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RL31133.pdf


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Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force

Contents
Introduction...................................................................................................................................... 1
Previous Declarations of War .......................................................................................................... 1
Key Statutory Authorizations for the Use of Military Force ........................................................... 5
France 1798 ............................................................................................................................... 5
Tripoli 1802 ............................................................................................................................... 6
Algeria 1815 .............................................................................................................................. 7
Suppression of Piracy 1819-1823 .............................................................................................. 7
Formosa 1955 ............................................................................................................................ 8
Middle East 1957....................................................................................................................... 8
Southeast Asia 1964 .................................................................................................................. 9
Lebanon 1983 .......................................................................................................................... 10
Iraq 1991.................................................................................................................................. 12
Terrorist Attacks against the United States (World Trade Center and the Pentagon)
2001 ...................................................................................................................................... 14
Authorization for Use of Force Against Iraq 2002 .................................................................. 16
Implications Under International Law ........................................................................................... 19
Implications Under Domestic Law ................................................................................................ 23
The War Powers Resolution .................................................................................................... 26
Trading with the Enemy Act and the International Emergency Economic Powers Act .......... 27
Other Economic Authorities .................................................................................................... 28
Alien Enemy Act ..................................................................................................................... 28
Criminal Law ........................................................................................................................... 29
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance ............................................................................................ 33
Assassination ........................................................................................................................... 34
The Defense Production Act of 1950 ...................................................................................... 35
Insurance Contracts ................................................................................................................. 37
Military Personnel ................................................................................................................... 38
Itemization of Standby Statutory Authorities................................................................................. 43
(1) Statutory Authorities Triggered by a Declaration of War ......................................................... 44
Congressional Budget Act ....................................................................................................... 44
Agricultural Exports ................................................................................................................ 44
Armed Forces .......................................................................................................................... 45
Coast Guard ............................................................................................................................. 45
Small Business Administration................................................................................................ 46
Unilateral Trade Sanctions ...................................................................................................... 46
Armed Forces Retirement Home ............................................................................................. 46
Statutes of Limitation .............................................................................................................. 46
Tort Claims Against the Federal Government ......................................................................... 46
Deferral of Civil Works Projects ............................................................................................. 46
Nuclear Regulatory Commission............................................................................................. 47
Alien Enemy Act ..................................................................................................................... 47
National Defense Stockpile ..................................................................................................... 47
National Security Agency (NSA) Personnel Security ............................................................. 47
Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents................................................................................ 47
National Emergencies Act ....................................................................................................... 48

Congressional Research Service