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Joint Publication 1-02

Department of Defense
Dictionary of
Military and Associated Terms

8 November 2010
(As Amended Through
15 March 2014)

PREFACE
1. Scope
The Joint Publication 1-02, Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated
Terms sets forth standard US military and associated terminology to encompass the joint activity of
the Armed Forces of the United States. These military and associated terms, together with their
definitions, constitute approved Department of Defense (DOD) terminology for general use by all
DOD components.
2. Purpose
This publication supplements standard English-language dictionaries and standardizes military
and associated terminology to improve communication and mutual understanding within DOD, with
other federal agencies, and among the United States and its allies.
3. Application
This publication applies to the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Services, the Joint Staff,
combatant commands, DOD agencies, and all other DOD components. It is the primary
terminology source when preparing correspondence, to include policy, strategy, doctrine, and
planning documents. Criteria for inclusion of terminology in JP 1-02 is enumerated in Department
of Defense Instruction (DODI) 5025.12, Standardization of Military and Associated Terminology,
and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Instruction (CJCSI) 5705.01, Standardization of Military
and Associated Terminology.
4.

Publication Format
This edition of JP 1-02 has been published in two basic parts:
a. Terms and definitions. These are annotated with the source publication.

b. Abbreviations and acronyms. The source publication establishes the authoritative context
for proper understanding and management of the associated term.

i

Preface
5.

JP 1-02 Online Availability and Update Schedule

JP 1-02 is accessible online as a searchable database and in PDF format at the following
Internet address: http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/dod_dictionary and at the following NIPRNET
address: https://jdeis.js.mil. The contents of JP 1-02 are updated on a monthly basis to include any
terminology additions, modifications, or deletions made within the previous calendar month in
accordance with CJCSI 5705.01.
For the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff:

WILLIAM E. GORTNEY
Vice Admiral, USN
Director, Joint Staff

ii

JP 1-02

TABLE OF CONTENTS

MAIN BODY . ........................................................................................................................................ 1
APPENDIX
A

Abbreviations and Acronyms ...........................................................................................A-1

B

Administrative Instructions............................................................................................... B-1

iii

Table of Contents

Intentionally Blank

iv

JP 1-02

As Amended Through 15 March 2014

A
acceptability — The joint operation plan review criterion for assessing whether the
contemplated course of action is proportional, worth the cost, consistent with the law of
war; and is militarily and politically supportable. See also adequacy; feasibility.
(JP 5-0)
access — In counterintelligence and intelligence use, a. a way or means of approach to
identify a target; or b. exploitable proximity to or ability to approach an individual,
facility, or information that enables target to carry out the intended mission. (JP 2-01.2)
access to classified information — The ability and opportunity to obtain knowledge of
classified information by persons with the proper security clearance and a need to know
of specified classified information. (JP 2-01)
accompanying supplies — Unit supplies that deploy with forces. (JP 4-01.5)
accountability — The obligation imposed by law or lawful order or regulation on an officer
or other person for keeping accurate record of property, documents, or funds. (JP 1)
acoustic intelligence — Intelligence derived from the collection and processing of acoustic
phenomena. Also called ACINT. (JP 2-0)
acquisition and cross-servicing agreement — Agreement, negotiated on a bilateral basis
with United States allies or coalition partners, that allow United States forces to
exchange most common types of support, including food, fuel, transportation,
ammunition, and equipment. Also called ACSA. See also cross-servicing. (JP 4-08)
actionable intelligence — Intelligence information that is directly useful to customers for
immediate exploitation without having to go through the full intelligence production
process. (JP 2-01.2)
action phase — In amphibious operations, the period of time between the arrival of the
landing forces of the amphibious force in the operational area and the accomplishment
of their mission. See also amphibious force; amphibious operation; landing force;
mission. (JP 3-02)
activation — Order to active duty (other than for training) in the federal service. See also
active duty; federal service. (JP 4-05)
active air defense — Direct defensive action taken to destroy, nullify, or reduce the
effectiveness of hostile air and missile threats against friendly forces and assets. See
also air defense. (JP 3-01)
active communications satellite — See communications satellite.

JP 1-02

1

As Amended Through 15 March 2014
active defense — The employment of limited offensive action and counterattacks to deny a
contested area or position to the enemy. See also passive defense. (JP 3-60)
active duty — Full-time duty in the active military service of the United States, including
active duty or full-time training duty in the Reserve Component. Also called AD. See
also active duty for training; inactive duty training. (JP 4-05)
active duty for special work — A tour of active duty for reserve personnel authorized from
military and reserve personnel appropriations for work on active or reserve component
programs. Also called ADSW. (JP 1-0)
active duty for training — A tour of active duty that is used for training members of the
Reserve Component to provide trained units and qualified persons to fill the needs of
the Armed Forces in time of war or national emergency and such other times as the
national security requires. Also called ADT. (JP 4-05)
Active Guard and Reserve — National Guard and Reserve members who are on voluntary
active duty providing full-time support to National Guard, Reserve, and Active
Component organizations for the purpose of organizing, administering, recruiting,
instructing, or training the Reserve Components. Also called AGR. (CJCSM 3150.13)
activity — 1. A unit, organization, or installation performing a function or mission. 2. A
function, mission, action, or collection of actions. Also called ACT. (JP 3-0)
act of mercy — In personnel recovery, assistance rendered to evaders by an individual or
elements of the local population who sympathize or empathize with the evaders’ cause
or plight. See also evader; evasion; recovery; recovery operations. (JP 3-50)
acute radiation dose — Total ionizing radiation dose received at one time and over a
period so short that biological recovery cannot occur. (JP 3-11)
acute radiation syndrome — An acute illness caused by irradiation of the body by a high
dose of penetrating radiation in a very short period of time. Also called ARS. (JP 3-11)
Adaptive Planning and Execution system — A Department of Defense system of joint
policies, processes, procedures, and reporting structures, supported by communications
and information technology, that is used by the joint planning and execution
community to monitor, plan, and execute mobilization, deployment, employment,
sustainment, redeployment, and demobilization activities associated with joint
operations. Also called APEX system. (JP 5-0)
adequacy — The joint operation plan review criterion for assessing whether the scope and
concept of planned operations can accomplish the assigned mission and comply with
the planning guidance provided. See also acceptability; feasibility. (JP 5-0)
adjust — An order to the observer or spotter to initiate an adjustment on a designated target.

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As Amended Through 15 March 2014
administrative chain of command — One of the two branches of the chain of command
described in Joint Publication 1, Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States,
through which command is exercised from the President through the Secretary of
Defense to the Secretaries of the Military Departments, and from which forces are
assigned to combatant commands to compose the operational command structure
baseline. (DODI 8260.03)
administrative command structure — The organizational hierarchy through which
administrative leadership is exercised, as contrasted by the operational command
structure through which operational authority is exercised. (DODI 8260.03)
administrative contracting officer — Contracting officer whose primary duties involve
contract administration. Also called ACO. See also contracting officer; procuring
contracting officer. (JP 4-10)
administrative control — Direction or exercise of authority over subordinate or other
organizations in respect to administration and support. Also called ADCON. (JP 1)
administrative loading — A loading method that gives primary consideration to achieving
maximum utilization of troop and cargo space without regard to tactical considerations.
Equipment and supplies must be unloaded and sorted before they can be used. Also
called commercial loading. (JP 3-02.1)
advanced base — A base located in or near an operational area whose primary mission is to
support military operations. (JP 3-34)
advanced operations base — In special operations, a small temporary base established
near or within a joint special operations area to command, control, and/or support
training or tactical operations. Facilities are normally austere. The base may be ashore
or afloat. If ashore, it may include an airfield or unimproved airstrip, a pier, or an
anchorage. An advanced operations base is normally controlled and/or supported by a
main operations base or a forward operations base. Also called AOB. See also
forward operations base; main operations base. (JP 3-05.1)
advance force — A temporary organization within the amphibious task force which
precedes the main body to the objective area, for preparing the objective for the main
assault by conducting such operations as reconnaissance, seizure of supporting
positions, mine countermeasures, preliminary bombardment, underwater demolitions,
and air support. (JP 3-02)
advance guard — Detachment sent ahead of the main force to ensure its uninterrupted
advance; to protect the main body against surprise; to facilitate the advance by
removing obstacles and repairing roads and bridges; and to cover the deployment of the
main body if it is committed to action. (JP 3-07.2)

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3

As Amended Through 15 March 2014
adversary — A party acknowledged as potentially hostile to a friendly party and against
which the use of force may be envisaged. (JP 3-0)
adversary template — A model based on an adversary’s known or postulated preferred
methods of operation illustrating the disposition and activity of adversary forces and
assets conducting a particular operation unconstrained by the impact of the operational
environment. (JP 2-01.3)
Aegis — A ship-based combat system that can detect, track, target, and engage air, surface,
and subsurface threats, including ballistic missiles on some modified ships. (JP 3-01)
aerial port — An airfield that has been designated for the sustained air movement of
personnel and materiel as well as an authorized port for entrance into or departure from
the country where located. Also called APORT. See also port of debarkation; port
of embarkation. (JP 3-17)
aerial port squadron — An Air Force organization that operates and provides the functions
assigned to aerial ports. (JP 4-01.5)
aeromedical evacuation — The movement of patients under medical supervision to and
between medical treatment facilities by air transportation. Also called AE. (JP 4-02)
aeromedical evacuation control team — A core team assigned to a component-numbered
air force air operations center air mobility division that provides operational planning,
scheduling, and execution of theater aeromedical evacuation missions and positioning
of aeromedical evacuation ground forces. Also called AECT. See also aeromedical
evacuation; air mobility division. (JP 3-17)
aeromedical evacuation unit — An operational medical organization concerned primarily
with the management and control of patients being transported via an aeromedical
evacuation system or system echelon. (JP 4-02)
aeronautical chart — A specialized representation of mapped features of the Earth, or
some part of it, produced to show selected terrain, cultural and hydrographic features,
and supplemental information required for air navigation, pilotage, or for planning air
operations. (JP 2-03)
aerospace defense — 1. All defensive measures designed to destroy or nullify attacking
enemy aircraft and missiles and also negate hostile space systems. 2. An inclusive term
encompassing air defense, ballistic missile defense, and space defense. See also air
defense; space defense. (JP 3-27)
afloat pre-positioning force — Shipping maintained in full operational status to afloat preposition military equipment and supplies in support of combatant commanders’
operation plans, consisting of the three maritime pre-positioning ships squadrons, the

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As Amended Through 15 March 2014
Army’s afloat pre-positioning stocks-3 ships, and the Defense Logistics Agency, and
the Air Force ships. Also called APF. See also maritime pre-positioning ships.
(JP 4-01.2)
afloat pre-positioning operations — Pre-positioning of ships, preloaded with equipment
and supplies that provides for an alternative to land-based programs. Also called APO.
See also operation. (JP 4-01.6)
agency — In intelligence usage, an organization or individual engaged in collecting and/or
processing information. Also called collection agency. See also agent; intelligence
process; source. (JP 2-01)
agent — In intelligence usage, one who is authorized or instructed to obtain or to assist in
obtaining information for intelligence or counterintelligence purposes. (JP 2-01.2)
aimpoint — 1. A point associated with a target and assigned for a specific weapon impact.
2. A prominent radar-significant feature used to assist an aircrew in navigating and
delivering their weapons. See also desired point of impact. (JP 3-60)
air and missile defense — Direct [active and passive] defensive actions taken to destroy,
nullify, or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air and ballistic missile threats against
friendly forces and assets. Also called AMD. (JP 3-01)
air apportionment — The determination and assignment of the total expected effort by
percentage and/or by priority that should be devoted to the various air operations for a
given period of time. (JP 3-0)
air assault — The movement of friendly assault forces by rotary-wing aircraft to engage
and destroy enemy forces or to seize and hold key terrain. See also assault. (JP 3-18)
air assault force — A force composed primarily of ground and rotary-wing air units
organized, equipped, and trained for air assault operations. (JP 3-18)
air assault operation — An operation in which assault forces, using the mobility of rotarywing assets and the total integration of available firepower, maneuver under the control
of a ground or air maneuver commander to engage enemy forces or to seize and hold
key terrain. (JP 3-18)
airborne — 1. In relation to personnel, troops especially trained to effect, following
transport by air, an assault debarkation, either by parachuting or touchdown. 2. In
relation to equipment, pieces of equipment that have been especially designed for use
by airborne troops during or after an assault debarkation as well as some aeronautical
equipment used to accomplish a particular mission. 3. When applied to materiel, items
that form an integral part of the aircraft. 4. The state of an aircraft, from the instant it
becomes entirely sustained by air until it ceases to be so sustained. Also called ABN.
(JP 3-17)

JP 1-02

5

As Amended Through 15 March 2014
airborne alert — A state of aircraft readiness wherein combat-equipped aircraft are
airborne and ready for immediate action to reduce reaction time and to increase
survivability. See also combat air patrol; ground alert. (JP 3-01)
airborne assault — The use of airborne forces to parachute into an objective area to attack
and eliminate armed resistance and secure designated objectives. (JP 3-18)
airborne early warning — The detection of enemy air or surface units by radar or other
equipment carried in an airborne vehicle, and the transmitting of a warning to friendly
units. Also called AEW. (JP 3-52)
airborne mission coordinator — The designated individual that serves as an airborne
extension of the component commander or supported commander responsible for the
personnel recovery mission. Also called AMC. See also combat search and rescue;
combat search and rescue task force; personnel recovery coordination cell.
(JP 3-50)
airborne operation — An operation involving the air movement into an objective area of
combat forces and their logistic support for execution of a tactical, operational, or
strategic mission. See also assault; assault phase. (JP 3-18)
air-breathing missile — A missile with an engine requiring the intake of air for combustion
of its fuel, as in a ramjet or turbojet. (JP 3-01)
air-capable ship — A ship other than an aircraft carrier, nuclear; amphibious assault ship
(general purpose); or amphibious assault ship (multipurpose) from which aircraft can
take off, be recovered, or routinely receive and transfer logistic support. Also called
ACS. (JP 3-04)
air corridor — A restricted air route of travel specified for use by friendly aircraft and
established for the purpose of preventing friendly aircraft from being fired on by
friendly forces. (JP 3-52)
aircraft carrier — A warship designed to support and operate aircraft, engage in attacks on
targets afloat or ashore, and engage in sustained operations in support of other forces.
Also called CV or CVN. (JP 3-32)
air defense — Defensive measures designed to destroy attacking enemy aircraft or missiles
in the atmosphere, or to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of such attack. Also called
AD. See also active air defense; aerospace defense; passive air defense. (JP 3-01)
air defense area — 1. overseas — A specifically defined airspace for which air defense
must be planned and provided. 2. United States — Airspace of defined dimensions
designated by the appropriate agency within which the ready control of airborne

6

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As Amended Through 15 March 2014
vehicles is required in the interest of national security during an air defense emergency.
(JP 3-01)
air defense artillery — Weapons and equipment for actively combating air targets from the
ground. Also called ADA. (JP 3-01)
air defense identification zone — Airspace of defined dimensions within which the ready
identification, location, and control of airborne vehicles are required. Also called
ADIZ. (JP 3-52)
air defense region — A geographical subdivision of an air defense area. (JP 3-01)
air defense sector — A geographical subdivision of an air defense region. (JP 3-01)
air defense warning condition — An air defense warning given in the form of a color code
corresponding to the degree of air raid probability with yellow standing for when an
attack by hostile aircraft or missiles is probable; red for when an attack by hostile
aircraft or missiles is imminent or is in progress; and white for when an attack by
hostile aircraft or missiles is improbable. Also called ADWC. (JP 3-01)
air domain — The atmosphere, beginning at the Earth’s surface, extending to the altitude
where its effects upon operations become negligible. (JP 3-30)
airdrop — The unloading of personnel or materiel from aircraft in flight. See also air
movement; free drop; free fall; high velocity drop; low velocity drop. (JP 3-17)
air expeditionary task force — A deployed numbered air force or command echelon
immediately subordinate to a numbered air force provided as the United States Air
Force component command committed to a joint operation. Also called AETF.
(JP 3-30)
airfield — An area prepared for the accommodation (including any buildings, installations,
and equipment), landing, and takeoff of aircraft. See also departure airfield; landing
area; landing site. (JP 3-17)
Air Force special operations component — The Air Force component of a joint force
special operations component. Also called AFSOC. See also Army special
operations component; Navy special operations component. (JP 3-05.1)
Air Force special operations detachment — A squadron-size headquarters that could be a
composite organization composed of different Air Force special operations assets,
normally subordinate to an Air Force special operations component. Also called
AFSOD. (JP 3-05)

JP 1-02

7

As Amended Through 15 March 2014
Air Force special operations forces — Those Active and Reserve Component Air Force
forces designated by the Secretary of Defense that are specifically organized, trained, and
equipped to conduct and support special operations. Also called AFSOF. (JP 3-05)
airhead — 1. A designated area in a hostile or potentially hostile operational area that,
when seized and held, ensures the continuous air landing of troops and materiel and
provides the maneuver space necessary for projected operations. Also called a
lodgment area. (JP 3-18) 2. A designated location in an operational area used as a
base for supply and evacuation by air. See also beachhead. (JP 3-17)
airhead line — A line denoting the limits of the objective area for an airborne assault. See
also airhead; assault phase; objective area. (JP 3-18)
air interdiction — Air operations conducted to divert, disrupt, delay, or destroy the
enemy’s military surface capabilities before it can be brought to bear effectively against
friendly forces, or to otherwise achieve objectives that are conducted at such distances
from friendly forces that detailed integration of each air mission with the fire and
movement of friendly forces is not required. (JP 3-03)
airland — Move by air and disembark, or unload, after the aircraft has landed or while an
aircraft is hovering. See also air movement. (JP 3-17)
air land operation — An operation involving movement by air with a designated
destination for further ground deployment of units and personnel and/or further ground
distribution of supplies. See also airland. (JP 3-17)
air liaison officer — The senior tactical air control party member attached to a ground unit
who functions as the primary advisor to the ground commander on air power. An air
liaison officer is usually an aeronautically rated officer. Also called ALO. See also
liaison. (JP 3-09.3)
airlift capability — The total capacity expressed in terms of number of passengers and/or
weight/cubic displacement of cargo that can be carried at any one time to a given
destination by available airlift. See also airlift requirement. (JP 3-17)
airlift control team — A core team within the joint air operations center with intratheater
airlift functional expertise to plan, coordinate, manage, and execute intratheater airlift
operations in support of the joint force air component commander. Also called ALCT.
See also air operations center; air mobility division; intratheater airlift. (JP 3-17)
airlift mission commander — A commander designated when airlift aircraft are
participating in airlift operations specified in the implementing directive. See also joint
force air component commander. (JP 3-17)
airlift requirement — The total number of passengers and/or weight/cubic displacement of
cargo required to be carried by air for a specific task. See also airlift capability.

8

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As Amended Through 15 March 2014
(JP 3-17)
airmiss — See near miss.
air mobility — The rapid movement of personnel, materiel and forces to and from or within
a theater by air. See also air refueling. (JP 3-17)
Air Mobility Command — The Air Force component command of the United States
Transportation Command. Also called AMC. (JP 3-17)
air mobility control team — A core team within the joint air operations center that directs
or redirects air mobility forces in response to requirements changes, higher priorities, or
immediate execution requirements. Also called AMCT. See also air operations
center; air mobility; air mobility division. (JP 3-17)
air mobility division — Located in the joint air operations center to plan, coordinate, task,
and execute the air mobility mission consisting of the air mobility control team, airlift
control team, air refueling control team, and aeromedical evacuation control team.
Also called AMD. See also air mobility; joint air operations center. (JP 3-17)
air mobility liaison officer — A rated United States Air Force mobility air forces officer
selected, trained, and equipped to assess, train, advise, and assist with mobility air
forces and ground force integration for air movement and sustainment. Also called
AMLO. (JP 3-17)
air movement — Air transport of units, personnel, supplies, and equipment including
airdrops and air landings. See also airdrop; airland. (JP 3-17)
air operations center — The senior agency of the Air Force component commander that
provides command and control of Air Force air and space operations and coordinates
with other components and Services. Also called AOC. (JP 3-30)
air refueling — The refueling of an aircraft in flight by another aircraft. Also called AR.
(JP 3-17)
air refueling control team — A core team within the joint air operations center that
coordinates aerial refueling to support combat air operations or to support a strategic
airbridge. Also called ARCT. See also air operations center; air mobility division;
air refueling. (JP 3-17)
air route — The navigable airspace between two points, identified to the extent necessary
for the application of flight rules. (JP 3-52)
air route traffic control center — The principal facility exercising en route control of
aircraft operating under instrument flight rules within its area of jurisdiction.

JP 1-02

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As Amended Through 15 March 2014
Approximately 26 such centers cover the United States and its possessions. Each has a
communication capability to adjacent centers.
air sovereignty — A nation’s inherent right to exercise absolute control and authority over
the airspace above its territory. (JP 3-27)
airspace control — A process used to increase operational effectiveness by promoting the
safe, efficient, and flexible use of airspace. (JP 3-52)
airspace control area — Airspace that is laterally defined by the boundaries of the
operational area, and may be subdivided into airspace control sectors. (JP 3-01)
airspace control authority — The commander designated to assume overall responsibility
for the operation of the airspace control system in the airspace control area. Also called
ACA. See also airspace control; airspace control area; airspace control system;
control; operation. (JP 3-52)
airspace control order — An order implementing the airspace control plan that provides
the details of the approved requests for airspace coordinating measures. It is published
either as part of the air tasking order or as a separate document. Also called ACO.
(JP 3-52)
airspace control plan — The document approved by the joint force commander that
provides specific planning guidance and procedures for the airspace control system for
the joint force operational area. Also called ACP. See also airspace control system;
joint force commander. (JP 3-52)
airspace control procedures — Rules, mechanisms, and directions that facilitate the
control and use of airspace of specified dimensions. See also airspace control
authority; airspace control order; airspace control plan. (JP 3-52)
airspace control sector — A sub-element of the airspace control area, established to
facilitate the control of the overall area. Airspace control sector boundaries normally
coincide with air defense organization subdivision boundaries. Airspace control sectors
are designated in accordance with procedures and guidance contained in the airspace
control plan in consideration of Service component, host nation, and multinational
airspace control capabilities and requirements. See also airspace control area.
(JP 3-52)
airspace control system — An arrangement of those organizations, personnel, policies,
procedures, and facilities required to perform airspace control functions. Also called
ACS. (JP 3-52)
airspace coordinating measures — Measures employed to facilitate the efficient use of
airspace to accomplish missions and simultaneously provide safeguards for friendly
forces. Also called ACMs. See also airspace control area; airspace control sector;

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As Amended Through 15 March 2014
airspace coordination area; high-density airspace control zone; weapons
engagement zone. (JP 3-52)
airspace coordination area — A three-dimensional block of airspace in a target area,
established by the appropriate ground commander, in which friendly aircraft are
reasonably safe from friendly surface fires. The airspace coordination area may be
formal or informal. Also called ACA. (JP 3-09.3)
airspace management — The coordination, integration, and regulation of the use of
airspace of defined dimensions. (JP 3-52)
airspace reservation — The airspace located above an area on the surface of the land or
water, designated and set apart by Executive Order of the President or by a state,
commonwealth, or territory, over which the flight of aircraft is prohibited or restricted
for the purpose of national defense or for other governmental purposes.
air superiority — That degree of dominance in the air battle by one force that permits the
conduct of its operations at a given time and place without prohibitive interference
from air and missile threats. (JP 3-01)
air support coordination section — In amphibious operations, the section of the Navy
tactical air control center designated to coordinate, control, and integrate all direct
support aircraft (i.e., close air support) and assault support operations. Also called
ASCS. (JP 3-02)
air support operations center — The principal air control agency of the theater air control
system responsible for the direction and control of air operations directly supporting the
ground combat element. It coordinates air missions requiring integration with other
supporting arms and ground forces. It normally collocates with the Army tactical
headquarters senior fire support coordination center within the ground combat element.
Also called ASOC. See also close air support; operation; tactical air control
center. (JP 3-09.3)
air support request — A means to request preplanned and immediate close air support, air
interdiction, air reconnaissance, surveillance, escort, helicopter airlift, and other aircraft
missions. Also called AIRSUPREQ. (JP 3-30)
air supremacy — That degree of air superiority wherein the opposing force is incapable of
effective interference within the operational area using air and missile threats.
(JP 3-01)
air tasking order — A method used to task and disseminate to components, subordinate
units, and command and control agencies projected sorties, capabilities and/or forces to
targets and specific missions. Also called ATO. (JP 3-30)

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air terminal — A facility on an airfield that functions as an air transportation hub and
accommodates the loading and unloading of airlift aircraft and the intransit processing
of traffic. (JP 3-17)
air traffic controller — An air controller specially trained and certified for civilian air
traffic control. (JP 3-52)
air traffic control section — In amphibious operations, the section of the Navy tactical air
control center designed to provide initial safe passage, radar control, and surveillance
for close air support aircraft in the operational area. Also called ATCS. (JP 3-02)
airways station — A ground communication installation established, manned, and
equipped to communicate with aircraft in flight, as well as with other designated
airways installations, for the purpose of expeditious and safe movements of aircraft.
These stations may or may not be located on designated airways.
alert force — Specified forces maintained in a special degree of readiness. (JP 3-10)
alerting service — A service provided to notify appropriate organizations regarding aircraft
in need of search and rescue aid, and assist such organizations as required. (JP 3-52)
alert order — 1. A crisis action planning directive from the Secretary of Defense, issued by
the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, that provides essential guidance for planning
and directs the initiation of execution planning for the selected course of action
authorized by the Secretary of Defense. 2. A planning directive that provides essential
planning guidance, directs the initiation of execution planning after the directing
authority approves a military course of action, but does not authorize execution. Also
called ALERTORD. See also course of action; execution planning. (JP 5-0)
all appropriate action — Action taken in self-defense that is reasonable in intensity,
duration, and magnitude, based on all the facts known to the commander at the time.
(JP 3-68)
alliance — The relationship that results from a formal agreement between two or more
nations for broad, long-term objectives that further the common interests of the
members. See also coalition; multinational. (JP 3-0)
allocation —Distribution of limited forces and resources for employment among competing
requirements. See also apportionment. (JP 5-0)
allocation request — A daily message that provides an estimate of the total air effort, to
identify any excess and joint force general support aircraft sorties, and to identify
unfilled air requirements for preplanned missions. Also called ALLOREQ. (JP 3-30)
allowable cabin load — The maximum payload that can be carried on an individual sortie.
Also called ACL. (JP 3-17)

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all-source intelligence — 1. Intelligence products and/or organizations and activities that
incorporate all sources of information in the production of finished intelligence. 2. In
intelligence collection, a phrase that indicates that in the satisfaction of intelligence
requirements, all collection, processing, exploitation, and reporting systems and
resources are identified for possible use and those most capable are tasked. See also
intelligence. (JP 2-0)
American Forces Radio and Television Service — A worldwide radio and television
broadcasting organization that provides United States military commanders overseas
and at sea with sufficient electronic media resources to effectively communicate
theater, local, Department of Defense, and Service-unique command information to
their personnel and family members. Also called AFRTS. (JP 3-61)
ammunition lot — A quantity of homogeneous ammunition, identified by a unique lot
number, which is manufactured, assembled, or renovated by one producer under
uniform conditions and which is expected to function in a uniform manner. (JP 3-04)
amphibian — A small craft, propelled by propellers and wheels or by air cushions for the
purpose of moving on both land and water. (JP 4-01.6)
amphibious assault — The principal type of amphibious operation that involves
establishing a force on a hostile or potentially hostile shore. See also assault; assault
phase. (JP 3-02)
amphibious assault ship (multipurpose) — A naval ship designed to embark, deploy, and
land elements of a landing force in an assault by helicopters, landing craft, amphibious
vehicles, and by combinations of these methods. Also called LHD. (JP 3-02)
amphibious breaching — The conduct of a deliberate breaching operation specifically
designed to overcome antilanding defenses in order to conduct an amphibious assault.
(JP 3-02)
amphibious bulk liquid transfer system — Hosereel system providing capability to
deliver fuel and/or water from ship to shore. Also called ABLTS. (JP 4-01.6)
amphibious construction battalion — A permanently commissioned naval unit,
subordinate to the commander, naval beach group, designed to provide an
administrative unit from which personnel and equipment are formed in tactical
elements and made available to appropriate commanders to operate pontoon
causeways, transfer barges, warping tugs, and assault bulk fuel systems, and to meet
salvage requirements of the naval beach party. Also called PHIBCB. (JP 3-02)
amphibious defense zone — The area encompassing the amphibious objective area and the
adjoining airspace required by accompanying naval forces for the purpose of air
defense. Also called an ADZ. (JP 3-02)

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amphibious demonstration — A type of amphibious operation conducted for the purpose
of deceiving the enemy by a show of force with the expectation of deluding the enemy
into a course of action unfavorable to him. (JP 3-02)
amphibious force — An amphibious task force and a landing force together with other forces
that are trained, organized, and equipped for amphibious operations. Also called AF. See
also amphibious operation; amphibious task force; landing force. (JP 3-02)
amphibious lift — The total capacity of assault shipping utilized in an amphibious
operation, expressed in terms of personnel, vehicles, and measurement or weight tons
of supplies. (JP 3-02)
amphibious objective area — A geographical area (delineated for command and control
purposes in the initiating directive) within which is located the objective(s) to be
secured by the amphibious force. This area must be of sufficient size to ensure
accomplishment of the amphibious force’s mission and must provide sufficient area for
conducting necessary sea, air, and land operations. Also called AOA. See also
amphibious force; mission. (JP 3-02)
amphibious operation — A military operation launched from the sea by an amphibious
force, embarked in ships or craft with the primary purpose of introducing a landing
force ashore to accomplish the assigned mission. See also amphibious force; landing
force; mission; operation. (JP 3-02)
amphibious planning — The process of planning for an amphibious operation,
distinguished by the necessity for concurrent, parallel, and detailed planning by all
participating forces. The planning pattern is cyclical in nature, composed of a series of
analyses and judgments of operational situations, each stemming from those that have
preceded. (JP 3-02)
amphibious raid — A type of amphibious operation involving swift incursion into or
temporary occupation of an objective followed by a planned withdrawal. See also
amphibious operation. (JP 3-02)
amphibious shipping — Organic Navy ships specifically designed to transport, land, and
support landing forces in amphibious assault operations and capable of being loaded or
unloaded by naval personnel without external assistance in the amphibious objective
area. (JP 3-02)
amphibious squadron — A tactical and administrative organization composed of
amphibious assault shipping to transport troops and their equipment for an amphibious
assault operation. Also called PHIBRON. (JP 3-02)
amphibious task force — A Navy task organization formed to conduct amphibious
operations. The amphibious task force, together with the landing force and other

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forces, constitutes the amphibious force. Also called ATF. See also amphibious
force; amphibious operation; landing force. (JP 3-02)
amphibious tractor — See amphibious vehicle.
amphibious transport dock — A ship designed to transport and land troops, equipment,
and supplies by means of embarked landing craft, amphibious vehicles, and helicopters.
Designated as LPD. (JP 3-02)
amphibious transport group — A subdivision of an amphibious task force composed
primarily of transport ships. The size of the transport group will depend upon the scope
of the operation. Ships of the transport group will be combat-loaded to support the
landing force scheme of maneuver ashore. A transport unit will usually be formed to
embark troops and equipment to be landed over a designated beach or to embark all
helicopter-borne troops and equipment. (JP 3-02)
amphibious vehicle — A wheeled or tracked vehicle capable of operating on both land and
water. See also landing craft. (JP 3-02)
amphibious vehicle availability table — A tabulation of the type and number of
amphibious vehicles available primarily for assault landings and for support of other
elements of the operation. (JP 3-02)
amphibious vehicle employment plan — A plan showing in tabular form the planned
employment of amphibious vehicles in landing operations, including their employment
after the initial movement to the beach. (JP 3-02)
amphibious vehicle launching area — An area, in the vicinity of and to seaward of the line of
departure, to which landing ships proceed and launch amphibious vehicles. (JP 3-02)
amphibious withdrawal — A type of amphibious operation involving the extraction of
forces by sea in ships or craft from a hostile or potentially hostile shore. See also
amphibious operation. (JP 3-02)
analysis and production — In intelligence usage, the conversion of processed information
into intelligence through the integration, evaluation, analysis, and interpretation of all
source data and the preparation of intelligence products in support of known or
anticipated user requirements. See also intelligence process. (JP 2-01)
antemortem data — Medical records, samples, and photographs taken prior to death.
These include (but are not limited to) fingerprints, dental x-rays, body tissue samples,
photographs of tattoos, or other identifying marks. These “pre-death” records would be
compared against records completed after death to help establish a positive
identification of human remains. See also mortuary affairs. (JP 4-06)

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antideficiency violations — The incurring of obligations or the making of expenditure
(outlays) in violation of appropriation law as to purpose, time, and amounts as specified
in the defense appropriation or appropriations of funds. (JP 1-06)
antiradiation missile — A missile which homes passively on a radiation source. Also
called ARM. See also guided missile. (JP 3-01)
antisubmarine warfare — Operations conducted with the intention of denying the enemy
the effective use of submarines. Also called ASW. (JP 3-32)
antiterrorism — Defensive measures used to reduce the vulnerability of individuals and
property to terrorist acts, to include rapid containment by local military and civilian
forces. Also called AT. See also counterterrorism; terrorism. (JP 3-07.2)
anti-vehicle land mine — A mine designed to immobilize or destroy a vehicle. Also called
AVL. (JP 3-15)
application — 1. The system or problem to which a computer is applied. 2. In the
intelligence context, the direct extraction and tailoring of information from an existing
foundation of intelligence and near real time reporting. (JP 2-0)
apportionment — In the general sense, distribution of forces and capabilities as the starting
point for planning, etc. See also allocation. (JP 5-0)
approach schedule — In amphibious operations, this schedule indicates, for each
scheduled wave, the time of departure from the rendezvous area, from the line of
departure, and from other control points and the time of arrival at the beach. (JP 3-02)
approach time — The time at which an aircraft is expected to commence approach
procedure.
apron — A defined area on an airfield intended to accommodate aircraft for purposes of
loading or unloading passengers or cargo, refueling, parking, or maintenance. (JP 3-34)
area air defense commander — The component commander with the preponderance of air
defense capability and the required command, control, and communications capabilities
who is assigned by the joint force commander to plan and execute integrated air
defense operations. Also called AADC. (JP 3-01)
area command — A command which is composed of those organized elements of one or
more of the Armed Services, designated to operate in a specific geographical area,
which are placed under a single commander. See also command. (JP 3-10)
area damage control — Measures taken before, during, or after hostile action or natural or
manmade disasters, to reduce the probability of damage and minimize its effects. Also
called ADC. (JP 3-10)

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area of influence — A geographical area wherein a commander is directly capable of
influencing operations by maneuver or fire support systems normally under the
commander’s command or control. (JP 3-0)
area of interest — That area of concern to the commander, including the area of influence,
areas adjacent thereto, and extending into enemy territory. This area also includes areas
occupied by enemy forces who could jeopardize the accomplishment of the mission.
Also called AOI. See also area of influence. (JP 3-0)
area of operations — An operational area defined by the joint force commander for land
and maritime forces that should be large enough to accomplish their missions and
protect their forces. Also called AO. See also area of responsibility; joint operations
area; joint special operations area. (JP 3-0)
area of responsibility — The geographical area associated with a combatant command
within which a geographic combatant commander has authority to plan and conduct
operations. Also called AOR. See also combatant command. (JP 1)
area search — Visual reconnaissance of limited or defined areas. (JP 3-50)
Armed Forces of the United States — A term used to denote collectively all components
of the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Coast Guard (when mobilized under
Title 10, United States Code, to augment the Navy). See also United States Armed
Forces. (JP 1)
arming — As applied to explosives, weapons, and ammunition, the changing from a safe
condition to a state of readiness for initiation. (JP 3-15)
arms control agreement — The written or unwritten embodiment of the acceptance of one
or more arms control measures by two or more nations. (JP 2-01)
Army air-ground system — The Army system which provides for interface between Army
and tactical air support agencies of other Services in the planning, evaluating,
processing, and coordinating of air support requirements and operations. It is
composed of appropriate staff members, including G-2 air and G-3 air personnel, and
necessary communication equipment. Also called AAGS. (JP 3-09)
Army corps — An intermediate headquarters between divisions and the theater army
consisting of two or more divisions together with supporting brigades. (JP 3-31)
Army Service component command — Command responsible for recommendations to
the joint force commander on the allocation and employment of Army forces within a
combatant command. Also called ASCC. (JP 3-31)

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Army special operations component — The Army component of a joint force special
operations component. Also called ARSOC. See also Air Force special operations
component; Navy special operations component. (JP 3-05.1)
Army special operations forces — Those Active and Reserve Component Army forces
designated by the Secretary of Defense that are specifically organized, trained, and
equipped to conduct and support special operations. Also called ARSOF. (JP 3-05)
Army support area — The specific support area for a theater Army that is outside of a
division or corps’s operational area established primarily for the positioning,
employment, and protection of theater support units; and where the majority of the
sustaining operations occur. (JP 3-31)
arrival zone — In counterdrug operations, the area in or adjacent to the United States where
smuggling concludes and domestic distribution begins (by air, an airstrip; by sea, an
offload point on land, or transfer to small boats). See also transit zone. (JP 3-07.4)
ascent phase — That portion of the flight of a ballistic missile or space vehicle that begins
after powered flight and ends just prior to apogee. (JP 3-01)
assault — 1. In an amphibious operation, the period of time between the arrival of the major
assault forces of the amphibious task force in the objective area and the
accomplishment of the amphibious task force mission. (JP 3-02) 2. To make a short,
violent, but well-ordered attack against a local objective, such as a gun emplacement, a
fort, or a machine gun nest. (JP 3-18) 3. A phase of an airborne operation beginning
with delivery by air of the assault echelon of the force into the objective area and
extending through attack of assault objectives and consolidation of the initial airhead.
See also assault phase. (JP 3-18)
assault breaching — A part of amphibious breaching in support of an amphibious assault
involving a fire support mission using precision guided munitions to neutralize mines
and obstacles in the surf zone and on the beach. (JP 3-02)
assault craft — A landing craft or amphibious vehicle primarily employed for landing
troops and equipment in the assault waves of an amphibious operation. (JP 3-02)
assault craft unit — A permanently commissioned naval organization, subordinate to the
commander, naval beach group, that contains landing craft and crews necessary to
provide lighterage required in an amphibious operation. Also called ACU. (JP 3-02)
assault echelon — In amphibious operations, the element of a force comprised of tailored
units and aircraft assigned to conduct the initial assault on the operational area. Also
called AE. See also amphibious operation. (JP 3-02)
assault fire — 1. That fire delivered by attacking troops as they close with the enemy. 2. In
artillery, extremely accurate, short-range destruction fire at point targets.

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assault follow-on echelon — In amphibious operations, that echelon of the assault troops,
vehicles, aircraft, equipment, and supplies that, though not needed to initiate the assault,
is required to support and sustain the assault. In order to accomplish its purpose, it is
normally required in the objective area no later than five days after commencement of
the assault landing. Also called AFOE. (JP 3-02)
assault phase — In an airborne operation, a phase beginning with delivery by air of the
assault echelon of the force into the objective area and extending through attack of
assault objectives and consolidation of the initial airhead. See also assault. (JP 3-18)
assault schedule — In amphibious operations, this schedule provides the formation,
composition, and timing of waves landing over the beach. (JP 3-02)
assault shipping — Shipping assigned to the amphibious task force and utilized for
transporting assault troops, vehicles, equipment, and supplies to the objective area.
(JP 3-02)
assault wave — See wave.
assessment — 1. A continuous process that measures the overall effectiveness of employing
joint force capabilities during military operations. 2. Determination of the progress
toward accomplishing a task, creating a condition, or achieving an objective. 3.
Analysis of the security, effectiveness, and potential of an existing or planned
intelligence activity. 4. Judgment of the motives, qualifications, and characteristics of
present or prospective employees or “agents.” (JP 3-0)
assessment agent — The organization responsible for conducting an assessment of an
approved joint publication. Also called AA. (CJCSM 5120.01)
asset validation — In intelligence use, the process used to determine the asset authenticity,
reliability, utility, suitability, and degree of control the case officer or others have.
(JP 2-01.2)
asset visibility — Provides users with information on the location, movement, status, and
identity of units, personnel, equipment, and supplies, which facilitates the capability to
act upon that information to improve overall performance of the Department of
Defense’s logistics practices. Also called AV. (JP 3-35)
assign — 1. To place units or personnel in an organization where such placement is
relatively permanent, and/or where such organization controls and administers the units
or personnel for the primary function, or greater portion of the functions, of the unit or
personnel. 2. To detail individuals to specific duties or functions where such duties or
functions are primary and/or relatively permanent. See also attach. (JP 3-0)

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assistance in kind — The provision of material and services for a logistic exchange of
materials and services of equal value between the governments of eligible countries.
Also called AIK. (JP 1-06)
assumption — A supposition on the current situation or a presupposition on the future
course of events, either or both assumed to be true in the absence of positive proof,
necessary to enable the commander in the process of planning to complete an estimate
of the situation and make a decision on the course of action. (JP 5-0)
asymmetric — In military operations the application of dissimilar strategies, tactics,
capabilities, and methods to circumvent or negate an opponent’s strengths while
exploiting his weaknesses. (JP 3-15.1)
atmospheric environment — The envelope of air surrounding the Earth, including its
interfaces and interactions with the Earth’s solid or liquid surface. (JP 3-59)
attach — 1. The placement of units or personnel in an organization where such placement is
relatively temporary. 2. The detailing of individuals to specific functions where such
functions are secondary or relatively temporary. See also assign. (JP 3-0)
attack assessment — An evaluation of information to determine the potential or actual
nature and objectives of an attack for the purpose of providing information for timely
decisions. See also damage estimation. (JP 3-14)
attack group — A subordinate task organization of the Navy forces of an amphibious task
force. It is composed of assault shipping and supporting naval units designated to
transport, protect, land, and initially support a landing group. (JP 3-02)
attack heading — 1. The interceptor heading during the attack phase that will achieve the
desired track-crossing angle. 2. The assigned magnetic compass heading to be flown
by aircraft during the delivery phase of an air strike. (JP 3-09.3)
attack position — The last position occupied by the assault echelon before crossing the line
of departure.
attack the network operations — Lethal and nonlethal actions and operations against
networks conducted continuously and simultaneously at multiple levels (tactical,
operational, and strategic) that capitalize on or create key vulnerabilities and disrupt
activities to eliminate the enemy’s ability to function in order to enable success of the
operation or campaign. Also called AtN operations. (JP 3-15.1)
augmentation forces — Forces to be transferred from a supporting combatant commander
to the combatant command (command authority) or operational control of a supported
combatant commander during the execution of an operation order approved by the
President and Secretary of Defense. (JP 5-0)

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authenticate — A challenge given by voice or electrical means to attest to the authenticity
of a person, message, or transmission. (JP 3-50)
authentication — 1. A security measure designed to protect a communications system
against acceptance of a fraudulent transmission or simulation by establishing the
validity of a transmission, message, or originator. 2. A means of identifying individuals
and verifying their eligibility to receive specific categories of information. 3. Evidence
by proper signature or seal that a document is genuine and official. 4. In personnel
recovery missions, the process whereby the identity of an isolated person is confirmed.
See also evader; evasion; recovery operations; security. (JP 3-50)
authenticator — A symbol or group of symbols, or a series of bits, selected or derived in a
prearranged manner and usually inserted at a predetermined point within a message or
transmission for the purpose of attesting to the validity of the message or transmission.
(JP 3-13.3)
authorization data — Department of Defense military and civilian manpower and
equipment resources authorized by law. (DODI 8260.03)
authorization inventory — The set of manpower and equipment authorizations associated
with one or more organization. (DODI 8260.03)
authorized departure — A procedure, short of ordered departure, by which mission
employees or dependents or both, are permitted to leave post in advance of normal
rotation when the national interests or imminent threat to life require it. (JP 3-68)
Automated Repatriation Reporting System — The Defense Manpower Data Center uses
this system to track the status of noncombatant evacuees after they have arrived in an
initial safe haven in the United States. (JP 3-68)
automatic approach and landing — A control mode in which the aircraft’s speed and
flight path are automatically controlled for approach, flare-out, and landing. (JP 3-52)
automatic identification technology — A suite of technologies enabling the automatic
capture of data, thereby enhancing the ability to identify, track, document, and control
assets (e.g., materiel), deploying and redeploying forces, equipment, personnel, and
sustainment cargo. Also called AIT. (JP 4-09)
autonomous operation — In air defense, the mode of operation assumed by a unit after it
has lost all communications with higher echelons forcing the unit commander to
assume full responsibility for control of weapons and engagement of hostile targets.
(JP 3-01)
available-to-load date — A date specified for each unit in a time-phased force and
deployment data indicating when that unit will be ready to load at the point of
embarkation. Also called ALD. (JP 5-0)

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avenue of approach — An air or ground route of an attacking force of a given size leading
to its objective or to key terrain in its path. Also called AA. (JP 2-01.3)
aviation medicine — The special field of medicine which is related to the biological and
psychological problems of flight. (JP 4-02)
axis of advance — A line of advance assigned for purposes of control; often a road or a
group of roads, or a designated series of locations, extending in the direction of the
enemy. (JP 3-03)

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B
backfill — Reserve Component units and individuals recalled to replace deploying active
units and/or individuals in the continental United States and outside the continental
United States. See also Reserve Component. (JP 4-05)
bale cubic capacity — The space available for cargo measured in cubic feet to the inside of
the cargo battens, on the frames, and to the underside of the beams. (JP 4-01.2)
ballistic missile — Any missile which does not rely upon aerodynamic surfaces to produce
lift and consequently follows a ballistic trajectory when thrust is terminated. See also
guided missile. (JP 3-01)
bare base — A base having minimum essential facilities to house, sustain, and support
operations to include, if required, a stabilized runway, taxiways, and aircraft parking
areas. A bare base must have a source of water that can be made potable. Other
requirements to operate under bare base conditions form a necessary part of the force
package deployed to the bare base. See also base. (JP 3-05.1)
barrage — 1. A prearranged barrier of fires, except that delivered by small arms, designed
to protect friendly troops and installations by impeding enemy movements across
defensive lines or areas. 2. A type of electronic attack intended for simultaneous
jamming over a wide area of frequency spectrum. See also electronic warfare; fires.
barrier — A coordinated series of natural or man-made obstacles designed or employed to
channel, direct, restrict, delay, or stop the movement of an opposing force and to impose
additional losses in personnel, time, and equipment on the opposing force. (JP 3-15)
barrier combat air patrol — One or more divisions or elements of fighter aircraft
employed between a force and an objective area as a barrier across the probable
direction of enemy attack. See also combat air patrol. (JP 3-01)
barrier, obstacle, and mine warfare plan — A comprehensive, coordinated plan that
includes responsibilities; general location of unspecified and specific barriers,
obstacles, and minefields; special instructions; limitations; coordination; and
completion times; and may designate locations of obstacle zones or belts. (JP 3-15)
base — 1. A locality from which operations are projected or supported. 2. An area or
locality containing installations which provide logistic or other support. 3. Home
airfield or home carrier. See also facility. (JP 4-0)
base boundary — A line that delineates the surface area of a base for the purpose of
facilitating coordination and deconfliction of operations between adjacent units,
formations, or areas. (JP 3-10)

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base cluster — In base defense operations, a collection of bases, geographically grouped for
mutual protection and ease of command and control. (JP 3-10)
base cluster commander — In base defense operations, a senior base commander
designated by the joint force commander responsible for coordinating the defense of
bases within the base cluster and for integrating defense plans of bases into a base
cluster defense plan. (JP 3-10)
base cluster operations center — A command and control facility that serves as the base
cluster commander’s focal point for defense and security of the base cluster. Also
called BCOC. (JP 3-10)
base commander — In base defense operations, the officer assigned to command a base.
(JP 3-10)
base defense — The local military measures, both normal and emergency, required to
nullify or reduce the effectiveness of enemy attacks on, or sabotage of, a base, to ensure
that the maximum capacity of its facilities is available to US forces. (JP 3-10)
base defense forces — Troops assigned or attached to a base for the primary purpose of
base defense and security as well as augmentees and selectively armed personnel
available to the base commander for base defense from units performing primary
missions other than base defense. (JP 3-10)
base defense operations center — A command and control facility, with responsibilities
similar to a base cluster operations center, established by the base commander to serve
as the focal point for base security and defense. It plans, directs, integrates,
coordinates, and controls all base defense efforts. Also called BDOC. (JP 3-10)
base defense zone — An air defense zone established around an air base and limited to the
engagement envelope of short-range air defense weapons systems defending that base.
Base defense zones have specific entry, exit, and identification, friend or foe procedures
established. Also called BDZ. (JP 3-52)
base development (less force beddown) — The acquisition, development, expansion,
improvement, construction and/or replacement of the facilities and resources of a
location to support forces. (JP 3-34)
baseline costs — The continuing annual costs of military operations funded by the
operations and maintenance and military personnel appropriations. (JP 1-06)
base operating support — Directly assisting, maintaining, supplying, and distributing
support of forces at the operating location. Also called BOS. (JP 4-0)

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base operating support-integrator — The designated Service component or joint task
force commander assigned to synchronize all sustainment functions for a contingency
base. Also called BOS-I. (JP 4-0)
base plan — A type of operation plan that describes the concept of operations, major forces,
sustainment concept, and anticipated timelines for completing the mission without
annexes or time-phased force and deployment data. Also called BPLAN. (JP 5-0)
base support installation — A Department of Defense Service or agency installation
within the United States and its territories tasked to serve as a base for military forces
engaged in either homeland defense or defense support of civil authorities. Also called
BSI. (JP 3-28)
basic encyclopedia — A compilation of identified installations and physical areas of
potential significance as objectives for attack. Also called BE. (JP 2-01)
basic load — The quantity of supplies required to be on hand within, and which can be
moved by, a unit or formation, expressed according to the wartime organization of the
unit or formation and maintained at the prescribed levels. (JP 4-09)
basic tactical organization — The conventional organization of landing force units for
combat, involving combinations of infantry, supporting ground arms, and aviation for
accomplishment of missions ashore. This organizational form is employed as soon as
possible following the landing of the various assault components of the landing force.
battalion landing team — In an amphibious operation, an infantry battalion normally
reinforced by necessary combat and service elements; the basic unit for planning an
assault landing. Also called BLT. (JP 3-02)
battle damage assessment — The estimate of damage composed of physical and functional
damage assessment, as well as target system assessment, resulting from the application
of lethal or nonlethal military force. Also called BDA. See also combat assessment.
(JP 3-0)
battle damage repair — Essential repair, which may be improvised, carried out rapidly in a
battle environment in order to return damaged or disabled equipment to temporary
service. Also called BDR. (JP 4-09)
battlefield coordination detachment — An Army liaison located in the air operations
center that provides selected operational functions between the Army forces and the air
component commander. Also called BCD. See also air operations center; liaison.
(JP 3-03)
battle injury — Damage or harm sustained by personnel during or as a result of battle
conditions. Also called BI. (JP 4-02)

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battle management — The management of activities within the operational environment
based on the commands, direction, and guidance given by appropriate authority. Also
called BM. (JP 3-01)
beach — 1. The area extending from the shoreline inland to a marked change in
physiographic form or material, or to the line of permanent vegetation (coastline). 2. In
amphibious operations, that portion of the shoreline designated for landing of a tactical
organization. (JP 3-02)
beach group — See naval beach group; shore party.
beachhead — A designated area on a hostile or potentially hostile shore that, when seized
and held, ensures the continuous landing of troops and materiel, and provides maneuver
space requisite for subsequent projected operations ashore. (JP 3-02)
beachmaster unit — A commissioned naval unit of the naval beach group designed to
provide to the shore party a Navy component known as a beach party, which is capable
of supporting the amphibious landing of one division (reinforced). Also called BMU.
See also beach party; naval beach group; shore party. (JP 4-01.6)
beach party — The Navy component of the landing force support party under the tactical
control of the landing force support party commander. See also beachmaster unit;
shore party. (JP 3-02)
beach party commander — The naval officer in command of the naval component of the
shore party.
beach photography — Vertical, oblique, ground, and periscope coverage at varying scales
to provide information of offshore, shore, and inland areas. It covers terrain that
provides observation of the beaches and is primarily concerned with the geological and
tactical aspects of the beach.
beach support area — In amphibious operations, the area to the rear of a landing force or
elements thereof, established and operated by shore party units, which contains the
facilities for the unloading of troops and materiel and the support of the forces ashore; it
includes facilities for the evacuation of wounded, enemy prisoners of war, and captured
materiel. Also called BSA. (JP 3-02)
beach survey — The collection of data describing the physical characteristics of a beach;
that is, an area whose boundaries are a shoreline, a coastline, and two natural or
arbitrary assigned flanks.
beach width — The horizontal dimensions of the beach measured at right angles to the
shoreline from the line of extreme low water inland to the landward limit of the beach
(the coastline).

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begin morning civil twilight — The period of time at which the sun is halfway between
beginning morning and nautical twilight and sunrise, when there is enough light to see
objects clearly with the unaided eye. At this time, light intensification devices are no
longer effective, and the sun is six degrees below the eastern horizon. Also called
BMCT.
begin morning nautical twilight — The start of that period where, in good conditions and
in the absence of other illumination, enough light is available to identify the general
outlines of ground objects and conduct limited military operations.
Light
intensification devices are still effective and may have enhanced capabilities. At this
time, the sun is 12 degrees below the eastern horizon. Also called BMNT.
believed-to-be — In mortuary affairs, the status of any human remains until a positive
identification has been determined. Used interchangeably with tentative identification.
Also called BTB. (JP 4-06)
berm — The nearly horizontal portion of a beach or backshore having an abrupt fall and
either formed by deposition of material by wave action at the limit of ordinary high tide
or constructed to protect materials handling equipment during air cushion vehicle
operations. (JP 4-01.6)
bill — A ship’s publication listing operational or administrative procedures. (JP 3-04)
biological agent — A microorganism (or a toxin derived from it) that causes disease in
personnel, plants, or animals or causes the deterioration of materiel. See also chemical
agent. (JP 3-11)
biological hazard — An organism, or substance derived from an organism, that poses a
threat to human or animal health. (JP 3-11)
biometrics — The process of recognizing an individual based on measurable anatomical,
physiological, and behavioral characteristics. (JP 2-0)
biometrics-enabled intelligence — The intelligence derived from the processing of
biologic identity data and other all-source for information concerning persons of
interest. Also called BEI. (JP 2-0)
blister agent — A chemical agent that injures the eyes and lungs, and burns or blisters the
skin. Also called vesicant agent. (JP 3-11)
blood agent — A chemical compound, including the cyanide group, that affects bodily
functions by preventing the normal utilization of oxygen by body tissues. (JP 3-11)
blood chit — A small sheet of material depicting an American flag and a statement in
several languages to the effect that anyone assisting the bearer to safety will be
rewarded. See also evasion aid. (JP 3-50)

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Blue Bark — US military personnel, US citizen civilian employees of the Department of
Defense, and the dependents of both categories who travel in connection with the death
of an immediate family member. It also applies to designated escorts for dependents of
deceased military members. Furthermore, the term is used to designate the personal
property shipment of a deceased member. (JP 4-06)
boat group — The basic organization of landing craft. One boat group is organized for
each battalion landing team (or equivalent) to be landed in the first trip of landing craft
or amphibious vehicles. (JP 3-02)
boat lane — A lane for amphibious assault landing craft, which extends from the line of
departure to the beach. (JP 3-02)
boat space — The space and weight factor used to determine the capacity of boats, landing
craft, and amphibious vehicles. With respect to landing craft and amphibious vehicles,
it is based on the requirements of one person with individual equipment. The person is
assumed to weigh 224 pounds and to occupy 13.5 cubic feet of space. (JP 3-02)
boat wave — See wave.
bona fides — 1. In personnel recovery, the use of verbal or visual communication by
individuals who are unknown to one another, to establish their authenticity, sincerity,
honesty, and truthfulness. See also evasion; recovery; recovery operations. (JP 350) 2. The lack of fraud or deceit: a determination that a person is who he/she says
he/she is. (JP 2-01.2)
boost phase — That portion of the flight of a ballistic missile or space vehicle during which
the booster and sustainer engines operate. See also midcourse phase; terminal phase.
(JP 3-01)
bottom mine — A mine with negative buoyancy which remains on the seabed. See also
mine. (JP 3-15)
boundary — A line that delineates surface areas for the purpose of facilitating coordination
and deconfliction of operations between adjacent units, formations, or areas. (JP 3-0)
branch — 1. A subdivision of any organization. 2. A geographically separate unit of an
activity, which performs all or part of the primary functions of the parent activity on a
smaller scale. 3. An arm or service of the Army. 4. The contingency options built into
the base plan used for changing the mission, orientation, or direction of movement of a
force to aid success of the operation based on anticipated events, opportunities, or
disruptions caused by enemy actions and reactions. See also sequel. (JP 5-0)

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breakbulk ship — A ship with conventional holds for stowage of breakbulk cargo and a
limited number of containers, below or above deck, and equipped with cargo-handling
gear. (JP 4-09)
brevity code — A code which provides no security but which has as its sole purpose the
shortening of messages rather than the concealment of their content. (JP 3-04)
brigade combat team — A combined arms team that forms the basic building block of the
Army’s tactical formations. Also called BCT. (JP 3-31)
broken stowage — The space lost in the holds of a vessel because of the contour of the
ship and the shape of the cargo. Dunnage, ladders, and stanchions are included in
broken stowage. (JP 3-02.1)
broken stowage factor — A factor applied to the available space for embarkation due to
the loss between boxes, between vehicles, around stanchions, and over cargo. The
factor will vary, depending on the type and size of vehicles, type and size of general
cargo, training and experience of loading personnel, type of loading, method of
stowage, and configuration of compartments. (JP 3-02.1)
buddy-aid — Acute medical care (first aid) provided by a non-medical Service member to
another person. (JP 4-02)
buffer zone — 1. A defined area controlled by a peace operations force from which
disputing or belligerent forces have been excluded. Also called area of separation in
some United Nations operations. Also called BZ. See also line of demarcation;
peace operations. (JP 3-07.3) 2. A designated area used for safety in military
operations. (JP 3-01)
building systems — Structures assembled from manufactured components designed to
provide specific building configurations. (JP 3-34)
bulk cargo — That which is generally shipped in volume where the transportation
conveyance is the only external container; such as liquids, ore, or grain. (JP 4-01.5)
bulk petroleum product — A liquid petroleum product transported by various means and
stored in tanks or containers having an individual fill capacity greater than 250 liters.
(JP 4-03)
bulk storage — 1. Storage in a warehouse of supplies and equipment in large quantities,
usually in original containers, as distinguished from bin storage. 2. Storage of liquids,
such as petroleum products in tanks, as distinguished from drum or packaged storage.
(JP 4-03)

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Intentionally Blank

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C
cache — A source of subsistence and supplies, typically containing items such as food,
water, medical items, and/or communications equipment, packaged to prevent damage
from exposure and hidden in isolated locations by such methods as burial, concealment,
and/or submersion, to support isolated personnel. See also evader; evasion; recovery;
recovery operations. (JP 3-50)
call sign — Any combination of characters or pronounceable words, which identifies a
communication facility, a command, an authority, an activity, or a unit; used primarily
for establishing and maintaining communications. Also called CS. (JP 3-50)
campaign — A series of related major operations aimed at achieving strategic and
operational objectives within a given time and space. See also campaign plan. (JP 5-0)
campaign plan — A joint operation plan for a series of related major operations aimed at
achieving strategic or operational objectives within a given time and space. See also
campaign; campaign planning. (JP 5-0)
campaign planning — The process whereby combatant commanders and subordinate joint
force commanders translate national or theater strategy into operational concepts
through the development of an operation plan for a campaign. See also campaign;
campaign plan. (JP 5-0)
canalize — To restrict operations to a narrow zone by use of existing or reinforcing
obstacles or by fire or bombing. (JP 3-15)
candidate target list — A list of objects or entities submitted by component commanders,
appropriate agencies, or the joint force commander’s staff for further development and
inclusion on the joint target list and/or restricted target list, or moved to the no-strike
list. Also called CTL. See also joint integrated prioritized target list; target, target
nomination list. (JP 3-60)
capstone publication — The top joint doctrine publication in the hierarchy of joint
publications that links joint doctrine to national strategy and the contributions of other
government departments and agencies, multinational partners, and reinforces policy for
command and control. See also joint publication; keystone publications.
(CJCSM 5120.01)
capstone requirements document — A document that contains performance-based
requirements to facilitate development of individual operational requirements
documents by providing a common framework and operational concept to guide their
development. Also called CRD.

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cargo increment number — A seven-character alphanumeric field that uniquely describes
a non-unit-cargo entry (line) in the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System
time-phased force and deployment data. (JP 3-35)
carrier air wing — Two or more aircraft squadrons formed under one commander for
administrative and tactical control of operations from a carrier. Also called CVW.
(JP 3-32)
carrier control zone — The airspace within a circular limit defined by 5 miles horizontal
radius from the carrier, extending upward from the surface to and including 2,500 feet
unless otherwise designated for special operations, and is under the cognizance of the
air officer during visual meteorological conditions. (JP 3-52)
carrier strike group — A standing naval task group consisting of a carrier, embarked air
wing, surface combatants, and submarines as assigned in direct support, operating in
mutual support with the task of destroying hostile submarine, surface, and air forces
within the group’s assigned operational area and striking at targets along hostile shore
lines or projecting power inland. Also called CSG. (JP 3-32)
cartridge-actuated device — Small explosive devices used to eject stores from launched
devices, actuate other explosive systems, or provide initiation for aircrew escape
devices. Also called CAD. (JP 3-04)
CARVER — A special operations forces acronym used throughout the targeting and
mission planning cycle to assess mission validity and requirements. The acronym
stands for criticality, accessibility, recuperability, vulnerability, effect, and
recognizability. (JP 3-05.1)
case officer — A professional employee of an intelligence or counterintelligence
organization, who is responsible for providing directions for an agent operation and/or
handling intelligence assets. (JP 2-01.2)
casualty — Any person who is lost to the organization by having been declared dead, duty
status – whereabouts unknown, missing, ill, or injured. See also hostile casualty.
(JP 4-02)
casualty evacuation — The unregulated movement of casualties that can include
movement both to and between medical treatment facilities. Also called CASEVAC.
See also casualty; evacuation; medical treatment facility. (JP 4-02)
casualty receiving and treatment ship — In amphibious operations, a ship designated to
receive, provide treatment for, and transfer casualties. (JP 3-02)
catastrophic event — Any natural or man-made incident, including terrorism, which results
in extraordinary levels of mass casualties, damage, or disruption severely affecting the

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population, infrastructure, environment, economy, national morale, and/or government
functions. (JP 3-28)
causeway — A craft similar in design to a barge, but longer and narrower, designed to assist
in the discharge and transport of cargo from vessels. (JP 4-01.6)
causeway launching area — An area located near the line of departure but clear of the
approach lanes to an area located in the inner transport area. (JP 3-02)
C-day — The unnamed day on which a deployment operation commences or is to
commence. (JP 5-0)
cell — A subordinate organization formed around a specific process, capability, or activity
within a designated larger organization of a joint force commander’s headquarters.
(JP 3-33)
center — An enduring functional organization, with a supporting staff, designed to perform
a joint function within a joint force commander’s headquarters. (JP 3-33)
center of gravity — The source of power that provides moral or physical strength, freedom
of action, or will to act. Also called COG. See also decisive point. (JP 5-0)
centigray — A unit of absorbed dose of radiation (one centigray equals one rad). (JP 3-11)
central control officer — The officer designated by the amphibious task force commander
for the overall coordination of the waterborne ship-to-shore movement. The central
control officer is embarked in the central control ship. Also called CCO. (JP 3-02)
centralized control — 1. In air defense, the control mode whereby a higher echelon makes
direct target assignments to fire units. (JP 3-01) 2. In joint air operations, placing
within one commander the responsibility and authority for planning, directing, and
coordinating a military operation or group/category of operations. See also
decentralized control. (JP 3-30)
chaff — Radar confusion reflectors, consisting of thin, narrow metallic strips of various
lengths and frequency responses, which are used to reflect echoes for confusion
purposes. (JP 3-13.1)
chain of command — The succession of commanding officers from a superior to a
subordinate through which command is exercised. Also called command channel.
(JP 1)
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff instruction — A replacement document for all
types of correspondence containing Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff policy and
guidance that does not involve the employment of forces, which is of indefinite
duration and is applicable to external agencies, or both the Joint Staff and external

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agencies. Also called CJCSI. See also Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
manual. (CJCSM 5120.01)
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff manual — A document containing detailed
procedures for performing specific tasks that do not involve the employment of forces,
which is of indefinite duration and is applicable to external agencies or both the Joint
Staff and external agencies. Also called CJCSM. See also Chairman of the Joint
Chiefs of Staff instruction. (CJCSM 5120.01)
chalk number — The number given to a complete load and to the transporting carrier.
(JP 3-17)
change detection — An image enhancement technique that compares two images of the
same area from different time periods and eliminates identical picture elements in order
to leave the signatures that have undergone change. (JP 2-03)
channel airlift — Airlift provided for movement of sustainment cargo, scheduled either
regularly or depending upon volume of workload, between designated ports of
embarkation and ports of debarkation over validated contingency or distribution routes.
(JP 3-17)
chemical agent — A chemical substance that is intended for use in military operations to
kill, seriously injure, or incapacitate mainly through its physiological effects. See also
chemical warfare; riot control agent. (JP 3-11)
chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear consequence management — Actions
taken to plan, prepare, respond to, and recover from chemical, biological, radiological,
and nuclear incidents. Also called CBRN CM. (JP 3-41)
chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear defense — Measures taken to minimize or
negate the vulnerabilities to, and/or effects of, a chemical, biological, radiological, or
nuclear hazard or incident. Also called CBRN defense. (JP 3-11)
chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear environment — An operational
environment that includes chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear threats and
hazards and their potential resulting effects. Also called CBRN environment.
(JP 3-11)
chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear hazard — Chemical, biological,
radiological, and nuclear elements that could create adverse effects due to an accidental
or deliberate release and dissemination. Also called CBRN hazard. (JP 3-11)
chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear passive defense — Passive measures
taken to minimize or negate the vulnerability to, and effects of, chemical, biological,
radiological, or nuclear attacks. This mission area focuses on maintaining the joint

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force’s ability to continue military operations in a chemical, biological, radiological, or
nuclear environment. Also called CBRN passive defense. (JP 3-40)
chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear incident — Any occurrence, resulting from
the use of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons and devices; the
emergence of secondary hazards arising from counterforce targeting; or the release of
toxic industrial materials into the environment, involving the emergence of chemical,
biological, radiological and nuclear hazards. (JP 3-11)
chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear weapon — A fully engineered assembly
designed for employment to cause the release of a chemical or biological agent or
radiological material onto a chosen target or to generate a nuclear detonation. Also
called CBRN weapon. (JP 3-11)
chemical hazard — Any chemical manufactured, used, transported, or stored that can cause
death or other harm through toxic properties of those materials, including chemical
agents and chemical weapons prohibited under the Chemical Weapons Convention as
well as toxic industrial chemicals. (JP 3-11)
chemical warfare — All aspects of military operations involving the employment of lethal
and incapacitating munitions/agents and the warning and protective measures
associated with such offensive operations. Also called CW. See also chemical agent;
chemical weapon; riot control agent. (JP 3-11)
chemical weapon — Together or separately, (a) a toxic chemical and its precursors, except
when intended for a purpose not prohibited under the Chemical Weapons Convention;
(b) a munition or device, specifically designed to cause death or other harm through
toxic properties of those chemicals specified in (a), above, which would be released as
a result of the employment of such munition or device; (c) any equipment specifically
designed for use directly in connection with the employment of munitions or devices
specified in (b), above. See also chemical agent; chemical warfare; riot control
agent. (JP 3-11)
chief of mission — The principal officer (the ambassador) in charge of a diplomatic facility
of the United States, including any individual assigned to be temporarily in charge of
such a facility. The chief of mission is the personal representative of the President to
the country of accreditation. The chief of mission is responsible for the direction,
coordination, and supervision of all US Government executive branch employees in
that country (except those under the command of a US area military commander). The
security of the diplomatic post is the chief of mission’s direct responsibility. Also
called COM. (JP 3-08)
chief of staff — The senior or principal member or head of a staff who acts as the
controlling member of a staff for purposes of the coordination of its work or to exercise
command in another’s name. Also called COS. (JP 3-33)

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chief of station — The senior United States intelligence officer in a foreign country and the
direct representative of the Director National Intelligence, to whom the officer reports
through the Director Central Intelligence Agency. Usually the senior representative of
the Central Intelligence Agency assigned to a US mission. Also called COS.
(JP 2-01.2)
civil administration — An administration established by a foreign government in (1)
friendly territory, under an agreement with the government of the area concerned, to
exercise certain authority normally the function of the local government; or (2) hostile
territory, occupied by United States forces, where a foreign government exercises
executive, legislative, and judicial authority until an indigenous civil government can
be established. Also called CA. (JP 3-05)
civil affairs — Designated Active and Reserve Component forces and units organized, trained,
and equipped specifically to conduct civil affairs operations and to support civil-military
operations. Also called CA. See also civil-military operations. (JP 3-57)
civil affairs operations — Actions planned, executed, and assessed by civil affairs forces
that enhance awareness of and manage the interaction with the civil component of the
operational environment; identify and mitigate underlying causes of instability within
civil society; or involve the application of functional specialty skills normally the
responsibility of civil government. Also called CAO. (JP 3-57)
civil augmentation program — Standing, long-term external support contacts designed to
augment Service logistic capabilities with contracted support in both preplanned and
short notice contingencies. Examples include US Army Logistics Civil Augmentation
Program, Air Force Contract Augmentation Program, and US Navy Global
Contingency Capabilities Contracts. Also called CAP. See also contingency;
contingency contract; external support contract. (JP 4-10)
civil authorities — Those elected and appointed officers and employees who constitute the
government of the United States, the governments of the 50 states, the District of
Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, United States territories, and political
subdivisions thereof. (JP 3-28)
civil authority information support — Department of Defense information activities
conducted under a designated lead federal agency or other United States civil authority
to support dissemination of public or other critical information during domestic
emergencies. Also called CAIS. (JP 3-13.2)
civil emergency — Any occasion or instance for which, in the determination of the
President, federal assistance is needed to supplement state and local efforts and
capabilities to save lives and to protect property and public health and safety, or to
lessen or avert the threat of a catastrophe in any part of the United States. (JP 3-28)

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civilian internee — A civilian who is interned during armed conflict, occupation, or other
military operation for security reasons, for protection, or because he or she committed
an offense against the detaining power. Also called CI. (DODD 2310.01E)
civil information — Relevant data relating to the civil areas, structures, capabilities,
organizations, people, and events of the civil component of the operational environment
used to support the situational awareness of the supported commander. (JP 3-57)
civil information management — Process whereby data relating to the civil component
of the operational environment is gathered, collated, processed, analyzed, produced
into information products, and disseminated. Also called CIM. (JP 3-57)
civil-military medicine — A discipline within operational medicine comprising public
health and medical issues that involve a civil-military interface (foreign or domestic),
including military medical support to civil authorities (domestic), medical elements of
cooperation activities, and medical civil-military operations. (JP 4-02)
civil-military operations — Activities of a commander performed by designated civil
affairs or other military forces that establish, maintain, influence, or exploit relations
between military forces, indigenous populations, and institutions, by directly supporting
the attainment of objectives relating to the reestablishment or maintenance of stability
within a region or host nation. Also called CMO. See also civil affairs; operation.
(JP 3-57)
civil-military operations center — An organization, normally comprised of civil affairs,
established to plan and facilitate coordination of activities of the Armed Forces of the
United States within indigenous populations and institutions, the private sector,
intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, multinational forces,
and other governmental agencies in support of the joint force commander. Also called
CMOC. See also civil-military operations; operation. (JP 3-57)
civil-military team — A temporary organization of civilian and military personnel taskorganized to provide an optimal mix of capabilities and expertise to accomplish
specific operational and planning tasks. (JP 3-57)
civil reconnaissance — A targeted, planned, and coordinated observation and evaluation
of specific civil aspects of the environment such as areas, structures, capabilities,
organizations, people, or events. Also called CR. (JP 3-57)
Civil Reserve Air Fleet — A program in which the Department of Defense contracts for
the services of specific aircraft, owned by a United States entity or citizen, during
national emergencies and defense-oriented situations when expanded civil
augmentation of military airlift activity is required. Also called CRAF. See also
reserve. (JP 3-17)

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civil search and rescue — Search and/or rescue operations and associated civilian services
provided to assist persons in potential or actual distress and protect property in a nonhostile environment. Also called civil SAR. (JP 3-50)
clandestine — Any activity or operation sponsored or conducted by governmental
departments or agencies with the intent to assure secrecy and concealment. (JP 2-01.2)
clandestine intelligence collection — The acquisition of protected intelligence information in
a way designed to conceal the nature of the operation and protect the source. (JP 2-01.2)
clandestine operation — An operation sponsored or conducted by governmental
departments or agencies in such a way as to assure secrecy or concealment. A
clandestine operation differs from a covert operation in that emphasis is placed on
concealment of the operation rather than on concealment of the identity of the sponsor.
In special operations, an activity may be both covert and clandestine and may focus
equally on operational considerations and intelligence-related activities. See also
covert operation; overt operation. (JP 3-05.1)
classes of supply — The ten categories into which supplies are grouped in order to facilitate
supply management and planning. I. Rations and gratuitous issue of health, morale,
and welfare items. II. Clothing, individual equipment, tentage, tool sets, and
administrative and housekeeping supplies and equipment. III. Petroleum, oils, and
lubricants. IV. Construction materials. V. Ammunition. VI. Personal demand items.
VII. Major end items, including tanks, helicopters, and radios. VIII. Medical. IX.
Repair parts and components for equipment maintenance. X. Nonstandard items to
support nonmilitary programs such as agriculture and economic development. See also
petroleum, oils, and lubricants. (JP 4-09)
classification — The determination that official information requires, in the interests of
national security, a specific degree of protection against unauthorized disclosure,
coupled with a designation signifying that such a determination has been made. See
also security classification. (JP 2-01.2)
classified information — Official information that has been determined to require, in the
interests of national security, protection against unauthorized disclosure and which has
been so designated. (JP 2-01.2)
clearance capacity — An estimate expressed in agreed upon units of cargo measurement
per day of the cargo or people that may be transported inland from a beach or port over
the available means of inland communication, including roads, railroads, airlift, and
inland waterways. See also throughput capacity. (JP 4-01.5)
clearance decontamination — The final level of decontamination that provides the
decontamination of equipment and personnel to a level that allows unrestricted
transportation, maintenance, employment, and disposal. (JP 3-11)

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clearing operation — An operation designed to clear or neutralize all mines and obstacles
from a route or area. (JP 3-15)
close air support — Air action by fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft against hostile targets that
are in close proximity to friendly forces and that require detailed integration of each air
mission with the fire and movement of those forces. Also called CAS. See also air
interdiction; immediate mission request; preplanned mission request. (JP 3-0)
close support — The action of the supporting force against targets or objectives that are
sufficiently near the supported force as to require detailed integration or coordination of
the supporting action. See also direct support; general support; mutual support;
support. (JP 3-31)
close support area — Those parts of the ocean operating areas nearest to, but not
necessarily in, the objective area. They are assigned to naval support carrier strike
groups, surface action groups, surface action units, and certain logistic combat service
support elements. (JP 3-02)
closure — In transportation, the process of a unit’s arriving at a specified location.
(JP 4-01.5)
coalition — An arrangement between two or more nations for common action. See also
alliance; multinational. (JP 5-0)
coastal sea control — The employment of forces to ensure the unimpeded use of an
offshore coastal area by friendly forces and, as appropriate, to deny the use of the area
to enemy forces. (JP 3-10)
code word — 1. A word that has been assigned a classification and a classified meaning to
safeguard intentions and information regarding a classified plan or operation. 2. A
cryptonym used to identify sensitive intelligence data. (JP 3-50)
collateral damage — Unintentional or incidental injury or damage to persons or objects
that would not be lawful military targets in the circumstances ruling at the time.
(JP 3-60)
collection — In intelligence usage, the acquisition of information and the provision of this
information to processing elements. See also intelligence process. (JP 2-01)
collection agency — Any individual, organization, or unit that has access to sources of
information and the capability of collecting information from them. See also agency.
(JP 2-01)
collection asset — A collection system, platform, or capability that is supporting, assigned,
or attached to a particular commander. See also collection. (JP 2-01)

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collection management — In intelligence usage, the process of converting intelligence
requirements into collection requirements, establishing priorities, tasking or
coordinating with appropriate collection sources or agencies, monitoring results, and
retasking, as required. See also collection; collection requirement; collection
requirements management; intelligence; intelligence process. (JP 2-0)
collection management authority — Within the Department of Defense, collection
management authority constitutes the authority to establish, prioritize, and validate
theater collection requirements, establish sensor tasking guidance, and develop theaterwide collection policies. Also called CMA. See also collection manager; collection
plan; collection requirement. (JP 2-01.2)
collection manager — An individual with responsibility for the timely and efficient tasking
of organic collection resources and the development of requirements for theater and
national assets that could satisfy specific information needs in support of the mission.
Also called CM. See also collection; collection management authority. (JP 2-01)
collection operations management — The authoritative direction, scheduling, and control
of specific collection operations and associated processing, exploitation, and reporting
resources. Also called COM. See also collection management; collection
requirements management. (JP 2-0)
collection plan — A systematic scheme to optimize the employment of all available
collection capabilities and associated processing, exploitation, and dissemination
resources to satisfy specific information requirements. See also information
requirements; intelligence process. (JP 2-0)
collection planning — A continuous process that coordinates and integrates the efforts of
all collection units and agencies. See also collection. (JP 2-0)
collection point — A point designated for the assembly of personnel casualties, stragglers,
disabled materiel, salvage, etc., for further movement to collecting stations or rear
installations. Also called CP. (JP 4-06)
collection posture — The current status of collection assets and resources to satisfy
identified information requirements. (JP 2-0)
collection requirement — A valid need to close a specific gap in intelligence holdings in
direct response to a request for information. (JP 2-0)
collection requirements management — The authoritative development and control of
collection, processing, exploitation, and/or reporting requirements that normally result
in either the direct tasking of requirements to units over which the commander has
authority, or the generation of tasking requests to collection management authorities at
a higher, lower, or lateral echelon to accomplish the collection mission. Also called

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CRM.
See also collection; collection management; collection operations
management. (JP 2-0)
collection resource — A collection system, platform, or capability that is not assigned or
attached to a specific unit or echelon which must be requested and coordinated through
the chain of command. See also collection management. (JP 2-01)
collection strategy — An analytical approach used by collection managers to determine
which intelligence disciplines can be applied to satisfy information requirements.
(JP 2-0)
collective protection — The protection provided to a group of individuals that permits
relaxation of individual chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear protection. Also
called COLPRO. (JP 3-11)
colored beach — That portion of usable coastline sufficient for the assault landing of a
regimental landing team or similar sized unit. In the event that the landing force
consists of a single battalion landing team, a colored beach will be used and no further
subdivision of the beach is required. See also numbered beach. (JP 3-02)
combat air patrol — An aircraft patrol provided over an objective area, the force protected,
the critical area of a combat zone, or in an air defense area, for the purpose of
intercepting and destroying hostile aircraft before they reach their targets. Also called
CAP. See also airborne alert; barrier combat air patrol; rescue combat air patrol.
(JP 3-01)
combat and operational stress — The expected and predictable emotional, intellectual,
physical, and/or behavioral reactions of an individual who has been exposed to stressful
events in war or stability operations. (JP 4-02)
combat and operational stress control — Programs developed and actions taken by
military leadership to prevent, identify, and manage adverse combat and operational
stress reactions in units; optimize mission performance; conserve fighting strength;
prevent or minimize adverse effects of combat and operational stress on members’
physical, psychological, intellectual and social health; and to return the unit or Service
member to duty expeditiously. (JP 4-02)
combatant command — A unified or specified command with a broad continuing mission
under a single commander established and so designated by the President, through the
Secretary of Defense and with the advice and assistance of the Chairman of the Joint
Chiefs of Staff. Also called CCMD. See also specified combatant command;
unified command. (JP 1)
combatant command chaplain — The senior chaplain assigned to the staff of, or
designated by, the combatant commander to provide advice on religion, ethical, and
moral issues, and morale of assigned personnel and to coordinate religious ministries

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within the combatant commander’s area of responsibility. See also command
chaplain; religious support; religious support team. (JP 1-05)
combatant command (command authority) — Nontransferable command authority,
which cannot be delegated, of a combatant commander to perform those functions of
command over assigned forces involving organizing and employing commands and
forces; assigning tasks; designating objectives; and giving authoritative direction over
all aspects of military operations, joint training, and logistics necessary to accomplish
the missions assigned to the command. Also called COCOM. See also combatant
command; combatant commander; operational control; tactical control. (JP 1)
combatant commander — A commander of one of the unified or specified combatant
commands established by the President. Also called CCDR. See also combatant
command; specified combatant command; unified combatant command. (JP 3-0)
combatant commander logistic procurement support board — A combatant
commander-level joint board established to ensure that contracting support and other
sources of support are properly synchronized across the entire area of responsibility.
Also called CLPSB. See also joint acquisition review board; joint contracting
support board. (JP 4-10)
combatant command support agent — The Secretary of a Military Department to whom
the Secretary of Defense or the Deputy Secretary of Defense has assigned
administrative and logistical support of the headquarters of a combatant command,
United States Element, North American Aerospace Defense Command, or subordinate
unified command. The nature and scope of the combatant command support agent
responsibilities, functions, and authorities shall be prescribed at the time of assignment
or in keeping with existing agreements and practices, and they shall remain in effect
until the Secretary of Defense or the Deputy Secretary of Defense revokes, supersedes,
or modifies them. Also called CCSA. (DODD 5100.03)
combat assessment — The determination of the overall effectiveness of force employment
during military operations. Combat assessment is composed of three major
components: (a) battle damage assessment; (b) munitions effectiveness assessment; and
(c) reattack recommendation. Also called CA. See also battle damage assessment;
munitions effectiveness assessment; reattack recommendation. (JP 3-60)
combat camera — The acquisition and utilization of still and motion imagery in support of
operational and planning requirements across the range of military operations and
during joint exercises. Also called COMCAM. See also visual information.
(JP 3-61)
combat cargo officer — An embarkation officer assigned to major amphibious ships or
naval staffs, functioning primarily as an adviser to and representative of the naval
commander in matters pertaining to embarkation and debarkation of troops and their
supplies and equipment. Also called CCO. See also embarkation officer. (JP 3-02.1)

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combat chart — A special naval chart, at a scale of 1:50,000, designed for naval surface
fire support and close air support during coastal or amphibious operations and showing
detailed hydrography and topography in the coastal belt. (JP 2-03)
combat control team — A task-organized team of special operations forces who are
certified air traffic controllers that are trained and equipped to deploy into hostile
environments to establish and control assault zones and airfields. Also called CCT.
(JP 3-17)
combat engineering — Engineering capabilities and activities that closely support the
maneuver of land combat forces consisting of three types: mobility, countermobility,
and survivability. (JP 3-34)
combat identification — The process of attaining an accurate characterization of detected
objects in the operational environment sufficient to support an engagement decision.
Also called CID. (JP 3-09)
combat information — Unevaluated data, gathered by or provided directly to the tactical
commander which, due to its highly perishable nature or the criticality of the situation,
cannot be processed into tactical intelligence in time to satisfy the user’s tactical
intelligence requirements. (JP 2-01)
combat information center — The agency in a ship or aircraft manned and equipped to
collect, display, evaluate, and disseminate tactical information for the use of the
embarked flag officer, commanding officer, and certain control agencies. Also called
CIC. (JP 3-04)
combating terrorism — Actions, including antiterrorism and counterterrorism, taken to
oppose terrorism throughout the entire threat spectrum. Also called CbT. See also
antiterrorism; counterterrorism. (JP 3-26)
combat loading — The arrangement of personnel and the stowage of equipment and
supplies in a manner designed to conform to the anticipated tactical operation of the
organization embarked. Each individual item is stowed so that it can be unloaded at the
required time. (JP 3-02)
combat organizational loading — A method of loading by which a unit with its equipment
and initial supplies is loaded into a single ship, together with other units, in such a
manner as to be available for unloading in a predetermined order. (JP 3-02.1)
combat power — The total means of destructive and/or disruptive force which a military
unit/formation can apply against the opponent at a given time. (JP 3-0)
combat readiness — Synonymous with operational readiness, with respect to missions or
functions performed in combat. (JP 1-0)

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