Caja PDF

Comparta fácilmente sus documentos PDF con sus contactos, la web y las redes sociales.

Compartir un archivo PDF Gestor de archivos Caja de instrumento Buscar PDF Ayuda Contáctenos



AMCA 22nd Latin Am Symposium2012 .pdf



Nombre del archivo original: AMCA 22nd Latin Am Symposium2012.pdf

Este documento en formato PDF 1.3 fue enviado en caja-pdf.es el 30/07/2012 a las 18:19, desde la dirección IP 148.234.x.x. La página de descarga de documentos ha sido vista 1852 veces.
Tamaño del archivo: 781 KB (10 páginas).
Privacidad: archivo público




Descargar el documento PDF









Vista previa del documento


JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN
MOSQUITO CONTROL ASSOCIATION
Mosquito News

MOSQUITO VECTOR BIOLOGY AND CONTROL IN LATIN AMERICA—
A 22ND SYMPOSIUM
GARY G. CLARK1

AND

YASMIN RUBIO-PALIS2

Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 28(2):102–110, 2012
Copyright E 2012 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc.

MOSQUITO VECTOR BIOLOGY AND CONTROL IN LATIN AMERICA—
A 22ND SYMPOSIUM
GARY G. CLARK1

AND

YASMIN RUBIO-PALIS2

ABSTRACT. The 22nd Annual Latin American Symposium presented by the American Mosquito
Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 78th Annual Meeting in Austin, TX, in February 2012.
The principal objective, as for the previous 21 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by
vector control specialists, public health workers, and academicians from Latin America. This publication
includes summaries of 21 presentations that were given orally in Spanish or presented as posters by
participants from Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, and the USA. Topics addressed in the symposium included
surveillance, chemical control, insecticide resistance, and genetics associated with Aedes aegypti; food sources
and control of Culex; taxonomy, surveillance, and control of Anopheles vectors of malaria; and studies of
dengue virus and Leishmania.
KEY WORDS Dengue, malaria, surveillance, chemical control, bionomics, insecticide resistance, Aedes,
Anopheles, Culex, Leishmania

INTRODUCTION
The American Mosquito Control Association
(AMCA) is dedicated to the study and control of
mosquitoes, other arthropods, and vectors, and
promotes cooperation and interaction among
professionals and students in this field both in
the USA and internationally. To promote greater
and more active participation among and with
international members, a Spanish language symposium was held first at the AMCA Annual
Meeting in 1991 and at all subsequent meetings
thereafter. In addition to providing a forum for
scientists whose first language is Spanish, the
session promotes interaction with mosquito
control industry representatives; and interaction
with professional colleagues in the USA who are
involved in mosquito vector control, training, and
research at the university level, and with local,
state, and federal government officials.
This publication includes summaries of 21
presentations that were given in Spanish by
participants from Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela,
and the USA. Topics addressed in the symposium
included surveillance, chemical control, insecticide resistance, and genetics associated with Aedes
aegypti (L.); food sources and control of Culex;
taxonomy, surveillance, and control of Anopheles
vectors of malaria; and studies of dengue virus
and Leishmania. Summaries of 19 previous
symposia have been published (Clark and Suarez
1991, 1992, 1993; Clark 1995, 1996; Clark and
Rangel 1997, 1998, 1999; Clark et al. 2000; Clark
1
Mosquito and Fly Research Unit, Center for
Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture,
1600 SW 23rd Drive, Gainesville, FL 32608.
2
Direccio
´ n de Salud Ambiental, Ministerio del Poder
Popular para la Salud and BIOMED, Universidad de
Carabobo, Maracay, Aragua, Venezuela.

and Quiroz-Martinez 2001, 2002, 2004, 2005;
Clark and Rubio-Palis 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009,
2010, 2011).
SUMMARIES
Design of a microarray capable to identify dengue
virus genotypes
Uriel Lo´pez-Sa´nchez,1 Alfonso Me´ndez-Tenorio2
and Marı´a de L. Mun˜oz1
1

Cinvestav-IPN, Mexico City, Mexico; 2 Escuela
Nacional de Ciencias Biolo´gicas-IPN,
Mexico City, Mexico

Dengue virus (DENV) is among the least
neurovirulent flaviviruses. The known hosts for
DENV are the mosquito vector (Aedes aegypti),
humans, and nonhuman primates. According to
the World Health Organization, there are more
than 50 million dengue infections worldwide
every year and about 2.5 billion people are in risk
to be infected. Infection by the 4 serotypes of
DENV (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and
DENV-4) is prevalent in tropical and subtropical
regions around the world. These viruses can cause
a spectrum of clinical manifestations like fever,
rash, myalgia, arthralgias, bruising, severe bleeding, thrombocytopenia, and shock. A major effort
has been devoted to relate intrinsic virulence of
DENV to genotypes by accumulating sequence
data from strains isolated from humans with
dengue fever (DF) or dengue hemorrhagic fever/
shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Differences among
DENV genotypes are limited, in part because
the isolates need to be obtained during a
well-characterized period of the illness, when
viremia levels are high enough to permit virus
isolation, genome amplification, sequence, and
data analysis directly from serum samples.

102

JUNE 2012

22ND LATIN AMERICAN SYMPOSIUM

For this reason, this research was initiated to
develop a microarray to efficiently identify DENV
serotype and genotype. We analyzed all whole
genomes of DENV in order to identify genotypes
of each serotype and developed software to select
probes for all genotypes. Furthermore, we tested
the microarray with different DENV from serum
samples and isolates. This microarray will provide
us with information to understand the distribution of DENV serotypes and genotypes around
the world and their association with DF and
DHF/DSS.
Insecticide resistance mechanisms in Aedes aegypti
from Merida, Yucatan, Mexico, related with two
dengue transmission seasons
Gabriela Gonzalez,1 Gustavo Ponce,1 Humberto
Quiroz-Martinez,1 Julian E. Garcia2 and Adriana
E. Flores1
1

Laboratorio Entomologı´a Medica, FCB/UANL,
Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza,
Nuevo Leo´n, Mexico; 2 UADY, Centro de
Investigaciones Regionales, Me´rida, Yucata´n,
Mexico

The city of Merida, Yucatan, in southern
Mexico has the appropriate climatic conditions
for the development of Aedes aegypti. Seasonality exerts a direct influence on population abundance, representing a potential risk for dengue
outbreaks and increasing chemical control efforts
for larvae and adults. Temephos as a larvicide
and permethrin for adult control are commonly
used in Mexico, with d-phenothrin being used
during outbreaks. The goal of this study was to
determine resistance levels for permethrin, deltamethrin, and d-phenothrin in adults and temephos in larvae. The samples were collected in
both rainy and dry seasons in Merida from 2007
through 2010. Bottle bioassays were used to
determine the resistance ratio, as well as detoxifying enzymes, and frequency of knockdown
resistance (kdr) mutation Ile1,016. Results
showed high resistance levels to permethrin
(25.53 in rainy season of 2009), deltamethrin
(30.83 in dry season of 2007), d-phenothrin
(2583 in dry season of 2010), and temephos (763
in rainy season of 2007). We did not find elevated
enzymes levels in comparison with the susceptible
New Orleans strain in any of the populations
examined. High frequencies of the kdr Ile1,016
mutation were found in all pyrethroid-resistant
populations.
Genetic characterization of Aedes aegypti natural
populations and its relation to the use of insecticides in Colombia
Idalyd Fonseca-Gonzalez,1 Libertad Ochoa G.,2
Dahyana Bolan
˜ os B.1 and Nicola´s Jaramillo-O.1

103

1

Universidad de Antioquia, Instituto de Biologia,
Grupo BCEI, Medellin, Colombia; 2 Universidad
de Antioquia, PECET, Medellin, Colombia

Quibdo exhibits eco-epidemiological and social
features that promote the development of high
densities of Aedes aegypti, the dengue vector mosquito, which is controlled by the use of insecticides. Chemical vector control can generate
insecticide resistance and could change the
genetic conformation of mosquito populations.
Our study evaluated the genetic differentiation of
natural Ae. aegypti populations from neighborhoods with high rates of infestation, frequent use
of insecticides and low susceptibility to insecticides, and the highest number of dengue fever
cases annually in the Choco region, by genotyping 4 short tandem repeats (microsatellites)
markers (C2A8, AED19, GA, and 38/38) specific for Ae. aegypti. Data were analyzed with
Arlequı´n (3.01) and PopGene (3.2) statistical
software. We found new alleles for the mosquito
populations evaluated: 3 alleles for C2A8, 2 for
AED19, and 1 for GA and 38/38. We also found
levels of gene flow and low polymorphism, both
possibly associated with selection events that
increase the homozygous alleles between populations, particularly where the insecticides are
constantly used. Although there was no population structure and isolation by distance, the
information derived from this survey provides a
better understanding of population structure and
gene flow patterns of Ae. aegypti in order to
design more efficient control strategies.
Ile1,016 mutation frequency in populations of
Aedes aegypti from western Venezuela
Leslie Alvarez,1,2 Beatriz Lopez,2 Milagros
Oviedo,1 Gustavo Ponce2 and Adriana E. Flores2
1

Universidad de los Andes Venezuela, Trujillo,
Venezuela; 2 Universidad Auto´noma de Nuevo
Leon, San Nicolas, Nuevo Leon, Mexico

Frequency of the Ile1,016 associated with
knockdown (KD) resistance was determined in
3 populations of Aedes aegypti from Venezuela.
The F2 females from Tres Esquinas, Pampanito,
and Lara were exposed with the corresponding
deltamethrin KD50 using bottle bioassay. After 1,
4, and 24 h, mosquitoes were recorded and
separated into alive, recovered, survivors and
dead groups. Genomic DNA was isolated from
the abdomen of each mosquito. Genotypes at the
Ile1,016 locus were determined in a single-tube
polymerase chain reaction, using the 2 different
‘‘allele-specific’’ primers and the reverse primer. In
Tres Esquinas, population frequency values of
Ile1,016 were 0.20 in mosquitoes alive after 1 h,
0.18 at 4 h, and 0.00 in survivors at 24 h. In
Pampanito, frequencies of 0.17, 0.13, and 0.05

104

JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MOSQUITO CONTROL ASSOCIATION

were found at 1, 4, and 24 h, respectively, and in
Lara 0.37 at 1 h and 0.27 at 4 and 24 h. Ile1,016
frequencies in this study were consistent to
deltamethrin susceptibility with KD50 resistance
ratio values (,10). With these results, we recommend inclusion of this tool for the early detection
of insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti from
Venezuela.
Oviposition response of Aedes aegypti to ovitraps
with two larvicides
Humberto Quiroz-Martinez,1 Violeta A. Rodriguez-Castro1 and Juan F. Martinez-Perales2
1
Zoologia de Invertebrados, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza,
Nuevo Leon, Mexico; 2 Servicios de Salud de
Nuevo Leon, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico

Oviposition response of Aedes aegypti to the
presence of spinosad and temephos was evaluated
in an urban area. The water was treated with both
larvicides in black plastic containers and PellonH
paper 40 was used as oviposition substrate.
Oviposition substrates were removed every week
and the number of eggs present per week was
recorded. Data were analyzed using the oviposition activity index (OAI). The formula for the
OAI is Nt 2 Nc divided by Nt + Nc, where Nt 5
the number of eggs in the treatment and Nc 5 the
number of eggs in the control. The resulting
indices are interpreted with a correlation ranging
from 21 to +1, indicating that the positive value
obtained represents an attraction and the negative is repellent or deterrent. The results showed
an Ae. aegypti preference to spinosad in ovitraps
(OAI 5 0.49) and repellence to ovitraps with
temephos (OAI 5 20.32).
Incidence of Aedes aegypti eggs indoors and
outdoors in Escobedo and San Nicolas de los
Garza, Nuevo Leo´n, Mexico
1

Carlos H. Marin-Hernandez, Heberto TrejoGarcia,1 Juan F. Martinez-Perales,1 Moises
Flores-Vigueras,1 Violeta A. Rodriguez-Castro2
and Humberto Quiroz-Martinez2
1
Servicios de Salud de Nuevo Leo´n, Monterrey,
Nuevo Leo´n, Mexico; 2 Zoologia de Invertebrados,
Universidad Auto´noma de Nuevo Leo´n, San
Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leo´n, Mexico

This study was carried out to compare the
indoor–outdoor incidence of Aedes aegypti eggs
in Escobedo and San Nicolas de los Garza,
Nuevo Leo´n. Ovitraps were placed indoors and
outdoors of several houses during the summer
season. The number of eggs per trap was
recorded. The analysis was performed using
Student’s t-test. The statistical analysis found no
difference in the incidence of eggs indoors and

VOL. 28, NO. 2

outdoors in Escobedo, but a difference was found
in San Nicolas de los Garza.
Response of female Aedes aegypti to polyvinyl
chloride to prevent oviposition in breeding
sites
Marcela S. Alvarado-Moreno, Maricela LagunaAguilar, Olga S. Sanchez-Rodriguez, Ewry A.
Zarate-Nahon, Rocio Ramirez-Jimenez,
Rosa Maria M. Sanchez-Casas and
Ildefonso Fernandez-Salas
Laboratorio Entomologı´a Medica, FCB, UANL,
Ciudad Universitaria, Nuevo Leo´n, Mexico
Aedes aegypti is an important vector of dengue
fever. The Ae. aegypti egg is the stage most
numerous of the life cycle. The egg has a
chemically resistant chorion. The egg’s chorion
pad keeps it wet and fixed in the breeding site. To
date, Ae. aegypti eggs have been generally ignored
as an object for control programs. Polyvinyl
chloride (PVC) is a versatile polymer, which is
inexpensive and durable. It is odorless, stable and
inert, resistant to chemicals, and recyclable. This
research was aimed at evaluating the response of
Ae. aegypti to the properties of PVC acting over
sticky exochorionic compound. Our rationale was
that sticky exochorion substance would not stick
on smoother plastic surfaces. Under insectary
conditions, gravid female mosquitoes were released and egg-laying containers with vinyl films
were placed for 24 h; 5 repetitions were conducted. Results showed that most (80%) of the eggs
were laid over the water surface, 10% were sunk,
and the remaining 10% were glued onto the
plastic film. Egg hatching was checked for
floating and sunken eggs on the following days
and showed 100% mortality. Similarly, glued eggs
dried out and the embryos were dead.
Dexoyribonucleic acid barcoding reveals both
known and novel taxa in the Albitarsis Group
(Anopheles: Nyssorhynchus) of Neotropical
malaria vectors
Freddy Ruiz-Lopez,1 Richard C. Wilkerson,2 Jan
Conn,3 Sascha N. MacKeon,3 Martha L. Quinones,4
Marinete Povoa5 and Yvonne-Marie Linton
Linton6
1
Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit, Museum
Support Center, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland,
MD 20746; 2 Entomology Branch, Walter Reed
Army Institute of Research, Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit, Museum Support Center, Smithsonian
Institution, Suitland, MD 20746; 3 Griffin Laboratory, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201; 4 Facultad de
Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Colombia,
Bogota´, Colombia; 5 Instituto Evandro Chagas,

JUNE 2012

22ND LATIN AMERICAN SYMPOSIUM

Belem, Para, Brazil; 6 Department of Entomology,
Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) barcoding has
been proposed as a highly useful tool for species
recognition, even among closely related taxa. We
tested the utility of barcoding method (NJ-K2P),
and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis, for species
recognition within the Albitarsis Group of
Anopheles subgenus Nyssorhynchus. This work
reports DNA barcodes (658 bp, COI gene) of An.
albitarsis s.l. from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia,
Paraguay, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela,
including specimens from type series and type
localities. The analyses of 568 sequences resolved
9 NJ tree clusters, with less than 2% intranode
variation. Mean intraspecific variation (K2P) was
0.009 (range 0.002–0.014). Mean interspecific
distances were several-fold higher at 0.041
(0.021–0.056), supporting the reported ‘‘barcoding gap’’ for species delimitation. These results
show full support for separate species status of
the 5 formally described taxa in the Albitarsis
Group (An. albitarsis, An. deaneorum, An. janconnae, An. marajoara, and An. oryzalimnetes)
and also support species-level status for 3
informally designated lineages (An. albitarsis F,
An. albitarsis G, and An. albitarsis I) and suggest
the presence of an additional cryptic mitochondrial lineage (An. albitarsis H) from Rondo
ˆ nia
and Mato Grosso, Brazil.
Anopheles (Kerteszia) lepidotus, an uncommon
nonvector forest species: Revised male and female
morphology; larva, pupa, and male genitalia
characters; molecular verification
Bruce A. Harrison,1 Freddy Ruiz Lopez,2 Guillermo Calderon Falero,3 Harry M. Savage4 and
Richard C. Wilkerson2,5
1

Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC
28723; 2 Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit,
Smithsonian Institution, Museum Support Center,
Suitland, MD 20746; 3 Avenue Los Precursores
1160 Urbanizacion Maranga/Astete, San Miguel,
Lima, Peru; 4 Division of Vector-Borne Diseases,
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort
Collins, CO 80521; 5 Entomology Branch, Walter
Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring,
MD 20910
The name Anopheles (Kerteszia) lepidotus,
commonly used for an important malaria vector
in the eastern cordillera of the Andes, is here
corrected to An. pholidotus. We discovered that
Anopheles (Kerteszia) specimens from Peru, and
reared-associated specimens from Ecuador, had
unambiguous habitus characters that matched
those on the male holotype of An. lepidotus.
However, the specimens do not exhibit characters
of the female allotype and female paratypes of An.

105

lepidotus, which are actually An. pholidotus. Our
specimens are the first correctly associated females
of An. lepidotus, which allow us to provide a new
morphological interpretation for the adult habitus
of this species. This finding is also corroborated
by highly supported molecular data from a
portion of the COI gene and rDNA ITS2. The
pupal stage of An. lepidotus is described for the
first time, and additional larval characters are also
noted. Diagnostic morphological characters for
adult, pupal, and the larval stages of An.
pholidotus are provided to separate the 2 species.
All stages of An. lepidotus are easily separated
from other currently known species in subgenus
Kerteszia, and a new key to the females of
Anopheles (Kerteszia) is given. Updated distributions for these 2 species follow: An. lepidotus
(Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru) and An. pholidotus (Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador,
Panama, and Venezuela). Bionomics and medical
significance data for An. lepidotus are corrected
and enhanced.
Improvements of ‘‘dual-cage’’ wind-driven vanes
and Florida-style impingers for caged
mosquito trials
Jacob Hartle, Derek Drews and
Grifith S. Lizarraga
Environmental Sciences, Clarke, Schaumburg,
IL 60159
Field trials with caged bioassay mosquitoes are
challenging because of their dependency on
meteorological conditions, especially the wind.
Both wind speed and direction can be obstacles
that will potentially produce poor results or
increase the amount of labor necessary to conduct
a representative study or caged trial. Having the
necessary tools to move cages without physical
obstructions can change the frequency of missing
the target that results by a sudden change of wind
direction and/or speed. This presentation covers
the construction, materials, and advantages of an
improved ‘‘dual-cage’’ wind-driven vane and a
Florida Latham-Barber (FLB)–style droplet collector (impinger).
Aedes aegypti pupal indices in premises and public
spaces during a wet and dry season in
Girardot, Colombia
Lucas A. Alcala´,1 Martha L. Quin˜ones,1 Juliana
Quintero,2 Gabriel Carrasquilla,2 Catalina
Gonza´lez2 and Helena Brochero3
1

Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de
Colombia, Bogota´, Cundinamarca, Colombia;
2
Centro de Estudios e Investigacio´n en
Salud–CEIS, Fundacio´n Santa Fe de Bogota´,
Bogota´, Cundinamarca, Colombia; 3 Facultad de

106

JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MOSQUITO CONTROL ASSOCIATION

Agronomı´a, Universidad Nacional de Colombia,
Bogota´, Cundinamarca, Colombia
In Girardot, a tourist and dengue-endemic city
in Colombia, we analyzed Aedes aegypti pupal
indices in premises and public spaces during a wet
and dry season. From 20 randomly selected
clusters, all water containers in 1,944 premises
and 124 public places were inspected. The number
of pupae was estimated using the sweeping
method. The pupae per person index and the
pupae per hectare index were calculated. The
most productive pupal collection sites were
domestic water containers during both the wet
(93.6%) and dry (97.6%) seasons, while public
spaces provided only 6.4% and 2.4% in each
season, respectively. At the premise level, the
most productive containers were low tanks (water
containers .20 liters) used for washing clothes;
wet 5 79% and dry 5 75% of the total of pupae.
In low and high, large water tanks used for water
storage, an increase in the number of pupae was
observed between the wet (8.7%) and dry season
(22.4%). Vector control measures should be
directed to intervene and control large water
containers used for washing clothing as well as
low and high water containers during the dry
season.
Entomological surveillance for the prevention and
control of malaria in the Amerindian Territory of
the Caura and Erebato River basins, Bolivar
State, Venezuela
Yasmin Rubio-Palis,1,2 Herna´n Guzma´n,3 Jaino
Espinoza,4 Wilmer Caura,5 Simon Caura,5 Lya
Ca´rdenas,6 Vı´ctor Sa´nchez,3 Yarys Estrada,3
William Anaya,1 Mariapia Bevilacqua6 and
´ ngela Martı´nez7
A
1

Direccio´n de Control de Vectores y Fauna
Nociva, MPP Salud, Maracay, Venezuela;
2
BIOMED, Universidad de Carabobo, Maracay,
Venezuela; 3 Instituto de Altos Estudios ‘‘Dr.
Arnoldo Gabaldon,’’ Maracay, Venezuela; 4 Comunidad Indı´gena Santa Marı´a de Erebato, Estado
Bolı´var, Venezuela; 5 Comunidad Indı´gena Boca de
Nichare, Estado Bolı´var, Venezuela; 6 Asociacio´n
Venezolana para la Conservacio´n de A´reas Naturales (ACOANA), Caracas, Venezuela; 7 Instituto
de Salud Pu´blica, Estado Bolı´var, Venezuela
Entomological surveillance in remote areas
carried out by locally trained people is a major
contribution to the national malaria control
program, reducing costs and increasing coverage.
Two villages (Santa Maria and Boca de Nichare)
were selected to conduct the surveillance based on
malaria prevalence, presence of health post, and
satellite Internet access. Two members of each
village were trained on mosquito trapping methods, handling, and identification of mosquitoes at

VOL. 28, NO. 2

subfamily level, preservation, data recording, and
posting. Training and collections started in May
2009 and the Mosquito MagnetTM trap was used
to collect mosquitoes monthly from 1730 until
0630 h. Every 4 h the trap was checked and the
net with trapped mosquitoes was removed. Field
supervision was carried out twice a year and
regular supervision was done via email and
Skype. In Santa Maria de Erebato, the most
abundant species collected was Culex quinquefasciatus. Anopheles nuneztovari was collected once.
In Boca de Nichare, An. darlingi was the most
abundant species (85.5%) collected, followed by
An. oswaldoi, An. nuneztovari, An. braziliensis,
and An. benarrochi. Culex (Melanoconion) sp.,
Aedes scapularis, and Mansonia pseudotitillans
were also collected. Mosquitoes were more
abundant during the rainy season. Anopheles
darlingi, An. nuneztovari, and An. oswaldoi were
active throughout the night, and mosquitoes were
more abundant during the rainy season.
Morphological and molecular identification of
Anopheles (Kerteszia) present in two endemic foci
of malaria in Colombia
Jesu´s E. Escovar,1,2 Ranulfo Gonza´lez,3 Martha
L. Quin˜ones,1 Richard C. Wilkerson,4 Bruce
Harrison5 and Freddy Ruiz-Lopez4
1

Universidad Nacional, Facultad de Medicina,
Bogota´, Colombia; 2 Universidad de La Salle,
Departamento de Ciencias Ba´sicas, Bogota´, Cundinamarca, Colombia; 3 Universidad del Valle,
Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Cali,
Valle del Cauca, Colombia; 4 Walter Reed
Biosystematics Unit, Smithsonian Institution,
Suitland, MD 20746; 5 North Carolina Department of Environmental and Natural Resources,
Winston-Salem, NC 27107
Some Anopheles species in the subgenus Kerteszia are known as ‘‘bromeliad malaria’’ vectors
because the immatures of this subgenus are found
almost exclusively in bromeliads. In Colombia,
although 7 Kerteszia species have been reported,
doubts remain regarding their distribution and
classification. The Kerteszia subgenus is distinguished from other subgenera by distinctive
morphological characteristics, but within this
subgenus we are hampered by the absence of
morphological keys, errors in some species
descriptions, and the existence of cryptic species.
The aim of this study was to establish, based on
morphological characters and mDNA (COI) and
rDNA (ITS2) molecular markers, which Kerteszia species were present in 2 endemic foci of
malaria in the Departments of Tolima and
Narin˜o, Colombia. Five individuals from 6
localities were sequenced for the 2 genes. The
molecular analysis, NJ-K2P tree, and distance
matrices revealed An. pholidotus from Tolima as a

JUNE 2012

22ND LATIN AMERICAN SYMPOSIUM

single haplogroup, distinct from An. boliviensis,
which exhibited 2 haplogroups (lineages), An.
boliviensis A and B. These lineages were indistinguishable by morphological diagnostic characters. In the Department of Narin˜o, An. neivai was
found as a single haplogroup, despite having
differences in the spots of vein R4+5. These results
confirm the presence of cryptic species in the
Anopheles subgenus Kerteszia and indicate the
need for further studies into their biology and
possible morphological variation.
Diversity and co-occurrence of phlebotomine sand
flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and potential reservoir
hosts for Leishmania sp. (Kinetoplastida:
Trypanosomatidae) in northern Mexico
Jorge J. Rodriguez-Rojas,1 Ildefonso FernandezSalas,1 Angel Rodriguez-Moreno,2 Ingeborg D.
Becker,3 Miriam Berzunza-Cruz,3 Victor Sa´nchezCordero,2 Christopher Stephens4 and Eduardo A.
Rebollar-Te´llez1
1

Laboratorio Entomologı´a Me´dica, Facultad de
Ciencias Biolo´gicas, Universidad Auto´noma de
Nuevo Leo´n, San Nicola´s de los Garza, Nuevo
Leo´n, Mexico; 2 Instituto de Biologı´a, Universidad
Nacional Auto´noma de Me´xico (UNAM), Me´xico, DF, Mexico; 3 Departamento de Medicina
Experimental, Universidad Nacional Auto´noma de
Me´xico (UNAM), Me´xico, DF, Mexico;
4
Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad
Nacional Auto´noma de Me´xico, Me´xico, DF,
Mexico
Sand flies are the vectors of Leishmania spp.,
which in turn are maintained in the wild as a
zoonosis requiring a mammalian reservoir host.
Despite the medical importance of studies aimed
to assess co-occurrence of 3 biotic components
(vectors, parasites, and hosts), to date there have
been no studies addressing this phenomenon in
northern Mexico. There are few reports of cases
of leishmaniasis, sand fly vectors, and/or reservoir
hosts, and these are geographically, as well as
temporally, isolated. The aim of this study was to
conduct a survey of sand fly species and their
co-occurrence with reservoir hosts in 6 selected
locations of the northern Mexican states of Nuevo
Leo´n and Tamaulipas. Sampling was conducted
from April to September 2010. Sand flies were
captured using the Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention light traps, and small mammals
were trapped in Sherman traps. A total of 561 sand
flies of 12 species were collected in all 6 locations,
with Lutzomyia shannoni being the most abundant species. Rodents were represented by 78
individuals of 9 species, Sigmodon hispidus being
the most common. Analyses of alpha-diversity
(species richness, dominance, and heterogeneity)
and beta-diversity (similarity) were calculated
among locations. In addition, the co-occurrence

107

of vectors and Leishmania reservoirs was
computed.
Update of knockdown resistance (1,014)
frequencies in Culex quinquefasciatus from
Nuevo Leo´n, Me´xico
Gustavo Ponce, Carlos Urbina, Iram Rodriguez
and Adriana E. Flores
Entomologı´a Me´dica, Universidad Auto´noma de
Nuevo Leo´n, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo
Leo´n, Mexico
The knockdown resistance (Kdr) target site for
pyrethroids and DDT is linked to point mutations in the sequence of the para-type voltagedependent sodium channel gene. This has been
reported in many insect species and is characterized by a reduced sensibility of the insect’s
nervous system to these compounds. Culex
quinquefasciatus is an important vector of different encephalitis viruses. We analyzed strains of
Cx. quinquefasciatus (2011 and 2012) from Nuevo
Leo´n State, Me´xico. In this study, using polymerase chain reaction, a molecular tool based on
test genomic DNA of each mosquito sample, we
found that the Kdr mutation (leucine to phenylalanine at position 1,014) was present in some
samples. The current emphasis in resistance
research is on the early detection of the molecular
mechanisms of resistance for the rational resistance management, with a view toward controlling the development and spread of resistant
vector populations through better design of
control programs using insecticides.
Laboratory and field evaluation of the larvicide oil,
Banole W, against the malaria vector Anopheles
pseudopunctipennis in Monterrey,
northeastern Mexico
Rocio Ramirez-Jimenez, Ewry A. Zarate-Nahon,
Rosa Maria M. Sanchez-Casas, Luis A. IbarraJuarez, Esteban M. Diaz-Gonzalez, Jorge J.
Rodriguez-Rojas, Wilfredo M. Arque-Chunga,
Eduardo A. Rebollar-Te´llez and Ildefonso
Fernandez-Salas
Medical Entomology Graduate Program,
University of Nuevo Leon, Monterrey,
Nuevo Leon, Mexico
Malaria still poses a public health risk in
Mexico. Larviciding of anopheline breeding sites
with liquid 50% temephos and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis are the currently used
mosquito control measures. Anopheles pseudopunctipennis is the main Plasmodium vector in
Mexico. This study was aimed to determine the
laboratory and field effectiveness of the larvicide
oil, Banole W. Mixed, field-collected larval

108

JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MOSQUITO CONTROL ASSOCIATION

populations were tested in the laboratory with the
following larvicide doses: 0.25, 0.5, and 1.5 ml/m2.
Field trials with same doses were conducted in
cages placed in the riverbank using mixtures of all
An. pseudopunctipennis instars. Daily records for
mortality of percent emergence inhibition were
recorded for 4 wk. Laboratory results showed
99.0% mortality up to day 2 with 1.5 ml/m2;
98.7% and 96.7% mortalities were recorded up to
8 days with doses 0.5 and 0.25 ml/m2, respectively.
Field results showed 100% mortality after 2 days
with dose 1.5 ml/m2 and after 3 d with dose 0.5 ml/
m2, respectively. Banole W showed promising
results; however, long-term studies are needed to
better determine its efficacy in the field.
Laboratory and field evaluation of the larvicide oil,
Banole W, against the West Nile virus vector
Culex quinquefasciatus in Monterrey,
northeastern Mexico
Ewry Arvid M. Zarate-Nahon, Rocio RamirezJimenez, Rosa Maria M. Sanchez-Casas, Luis A.
Ibarra-Juarez, Esteban M. Diaz-Gonzalez, Jorge
J. Rodriguez-Rojas, Wilfredo M. Arque-Chunga,
Eduardo A. Rebollar-Te´llez and Ildefonso
Fernandez-Salas
Medical Entomology Graduate Program,
University of Nuevo Leon, Monterrey,
Nuevo Leon, Mexico
Since its detection in Mexico in 2002, West Nile
virus (WNV) has been maintained at endemic levels
in the country. However, in 2009, a human death
was recorded in Monterrey city, supporting the
suspicion that this virus had been present but
undetected, since the Nuevo Leon State Health
Department does not have an active WNV surveillance program. Abundant Culex quinquefasciatus
breeding sites are found in urban settlements;
however, granular temephos 1% to control larval
populations is not reliable for controlling these
polluted breeding sites. This study was aimed to
determine the effectiveness of the larvicide oil,
Banole W, to control immature populations of
Cx. quinquefasciatus. Young and old laboratoryreared larvae were tested in the laboratory using
the following Banole W larvicide oil doses: 0.25,
0.5, and 1.5 ml/m2. Field trials treating mixed
larval-stage populations with the same doses were
conducted in discarded tires in backyards. Daily
records for mortality and percent emergence
inhibition were recorded for 4 wk. Laboratory
results for younger larvae exhibited 73% and 67%
mortality up to day 8 when using doses of 0.5 and
0.25 ml/m2, respectively. Older larvae had 95%
mortality up to 9 days with a dose of 1.5 ml/m2.
Field results showed 100% mortality after 9 days
with a dose of 1.5 ml/m2. Mortality of 100% was
also recorded with dosages of 0.5 and 0.25 ml/m2
on days 18 and 24, respectively.

VOL. 28, NO. 2

Food source identification of Culex quinquefasciatus by molecular characterization of gene
cytochrome b
Elizabeth Ruiz,1,2 Nubia E. Matta,2 Ligia I.
Moncada1 and Fredy A. Colorado2
1

Universidad Nacional, Facultad de Medicina,
Bogota´, Colombia; 2 Universidad Nacional,
Facultad de Ciencias, Bogota´, Colombia

Recognizing host preferences of hematophagous insects is important to the understanding of
their role in the transmission of insect-borne
pathogens. Culex quinquefasciatus is an ideal
biological model because it is an ornithophilic
vector of arboviral and parasitic pathogens. In
Colombia, 12 West Nile virus–positive equines
were detected in a serological survey conducted in
Cordoba and Sucre departments. The aim of this
project was to analyze the variables for the
standardization of technique of gene amplification cytochrome b (Cytb), in order to identify the
blood meal source of Cx. quinquefasciatus in a
population of Central Marengo–Agricultural
University of Colombia. The DNA was from
the abdomen of wild-caught mosquitoes, and the
gene regions amplified by Cytb were sequenced.
Mosquitoes fed on birds (Gallus gallus [50%]);
mammals (Sus scrofa [34%], Bos taurus [7%],
Homo sapiens [7%]); and reptiles (Hemidactylus
spp. [2%]). These results suggest that Cx. quinquefasciatus is a generalist in its feeding behavior and
may have an important role in the transmission of
leucocytozoon blood parasites detected in Gallus
gallus. The methodology standardized and practiced in this research is relevant because it can be
utilized for studies of vectorial incrimination of
other bloodsucking insects.
Aedes albopictus in Colombia:
Epidemiologic implications
Guillermo L. Rua-Uribe,1 Carolina SuarezAcosta,1 Viviana London
˜ o,1 James Sanchez,1
Raul Rojo2 and Betsy Bello3
1

Universidad de Antioquia, Medellı´n, Colombia;
Secretaria de Salud de Medellı´n, Medellı´n, Colombia; 3 Instituto Nacional de Salud, Medellı´n, Colombia
2

In 1998, Aedes albopictus was detected for first
time in Colombia. Since then, its distribution in
the country has expanded. In May 2011, it was
reported for first time in Medellı´n (Department of
Antioquia), a city located at 1,538 m above sea
level and the most populated dengue-endemic
area of Colombia. Aedes albopictus is a known
vector of dengue and other arboviruses in
Southeast Asia; nevertheless, its role as dengue
vector in Colombia has not yet been established.
The detection of Ae. albopictus in some Colombian cities brings new challenges for the dengue

JUNE 2012

22ND LATIN AMERICAN SYMPOSIUM

control program. These occur because: 1) Ae.
albopictus shares the same developmental sites as
Ae. aegypti, but also oviposits in natural sites like
tree cavities, bamboo stumps, and other outdoor
breeding sites; 2) Ae. albopictus shows better
capacity to transmit dengue viruses in the
laboratory than Ae. aegypti and can also be a
vector of yellow fever and encephalitis viruses in
equines and humans; and 3) this species transovarially transmits dengue viruses in the laboratory better than Ae. aegypti. With this information, actions are necessary to limit its distribution
and diminish its impact on public health in
Colombia, measures that the Secretary of Health
of Medellı´n has recently implemented

Effect of climate variability on wing morphometric
shape in Aedes aegypti from neighborhoods with
high and low dengue incidence in
Medellı´n, Colombia
Alejandro Ocampo, Sara Silva, Giovan Gomez
and Guillermo L. Rua-Uribe
Universidad de Antioquia, Medellı´n, Colombia
In Medellı´n, Colombia, dengue transmission is
endemic and periodically epidemic; however, not
all neighborhoods in the city have a similar
incidence. In addition, there is evidence that
climate variability affects the dengue transmission
in Medellı´n. Such variations in space and time
can be associated with changes in vectorial
capacity (VC) of Aedes aegypti. In order to estimate the influence of the entomological component
on the dynamics of dengue transmission in the city,
we determined the size and geometric shape of the
vector wings (an indicator of VC) in 16 neighborhoods (8 high and 8 low transmission levels) during
different climatic periods (El Nin
˜ o and El Nin˜o +
1 year). By using ovitraps, female mosquitoes were
collected as eggs in ovitraps and allowed to develop
to adults in these traps. The females were collected
and the right wing was mounted on a plate and
photographed for morphometric analysis. The
control group was Ae. taeniorhynchus. Through
analysis of 13 selected landmarks, we observed
statistically significant differences in wing size
between the different climatic periods. The results
of this study allow better understanding of the
dynamics of entomological transmission of dengue in Medellı´n, useful information for designing
appropriate control strategies.
Chironomus plumosus control in Santa
Catarina River, Monterrey, Nuevo Leo´n, Mexico
Ilse A. Siller-Aguillon,1 Irma G. Zepeda-Cavazos,1 Juan F. Martinez-Perales,2 Carlos H. MarinHernandez,2 Moises Flores-Vigueras,2 Heberto

109

Trejo-Garcia,2 Francisco Gonzalez-Alanis,2
Violeta A. Rodriguez-Castro1 and Humberto
Quiroz-Martinez1
1

Zoologı´a de Invertebrados, Universidad Auto´noma de Nuevo Leo´n, San Nicolas de los Garza,
Nuevo Leo´n, Mexico; 2 Servicios de Salud
de Nuevo Leo´n, Monterrey, Nuevo Leo´n,
Mexico

In 2010, with the passage of Tropical Storm
‘‘Alex,’’ all aquatic communities in the Santa
Catarina River were eliminated. Uncalculated
numbers of individuals of the main colonizer,
Chironomus plumosus, were present and many
complaints from the public about the presence of
many adults in houses and other public places
were received by the Secretary of Health of the
State of Nuevo Leo´n, Mexico. In response to that
situation, we implemented a control program
using spinosad and Gambusia affinis to control C.
plumosus larvae. Control activities were carried
out in 4 sections of Santa Catarina River. At the
outset of the program, spinosad was applied. One
week later, spinosad was reapplied and 50
mosquito fish were released in the same sections.
Samples of 3 m2 of the bottom of the river were
collected and the number of midge larvae present
was recorded. Application of both spinosad and
mosquito fish reduced larval midge densities in all
sections of the river. The percent reduction was
variable and depended on the section of the river.
We found that mosquito fish can become
established in the river.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Financial support for the 22nd Annual Symposium was provided by the following sponsors:
Clarke, Valent Biosciences Corporation, and
Univar USA. Funds from these sponsors provided support for Annual Meeting registration for
some participants, for the Latin American Student Competition, and publication of these
summaries. The continuing support by the
AMCA for the symposium is also acknowledged.
In addition, Manuel Lluberas is acknowledged for
his support and dedication to the annual symposium and for utilizing his excellent simultaneous
translation skills. Henry Rupp is acknowledged
for his excellent editorial assistance with the
summaries submitted by symposium participants.
Enthusiasm and interest for this symposium
among Spanish- and non-Spanish-speaking participants was high and it will continue to be a part
of future meetings.
REFERENCES CITED
Clark GG (organizer). 1995. Mosquito vector control
and biology in Latin America—a fifth symposium.
J Am Mosq Control Assoc 11:343–353.

110

JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MOSQUITO CONTROL ASSOCIATION

Clark GG (organizer). 1996. Mosquito vector control
and biology in Latin America—a sixth symposium.
J Am Mosq Control Assoc 12:460–471.
Clark GG, Quiroz-Martinez H (organizers). 2001.
Mosquito vector control and biology in Latin
America—an eleventh symposium. J Am Mosq
Control Assoc 17:166–180.
Clark GG, Quiroz-Martinez H (organizers). 2002.
Mosquito vector control and biology in Latin
America—a twelfth symposium. J Am Mosq Control
Assoc 18:138–151.
Clark GG, Quiroz-Martinez H (organizers). 2004.
Mosquito vector control and biology in Latin
America—a fourteenth symposium. J Am Mosq
Control Assoc 20:376–389.
Clark GG, Quiroz-Martinez H (organizers). 2005.
Mosquito vector control and biology in Latin
America—a fifteenth symposium. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 21:412–424.
Clark GG, Quiroz-Martinez H, Rangel YN (organizers). 2000. Mosquito vector control and biology in
Latin America—a tenth symposium. J Am Mosq
Control Assoc 16:295–312.
Clark GG, Rangel YN (organizers). 1997. Mosquito
vector control and biology in Latin America—a
seventh symposium. J Am Mosq Control Assoc
13:113–126.
Clark GG, Rangel YN (organizers). 1998. Mosquito
vector control and biology in Latin America—an
eighth symposium. J Am Mosq Control Assoc
14:219–233.
Clark GG, Rangel YN (organizers). 1999. Mosquito
vector control and biology in Latin America—a ninth
symposium. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 15:407–421.

VOL. 28, NO. 2

Clark GG, Rubio-Palis Y (organizers). 2006. Mosquito
vector control and biology in Latin America—a
sixteenth symposium. J Am Mosq Control Assoc
22:732–750.
Clark GG, Rubio-Palis Y (organizers). 2007. Mosquito
vector control and biology in Latin America—a
seventeenth symposium. J Am Mosq Control Assoc
23:449–470.
Clark GG, Rubio-Palis Y (organizers). 2008. Mosquito
vector control and biology in Latin America—an
eighteenth symposium. J Am Mosq Control Assoc
24:571–582.
Clark GG, Rubio-Palis Y (organizers). 2009. Mosquito
vector biology and control in Latin America—a
nineteenth symposium. J Am Mosq Control Assoc
25:486–499.
Clark GG, Rubio-Palis Y (organizers). 2010. Mosquito
vector biology and control in Latin America—a
twentieth symposium. J Am Mosq Control Assoc
26:306–320.
Clark GG, Rubio-Palis Y (organizers). 2011. Mosquito
vector biology and control in Latin America—a
twenty-first symposium. J Am Mosq Control Assoc
27:280–299.
Clark GG, Suarez MF (organizers). 1991. Mosquito
vector control and biology in Latin America—a
symposium. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 7:633–645.
Clark GG, Suarez MF (organizers). 1992. Mosquito
vector control and biology in Latin America—a
second symposium. J Am Mosq Control Assoc
8:305–317.
Clark GG, Suarez MF (organizers). 1993. Mosquito
vector control and biology in Latin America—a third
symposium. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 9:441–453.


Documentos relacionados


Documento PDF amca 22nd latin am symposium2012
Documento PDF club los cazamosquitos el dengue
Documento PDF maestrias tig america latina
Documento PDF futurenviro noviembre
Documento PDF comandos de funcion de transferencia polos ceros y constantes en matlab
Documento PDF entrevista a amartya sen


Palabras claves relacionadas