
-Am.iY GROUND FORCES, 1\~UIP. 'EJlT HEVIErJ BOARD,

....

1'aELii :INARY STUDY-

SPX:'l'ICN XVIII, COI.WNICATIO• EQUlft.EN'l'

Section XVIII is concurred in with the following exceptions and additions:
1.

Reference par 88a 1 Concur in thl.s as a guide for future development

of equipment. _
2.

Reference

of equipment.

.

par 88c: Concur in th1s as a guide for future development

The max:lmum integration
of the comrmmication
system is a worth,v
I
a

objective upon which to base future development of signal equl.pment.

However,

it is not believed practicable to effect complete integration under the responsibility of a SJ.ngle agency and maintain the high:cy' desired, present basic
principle of command responsibility for signal colllllUnications.

Tactical develop-

•nt and training of personnel should be the responsib1lity of the Signal Corps.
AU commum.cation personnel must also have trum.ng in the branch or arm to
whl.ch assigned by that arm or branch.
However, no

differentiation between speech security equipment for use an radio or wire
,3.

I

In Lieu of second sentence of par 89b, substitute:

11

c1.rcuits should be contemplated. ••

4. Add to pa.r 89c:

That cOIIDilUnication radl.o equipment desl.gned tor

11

use by troops in forward areas, should be provided wi t.h appropriate remote
control systems to decrease the casualties in both men and materiel, caused
by elleJQ' tl.re be1nc; directed on the antenna of the radio equipment. 11

S. Add a par 89e(.5) ;_

11

Increase the possibility of 1nterchangee.bihty

of bas1c components such as oscl.llators, power supply, rect1f1ers, etc., b,y
standardizat1on of components and unit assemblies.••

- 1-

BECREll



e.

.A44 a par 81f(6)a •n.veloi,IIIUtllt of a11ea hM4 wire l.,S..C equ1paat;

..

to'r uae 5.D to:rRnl areaa 1a allo aeoMI&I7~•

7. Aclcl a paP 81f(&)a

•A Ngecl 'ftD...,ateel, .altS.ple mtobbo&l"d ar-

ND.pcl tol" three llaclrecl loaal tnzlk oli'OUita 011. a foul" paul Blltlple 'baaS.a,


oapa'ble of ezpau1oa to au, eight Ol" ten poa1t1o:u, ahDulcl be Unlopeel tor
111e 111. a,., 00DIIIIId.oat1o:u.•

a.

ltefeNII.Oe paP 8811

»eaoana4 aaa1pa~~~~~.t;

ot a blp priority to tlda

aot1'1"1V•

'• A4cl to

par 8811.1 •:ta acld1t1oD to createl" ae:u11:1Tl'b71

~ 4welot-

e4 41zreat10il ftDd1Dg eq1Jipa811t l'houlcl ha'n alltema p&t'tena p'ftllc greatl7

illpi"'Tecl azs..rth aoaal'II.GJ"•

laaeai"'h ahoulcl be oo:abimlecl to pi'OW14e Ma.- 'to

oouzrteraot the aziJIIIItb ei"'"'I"' oauaeel
azul overbeacl U.Dea.

Thla

equl~ll't

~

aui"I'OUDdiDg objeota auola aa t .....

ahoulcl DOt be tu:rt;her 00J11»l1aatet 'bJ'

elabon.te appa...... fop cletendJd.ng ••••·•
10. A4c1 to pa.zo 88oa

•atadal"d.iaatioa ot the8e ba:ttel"lea ahDulcl be

atnaaect.•
11.

ID lieu ot ;par 89p, aubatitU'bea

IIJI'cnntl" md.ta. A

~1

.

n-

ae&I"'h p:rojeot
ahoulcl be eatabliahecl 111 onler to e't'Olve a aeriea ot 4ep8114,
able power md.ta ha:ri.ng the tollowlllg oharaateriatioal
a•

Be liptwipt azul oapable ot opentlng tor sdi8DIIive pel"locla

ot t i • without nplaaSUDt, azad require a'blolute wfn1nw

b.

UDUt

ot •s.a-

Be oapable ot generating llpt toU. equallJ' ettloi811.tl7 at

full load requil"aeDta with very good •lta.ge ngulatioD th:roupout the ftiiP•

-zGfEGREll

REF ID:A65584
SE:CRE:ll

a.

Be aapa'ble ot operati.Dg etftaieut;q 011. the t,pe ot fUel JBDat

rea4117 aY&ila'ble to troops 111. the tlelcl.
cle Pemit refUeliDg aD4 1z:ul1aate oil lenl while operatiDg.
12. W

a

par

89ra •aotar;eh1a 19.uil)!!!'t• ftlere :la a reqdre.Dt tar

a a1~:~~1e at111 aamera a'boclJ111.g the Leiaa or Colltaz 1~le

ot 'bod.J' ueiDg a

at&Dclard (US) 80JIIIIl roll tllm, haviDC a 'built-ia tluh equipmeat ancl euppliecl

with a 'baa:lo aet ot three leuee (wide qle, regular BD4 telephoto).•
11.
1

I

w

a pr 89•• •c!'lR!oseh:lo !9,u1peat;. (1) !he SIGA.a ahou14

'be re4ea1pe4 to pel'llit the mt1:1ag

ot tape at..ltaueoual7 with 'bhe priJ:Ibillc

operat::loD.e
(2) A aCIIIIpaat.. aillple 811.4 aeaure clnioe tor uae

'tiJ tro:at lbe

Uld.ta,

to replaae the K-209, ::la required..,

(a) !here ia a 11.eecl tor a bip gracle clnioe 1 aild.lar 'ill J»rlZLO:lple
to SIGGUM tor uae 'b7 heaclquarten d.GWII. to ancl :lll.alucl::lng cU.viaioD..•

-aGECREll

.

'

REF ID·:A65584



.,

I


BECREll
ll:~" 'USJL -~VIE'Ir t F
•A.-t I G!~tA•:t.U ,.i'C :u.r::;~, :l!.~'.:.P Jl~l' &:.VIal I ... OAW
1 ~Ln. Jl,As.1Y b't'U.DI-

s.a:c•• IOl
Section XIX ts
1.

XIX, SLRV.Q .&Qu I.i-1 ~.·.r

conc~rred

Add to par "iOc:

1n

~th

the

foll~~ing

exceptions and aduitions1

"Tne eatab11shmant of pro~ecta f'or a maana of detecting

mortar 1ocat~ona and Qater.min1nc rel~t~ve 1ocat1ona of un~ta are of ~cdiate
1mportance.•

a •1ore compact IID.d allf'er inatrllDISnt for c0111bat use."

s.

Acid to pa:r 92d•_ "Imm.ed1ate need exists for 1i•-;hter, aoundp1ottizlg

equipment :md
4.

li~tar,

more compact sonnd ta,nz1ng microphones.••

"Ld;,d a par 9211
(1)

••:tecOIICUind ";he followinr, p1 ioritya

For ~ed1ate development and procurement•
(a)

Control or 11aapa and map sub at1 tutea.

(b)

Detection or JDortu lOCQt1on.

(c)

A means or ~ete~ining relative locations of units aDd
1n~1vidua1s.

(2)

Lon.~ ran~e

(a)
(b)

p1anninb•

,

Survey equipment.



Sound r&mL1n:.. equipment •

(c)

O~o~o:sraph.

(d)

!..etoorolo~iaal oquipment.

(e)

Field

(f)

,-:rounc. control of liaison !'lcmea.

(~)

Counter

Artilla~

1110aao.~.re

counter

batte~

to :rada.r

.

:u'1dt~d

'
-1-

"'tECREll-

radar.

misailaa.

REJfc~~65584


L

01 <L

II

..

-2-

r. Add .. o

par 93aa

11

.-teCO':IIRE)Dd

data deep in en8r,l l1nas tor var,v lon:

miiLt u.

lir :lter u.r.a. ll'.ore conpac"~o

rant~ art1lle~ •





,

..

'
GECREll

r.

REF ID:A65584
ETOUSA REVIEW OF
• AlU\Y' GROUND FORCES, EQUIPJDT REVIErY BOARD,
PRELUIINARY STUDY •

SECTION XX, RADAR EQUIPIIEN'l
Seot1on XX is concurred 1n W1 th the following addi tiona and exceptions,

1.

Add to par 95a
11 c.

antiaircraft.

A lightwaight long-range radar to provide early wa.rn1ng for
Suoh a set should have a range at at least 120 miles and

should be capable of detecting low-tlYJ,ng aircraft at a m.uoh greater ranee
than the present equipment.
11

d.

A more posi tl. ve means of

ide~tifying

friendly a1roraft than

present Ilt'F (identification of friend or toe) equipment should be developed
as an integral part ot all antiaircraft radar seta.
ne.

The development of jet and rooket-propelled aircraft has

reached the point where an entirely new system of antiaircraft measures is
needed.

It is believed that the guided missiles program should provide the

basis tor this new system.

A lang range research and development

prog~

should evolve a radar fire control system which will contain radar, computer
and control equipment tor the Guided missiles as one piece ot equ1pment. 11
2.

Add to par 98ac

11

Consideratian should be given to the detection
~

by Dl8an& other than radar if research and development indicate other systems
are more des1rable. 11
3.

~

po.r 98oa

''An

IFF device capable of being triggered by friend-

ly radar, 1ncluding ground and airborne sets, should be provided the individual soldier w1 tl':. the new to positive location of forward elements."

- 1-

BECREll

I

4.

Add to par 101a1

REF ID:A65584
CECREll
"The necessary seourity devioea

aho~1d

be 1ncor-

porated 1.n the deugn of this set.''
5. Add a par l03a

"In order to take full advantage of technolocioal

proe;resa. future dewlopment of

.uli "tarJ.'

ro.do.r equipment should po.ro.llel

closely the developments of commsroio.l equipnent."

- 2-

GECREll


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