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JP 8 and other Military Fuels .pdf



Nombre del archivo original: JP-8 and other Military Fuels.pdf

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UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release.

JP-8 and other Military Fuels
Joel Schmitigal
Jill Tebbe

Disclaimer: Reference herein to any specific commercial company, product, process, or service by trade name,
trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement,recommendation, or
favoring by the United States Government or the Department of the Army (DoA). The opinions of the authors expressed
herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or the DoA, and shall not be used for
advertising or product endorsement purposes.

Form Approved
OMB No. 0704-0188

Report Documentation Page

Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and
maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information,
including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington
VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it
does not display a currently valid OMB control number.

1. REPORT DATE

2. REPORT TYPE

01 DEC 2011

Briefing Charts

3. DATES COVERED

01-12-2011 to 01-12-2011

4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE

5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

JP-8 AND OTHER MILITARY FUELS

5b. GRANT NUMBER
5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

6. AUTHOR(S)

5d. PROJECT NUMBER

Joel Schmitigal; Jill Tebbe

5e. TASK NUMBER
5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER

7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES)

U.S. Army TARDEC ,6501 E.11 Mile Rd,Warren,MI,48397-5000

8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION
REPORT NUMBER

#22491

9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES)

10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S)

U.S. Army TARDEC, 6501 E.11 Mile Rd, Warren, MI, 48397-5000

TARDEC
11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT
NUMBER(S)

#22491
12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT

Approved for public release; distribution unlimited
13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES

Briefing to Program Manager PAWS
14. ABSTRACT

NA
15. SUBJECT TERMS
16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF:
a. REPORT

b. ABSTRACT

c. THIS PAGE

unclassified

unclassified

unclassified

17. LIMITATION OF
ABSTRACT

18. NUMBER
OF PAGES

Same as
Report (SAR)

21

19a. NAME OF
RESPONSIBLE PERSON

Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98)
Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18

Unclassified

Military Fuels

• What is JP-8?

• Why
Wh d
do we use it?

Unclassified

Unclassified

Petroleum Distillation



Gasoline
– Avgas
– Mogas



~0.690 kg/L
~0.740 kg/L

Kerosene Fuels
– Jet Fuels
– No.
No 1 Diesel



http://www.energyinst.org/

Unclassified

No 2 Diesel
No.

~0.850
0 850 kg/L

Unclassified

Commercial Aviation Fuels



JET A - Kerosene cut of fuel normally only available in the U.S.
for civil aviation use.








ASTM D1655
Freeze Point: ≤ -40ºC (- 40ºF)
Density @15ºC: 0.775 to 0.840 kg/L
Flash Point: ≥ 38ºC (100ºF)
8 to 16 carbon atoms per molecule

JET A-1 - Kerosene grade cut of fuel suitable for most turbine
engine aircraft. It is produced to a stringent internationally
agreed standard. It is widely available outside the U.S.






ASTM specification D1655, DEF STAN 91-91
Freeze Point: ≤ -47ºC (- 53ºF)
Density @15ºC: 0.775 to 0.840 kg/L
Flash Point: ≥ 38ºC (100ºF)
8 to 16 carbon atoms per molecule
Unclassified

Unclassified

Military Aviation Fuels



JP-8 or NATO F-34 - Jet A-1 specification fuel containing military
fuel additive package: static dissipater additive (SDA), corrosion
inhibitor/lubricity improver (CI/LI), and fuel system icing inhibitor
(FSII) and may contain antioxidant (AO) and metal deactivators
(MDA). Single Fuel on the Battlefield used by the Army and Air
Force per AR 70-12.







MIL-DTL-83133, DEF STAN 91-87
Freeze Point: ≤ -47ºC (-52.6ºF)
Density @15ºC: 0.775 to 0.840 kg/L
Flash Point: ≥ 38ºC (100.4ºF)

JP-8+100
JP
8+100 or NATO F
F-37
37 - JP-8
JP 8 additized with +100 thermal
stability improver additive (NATO S-1749).


Army – No Use Policy In Effect

Unclassified

Unclassified

Military Aviation Fuels



JP-5 or NATO F-44 - Kerosene based fuel that is the primary
fuel for Navy shipboard aircraft operations containing military
fuel additive package: SDA, CI/LI, FSII, (AO) and (MDA).







MIL-DTL-5624, DEF STAN 91-86
Freeze Point: ≤ -46ºC (-50.8ºF)
Density @15ºC: 0.788 to 0.845 kg/L
Flash Point: ≥ 60ºC (140ºF)

JAA – JET A with Additives - Air Force with support from DLA
Energy is moving toward eliminating the use of JP-8 at CONUS
military installations and replacing it with JET A fuel that is
additized at the point of use.
use This effort is to reduce the price of
fuel and simplify the logistics of obtaining the fuel used by
CONUS installations by allowing for Jet A fuel to be pulled of
multiproduct pipelines
pipelines.
– Freeze Point: ≤ - 40ºC (-40ºF)
Unclassified

Unclassified

Military Fuel Additives



Corrosion Inhibitor/Lubricity Improver (CI/LI) – Additive contains
a polar group that adheres to metal surfaces, forming a thin
surface film of the additive, thereby improving lubricity and
inhibiting corrosion. Most CI/LI additives contain dilinoleic acid.



Fuel System Icing Inhibitor (FSII) - FSII is chemically composed
of di-ethylene glycol monomethylether (di-EGME) which
contains both a hydrophobic (water hating) and hydrophilic
(water loving) portion. This structure allows the molecule to be
soluble in both nonpolar fuel and in highly polar water. Having a
higher solubility in water the FSII works by combining with any
free water that forms and lowering the freezing point of the
mixture so that no ice crystals are formed. It also has bio-stat
properties thus preventing bio-material from growing.

Unclassified

Unclassified

Military Fuel Additives



Static Dissipater Additive (SDA) - Stadis® 450 increases the
conductivity of the fuel, thereby increasing the rate of static
charge dissipation.



+100 Additive - Increases the thermal stability of the fuel by
100ºF to ~425ºF in an effort to prevent engine deposits caused
by fuel being used as a heat sink. The additive is a combination
of a dispersant, antioxidant, and metal deactivator, which
prevents oxidation reactions and keeps potential insolubles in
solution rather than depositing out on the engine surfaces.
– Army NO USE POLICY - The currently used +100 additive has a
Dispersant/Detergent component that affects Army fuel/water separators
increasing risk of water to enter fuel tanks. In addition, no benefit has been
identified for Army systems.

Unclassified

Unclassified

Military Fuel Additives



Antioxidants (AO) - Required in fuels that have hydrotreated
components. Antioxidants improve storage stability by
preventing the formation of peroxides, gums, and insoluble
particulates. Peroxides attack elastomeric fuel system parts,
gums can cause engine deposits, and insoluble particulates can
cause engine wear and plug fuel filters. AOs function as
hydrogen atom donors that stop the oxidation process.



Metal Deactivator Additive (MDA) - The only approved metal
deactivator is N,N´-disalicylidene-1,2- propane diamine. Metals
like copper and zinc can act as catalysts for oxidative reactions
of fuel. MDA inhibits the catalytic activity of the metals by
creating stable complexes with the metal ions.
+

Cu+

Unclassified

Unclassified

Other Fuels



No. 2 Diesel Fuel or NATO F-54 - Middle distillate fuel used for
automotive diesel and gas turbine engines.







ASTM D975
Density @15ºC: ~ 0.820 to 0.840 kg/L
Flash Point: ≥ 52ºC (125.6ºF)
12 to 21 carbon atoms per molecule

No. 1 Diesel Fuel or NATO F-44 - A special-purpose,
p
p p
light
g
middle distillate fuel for use in diesel engine applications
requiring a fuel with a volatility higher than that provided by No.
2 Diesel Fuel.





ASTM D975
Density @15ºC: ~ 0.775 to 0.840 kg/L
Flash Point: ≥ 38ºC (100ºF)
8 to 16 carbon atoms per molecule

Unclassified

Unclassified

Other Fuels



TS-1 – Wide cut kerosene fuel supplied at all airports within the
former Soviet Union and in some Eastern European countries.







GOST 10227
Freeze Point: ≤ -60ºC (-76ºF)
Density @15ºC: ≥ ~0.787 kg/L
Flash Point: ≥ 28ºC (82.4ºF)

F-65 - 50/50 blend of No. 2 Diesel fuel (F54) and aviation
turbine fuel JP-5 or JP-8. The fuel mixture, termed “M1 fuel mix”
was developed in 1981 after turbine power plant of the M1
Abrams tank experienced waxing and filterability problems in
Germany The fuel mixture reduces waxing tendency and the
Germany.
viscosity of the diesel fuel in cold temperature environments.
This fuel has not been needed since the implementation of the
Single Fuel Policy
Policy, ii.e.,
e JP-8

Unclassified

Unclassified

Other Fuels



Avgas - Aviation fuel for use in spark ignition piston-engine
aircraft.






ASTM D 910
Freeze Point: ≤ -58ºC (-72.4ºF),
Density @15ºC: 0.690 – 0.715 kg/L
4 to 10 carbons per molecule.
Similar to Mogas except :
• Composed of lighter distillation fractions that are more stable to oxidation
• Lower vapor pressure than Mogas
• Some grades still use Tetraethyl Lead additive to prevent engine knock



Mogas
g - Automotive g
gasoline used in spark
p
ignition
g
engines.
g
– ASTM D 4814
– Density @15ºC: 0.715 to 0.770 kg/L,
– 4 to 12 carbons per molecule.

Unclassified

Unclassified

Other Fuels



JET B - A wide cut fuel covering portions of the gasoline and
kerosene fractions of distillation. Used in cold climates where its
better cold weather performance is required. Similar to JP-4 fuel.







ASTM D6615
Freeze Point ≤ - 50ºC (- 58ºF)
Density @15ºC: 0.751 to 0.802 kg/L
5 to 15 carbon atoms per molecule.

JP-4
JP
4 or NATO F
F-40
40 - A distillate
di till t fuel
f l covering
i th
the gasoline
li and
d
kerosene fractions of distillation including military fuel additive
package: SDA, CI/LI, FSII and may contain OA and MDA. In use
by USAF from 1951 to 1996
1996.





MIL-DTL-5624
Freeze Point: ≤ - 58ºC (-72.4ºF)
Density:
y 0.751 - 0.802 kg/L
g
5 to 15 carbon atoms per molecule.
Unclassified

Unclassified

Alternative Fuels


1st Generation Alternative Fuels







Largely made from edible sugars, starches, animal fats and vegetable oils
Food based crops
Examples: Biodiesel, Ethanol
Not cost competitive with fossil fuels

2nd Generation Alternative Fuels
– Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (FT-SPK) and
Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA)
– More
M
hi
highly
hl refined
fi d or made
d ffrom synthesis
th i process tto make
k ffuel.
l
• Largely made from inedible plant materials, agricultural, wood waste
• Jatropha, switchgrass, camelina



3rd Generation Alternative Fuels
– Genetically modified crops that have a carbon-neutral output
– Must be processed using FT or HEFA process.
– Example:
E
l Al
Algall biofuels
bi f l



4th Generation Alternative Fuels - ??

Unclassified

Unclassified

1st Generation Alternative Fuels



Biodiesel – a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long chain
fatty acids derived from Vegetable oils or animal fats (Fatty Acid
Methyl Esters, FAME).
– ASTM D 6751 – blend stock
– B5 is allowed in ASTM D 975
– B6 to B20 allowed in ASTM D7467
– Problems





Storage stability
Material compatibility
Cost
Water affinity and microbial growth

Unclassified

Unclassified

2nd Generation Alternative Fuels
**CTL / GTL / BTL / CBTL: All use Fischer-Tropsch Processes**

Fischer-Tropsch
FischerSynthesis

Syngas manufacture

Coal, NG, Biomass
Feedstocks

O2
/ Air

Syngas
CO + 2H2

H2O

Selective
Hydrocracking

Product
Separation

Paraffins

Very similar processes also used in traditional
petroleum
JP-8 Production

non-food
noncrops

algae

agri-waste

Paraffins
tallow,
fats,
tallow fats
lard

wood waste &
by-products

Deoxygenation &
Hydrotreating

Selective
Hydrocracking

Product
Separation

Biomass Feedstock
(renewables)

H2O
CO2

Because of the similar end-processing, FT SPK and HEFA are chemically similar blendstocks

Unclassified

Unclassified

3rd Generation Alternative Fuels
Synthetic Biology

Used with permission from Mark Rumizen, FAA

Genetically Engineered
Microbes
Jet Fuel-Like
Product
Fermentation
sugarcane

Alcohol Oligomerization

Sugar

switchgrass
Fermentation Dehydration Olefins

Conventional Refinery
Processes

Polymerization

Pyrolysis
corn stover
forest waste

Lignocellulose
Pyrolysis

Bio-Crude
Unclassified

Hydroprocessing

Jet Fuel-Like
Product

Unclassified

Back Up Slides

Unclassified

TECHNOLOGY DRNEN. WARRGHTER FOCUSED.

Unclassified



JPTS - Jet Propellant Thermally Stable is fuel specifically
formulated and produced for use in the USAF U-2
U 2 aircraft.
– MIL-DTL-25524
– Freeze Point: ≤ -53ºC (-63.4ºF)
– Flash Point: ≥ 43ºC (109.4ºF)



JP-1 - First jet propellant specified by the U.S. military in 1944.
– AN-F-32
– Freeze Point: ≤ -60ºC (-76ºF),



J
JP-2
- wide
de cut fuel
ue co
covering
e g po
portions
to so
of tthe
e gaso
gasoline
ea
and
d
kerosene fractions of distillation specified in 1945.

Unclassified

Unclassified



JP-3 – Widecut wide cut fuel covering portions of the gasoline
and kerosene fractions of distillation specified in 1947.



JP-6 - Kerosene based fuel developed in1956 for the XB-70
Valkyrie aircraft
aircraft.
– MIL-J-25656



JP 7 - A fuel created from special blending stocks to create a
JP-7
fuel with low vapor pressure, high thermal oxidation stability,
and low volatility. Developed in SR-71 Blackbird in the 1960’s.


MIL-DTL-38219

Unclassified

Unclassified



JP-9 - A high density synthetic fuel blend of Exo-tetrahydrodi
(cyclopentadiene), Methylcyclohxane, and H-norbornadiene
H norbornadiene
dimers, used in air launched cruise missiles. Replaced by JP10.
– Density @15ºC: 0.935 to 0.955 kg/L
– Freeze Point: ≤ -54ºC (-65.2ºF)
– Flash Point: ≥ 21ºC (70ºF)



JP-10 - A high density synthetic fuel composed entirely or nearly
entirely of Exo-tetrahydrodi (cyclopentadiene) used in air
launched cruise missiles.
– Density @15ºC: 0.935 to 0.943 kg/L
– Freeze Point: ≤ -79ºC (-110.2ºF)
– Flash Point: ≥ 55ºC (131ºF)

Unclassified


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